BUTCHR1 BUTCHERY AND FISH MONGERY A. A. SANTOS
• The edible internal parts and some extremities of an animal, which are removed before the carcass is cut up. • Called giblets in poultry.
• Other names
– Specialty meats – Organ meats – Offal Cuts – Bad Meats – Cheap Meats
• Comes from Old English “off” and “fall” • Referring to the pieces that fall from an animal carcass during butchering
– Head (Ulo) – Feet / Trotters (Paa) – Tail (Buntot) – Blood (Dugo) – Brain (Utak) – Caul Fat (Sinsal) – Heart (Puso) – Kidneys (Bato)
– Liver (Atay) – Lungs (Baga) – Spleen (Lapay) – Sweetbreads – Testicles – Tripe (Twalya) – Tongue (Dila)
• White Offal
– Bone marrow, testicles, membranes (e.g. crepinette / caul), sweet breads, brain
• Red Offal
– Heart, liver, tongue, spleen, and kidneys
• Should be purchased as fresh as possible • From a very reputable butcher • Frozen
• It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body including glycogen storage, plasma protein synthesis, and drug detoxification. • produces bile, which is important in digestion. • performs and regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions requiring specialized tissues.
– Covered by a membrane (peritoneum) – Divided into lobes – Pierced by Veins
• Often had a stronger flavor until changes in breeding methods • Soaked in milk
– To absorb intense flavor – To remove excess blood – Removes bitter taste
• Beef Liver
– Bright color with moist but not slimy surface and fresh smell – Prepare on day of purchase, or store loosely wrapped in the refrigerator for no more than 1 day – Darker and has a stronger taste than all other livers – Generally the toughest of the livers – Can weigh from 8-12 lbs (3.6 – 5.4 kg) – Cooking Methods: Braising and Stewing
• Calf’s Liver
– Finest quality and therefore the most expensive – Deep rose to reddish brown in color – No dark or purple tinges – No Blood spots or bruising – Weighs on average 7 lbs (3.2 kg) – Cooking Methods: grilling, frying, sautéing
• Lamb Liver
– Sharp and distinct odor – Light reddish brown and should be lively with a bright bloom. It should show no sign of dullness – Resembles calf’s liver – Generally very tender – Weighs on average about 2 lbs (0.9 kg) – Cooking Methods: broiled, grilled, sautéed, panfried, and deep-fried
• Pork Liver
– Strong odor and flavor – Color should be lively and have a reddish brown tinge – Weighs on average about 3 lbs (1.4 kg) – Cooking Methods: primarily used in the production of pates, sausages, although it can be sautéed and fried.
• Chicken and Duck Livers
– Smaller – Firm and well shaped – No evidence of the gall bladder remaining; it is easily recognized by green staining – Rich, dark, reddish brown with a bright bloom – Should be intact and not mashed or damaged in any way
1. Wash well and pat dry 2. Remove any tough membranes, tubes and sinews 3. Take great care not to damage the structure during removal of the veins 4. Skin the liver, removing the tough silverskin 5. Slice as desired fro cooking
– Fine line between cooking it perfectly and overdone and inedible – During cooking it will immediately harden, toughen, and change flavor considerably – Thickness of cut; the thinner the cut is the faster it will need to be cooked – Inaccuracy in the removal of the silverskin can result in curling of the liver; resulting in poor presentation and toughness
• Literal translation from the French is “fat liver” • Generally used for goose liver, although duck liver is also considered • Specialty of Alsace, France • Goose or Duck is force fed and fattened over a period of 4-5 months
• Should be light yellow to amber • The lighter the liver, the less fat is contained in the liver • Firm and be resilient to touch • Should give lightly under thumb pressure and the thumb mark should remain visible • The higher the grade, the fewer the blemishes and the larger it will be
Grade “A” this is the best Quality liver and is the most prized “B” of an inferior quality but very good for cold preparations
Size and Use
Texture Firm to tough; a thumbprint should remain slightly visible
Appearance Creamy off-white yellow amber color, relatively free of blemishes, few veins
1 ½ - 3 lb (0.68 -1.4 kg) Well rounded and Usually hot and some bulbous in appearance cold dishes Both lobes visible
¾ - 1 ½ lb (340 – 680 g) May be fatter and not so May be softer or harder, May be darker, have a Generally cold compact or bulbous depending on the blemish or two, and have presentations proportion of fat more veins Slightly fatter and less rounded shape Soft or hard, depending More blemishes and on the fat content slightly darker in color
“C” of an inferior quality ¾ - ½ lb (340 – 454 g) but very good for cold Always cold preparations presentations
• The size will determine how much vein is contained within • Goose 2 equal lobes • Duck one is 1/3 larger than the other • Surface blood spots, or small red pin dots, indicate a breakdown of capillaries or an excessive number of veins that will affect the flavor and texture of the finished dish
• Generally sold vacuum-packed and should be kept in the packages till ready for use • Keep refrigerated up to 2 weeks from the time it is harvested • Foie gras oxidizes upon contact with air
– Should be immediately wrapped in plastic film and used with in 2 days
– For Hot
– For Cold
• One of the most delicately flavored of the offal meats • Sought after for their subtle flavor and wonderful texture • The term used for the thymus gland and the pancreas • Thymus sweetbreads are elongated and irregular in shape • Pancreas sweetbreads are larger and rounded
• More commonly attributed to the thymus gland • Role in immunity response of the animal • The gland is located in the neck and heart of young steers, calves and lambs • As the animal grows and matures the gland disappears • Veal (bigger) more popular than lamb (smaller)
• Light, bright and rosy in color • The larger they are in size, more desired • No blood spots or bruising • Outer membrane removed before or after cooking • Cooking Methods: braised brown or white, sautéed, or fried.
1. Soak in cold water for 6-8 hrs, changing water often; helps whiten them and clean of excess blood 2. Blanch in simmering water with a little lemon juice or vinegar added for about 2 minutes to help firm their texture and prepare them for trimming 3. Chill immediately and pat dry.
4. Carefully trim off all tubes, sinews, and any fat 5. Press lightly between 2 boards to even their size
• Generally bought whole and intact with no bones or gristle attached • Finely knit texture and look much the same, apart from size • Consumed hot or cold • With distinct flavor
– Made of skeletal muscle – Covered with taste buds
• No throat bones or cartilage attached • Wash well in cold water to remove excess blood • Cooking Methods: stewed, boiled, fried, salted, and pickled.
Cleaning and Preparation for Cooking • Soaked in acidulated water for an hour or in plain water overnight if they are to be salted • Due to the thick outer layer of skin, it requires a long, slow, moist cooking to make it tender enough to eat • Cook the tongue by poaching. When it is fully cooked, plunge it quickly in cold water, to remove the skin • If to be pickled and pressed into shapes before cutting it should be done after skinning and before it completely cools.