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# MECH 401

## Mechanical Design Applications

Dr. M. OMalley Master Notes
Spring 2008
Dr. D. M. McStravick
Rice University

Homework

Chapter 6
HW 4 available, due 2-7

Tests

## Crack propagates until the material fractures

suddenly
Fatigue failure is typically sudden and
complete, and doesnt give warning

## Various Fatigue Crack Surfaces [Text fig. 6-2]

Bolt Fatigue Failure [Text fig. 6-1]
Drive Shaft [Text fig. 6-3]
AISI 8640 Pin [Text fig. 6-4]
Steam Hammer Piston Rod [Text fig. 6-6]
Jacob Neu chair failure (in this classroom)

Fatigue Example 1

Fatigue

## Fatigue strength and endurance limit

Estimating FS and EL
Modifying factors
Thus far weve studied static failure of machine elements
The second major class of component failure is due to dynamic loading

Variable stresses
Repeated stresses
Alternating stresses
Fluctuating stresses

## The ultimate strength of a material (Su) is the maximum stress a

material can sustain before failure assuming the load is applied only
once and held
A material can also fail by being loaded repeatedly to a stress level that
is LESS than Su

Fatigue failure

design

## Stress Life Method (Used in this course)

Strain Life Method
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method

## Addresses high cycle Fatigue (>103 ) Well

Not Accurate for Low Cycle Fatigue (<103)

Stress-life

## Based on stress levels only

Least accurate for low-cycle fatigue

Strain-life

Easiest to implement
Ample supporting data

## More detailed analysis of plastic deformation at localized regions

Good for low-cycle fatigue applications
Some uncertainties exist in the results

## Assumes crack is already present and detected

Predicts crack growth with respect to stress intensity
Practical when applied to large structures in conjunction with computer
codes and periodic inspection

Fatigue analysis

2 primary classifications of
fatigue

Alternating no DC component

Fluctuating non-zero DC
component

## As the number of cycles

increases, the fatigue strength
Sf (the point of failure due to
For steel and titanium, this
fatigue strength is never less
than the endurance limit, Se
Our design criteria is:
S f (N )

## As the number of cycles

approaches infinity (N ),
Sf(N) = Se (for iron or Steel)

## Seems like we should be able to use graphs

like this to calculate our fatigue strength if
we know the material and the number of
cycles
We could use our factor of safety equation
as our design equation
But there are a couple of problems with this
approach

## S-N information is difficult to obtain and thus is

much more scarce than -e information
S-N diagram is created for a lab specimen

Smooth
Circular
Ideal conditions

## Therefore, we need analytical methods for

estimating Sf(N) and Se

S f (N )

Infinite life
Se

Implies N

a

Finite life

S f (N )

## Strength variable with a (Se)

Implies that the value of that strength (endurance limit) applies to a LAB SPECIMEN in
controlled conditions
Variables without a (Se, Sf)

## Implies that the value of that strength applies to an actual case

First we find the prime value for our situation (Se)
Then we will modify this value to account for differences between a lab specimen and our
actual situation
This will give us Se (depending on whether we are considering infinite life or finite life)
Note that our design equation uses Sf, so we wont be able to account for safety factors until
we have calculated Se and Se

## For steels and irons, we can estimate the

endurance limit (Se) based on the ultimate
strength of the material (Sut)
Steel

Se

= 0.5 Sut
for
Sut < 200 ksi (1400 MPa)
= 100 ksi (700 MPa) for all other values of Sut

Iron

Se

## = 24 ksi (160 MPa) for all other values of Sut

Note: ASTM # for gray cast iron is the min Sut

S f (N )
a

Se
a

Se

Alloys

## For aluminum and copper alloys, there is no endurance limit

To come up with an equivalent endurance limit, designers
typically use the value of the fatigue strength (Sf) at 108 cycles
Aluminum alloys
Se (Sf at 108 cycles)
Copper alloys
Se (Sf at 108 cycles)

= 0.4 Sut
for
Sut < 48 ksi (330 MPa)
= 19 ksi (130 MPa) for all other values of Sut
= 0.4 Sut
for
Sut < 35 ksi (250 MPa)
= 14 ksi (100 MPa) for all other values of Sut

## Note that Se is going to be our

material strength due to infinite

## We can estimate an S-N diagram

and see the difference in fatigue

## For steel and iron, note that the

fatigue strength (Sf) is never less
than the endurance limit (Se)

## For aluminum and copper, note

that the fatigue strength (Sf)
eventually goes to zero (failure!),
but we will use the value of Sf at
108 cycles as our endurance limit
(Se) for these materials

## When we are studying a case of

fatigue with a known number of cycles
(N), we need to calculate the fatigue
strength (Sf)
We have two S-N diagrams

## One for steel and iron

One for aluminum and copper

## We will use these diagrams to come

up with equations for calculating Sf
for a known number of cycles
Note: Book indicates that 0.9 is not
actually a constant, and uses the
variable f to donate this multiplier.
We will in general use 0.9 [so f=0.9]

Estimating Sf (N)

For f=0.9

S 'f N aN b

1 0.9Sut
b - log
3 S e

S 'f N aN b

1 0.9Sut
b - log
3 S e

Sf at N = 108

## log a log 0.9Sut - 3b

5.7

Correction factors

## Now we have Se (infinite life)

We need to account for differences between the lab specimen and a real
specimen (material, manufacturing, environment, design)
We use correction factors

These will account for differences between an ideal lab specimen and real life
Se = ka kb kc kd ke kf Se

## Strength reduction factors

Marin modification factors

ka surface factor
kb size factor
kd temperature factor
ke reliability factor
Kf miscellaneous-effects factor
Modification factors have been found empirically and are described in section 6-9 of
Shigley-Mischke-Budynas (see examples)

If calculating fatigue strength for finite life, (Sf), use equations on previous slide

Surface (ka)

## Accounts for different surface finishes

Size (kb)

Accounts for effects of operating temperature (Not significant factor for T<250 C [482 F])

Reliability (ke)

Endurance limits differ with Sut based on fatigue loading (bending, axial, torsion)

Temperature (kd)

Axial (kb = 1)

## Ground, machined, cold-drawn, hot-rolled, as-forged

Accounts for scatter of data from actual test results (note ke=1 gives only a 50% reliability)

Miscellaneous-effects (kf)

## Accounts for reduction in endurance limit due to all other effects

Reminder that these must be accounted for

Residual stresses
Corrosion
etc

## Surface Finish Effect on Se

Temperature Effect on Se

Reliability Factor, ke

Now what?

## Now that we know the strength of our part under

non-laboratory conditions
how do we use it?

Predict failure

## Part will fail if:

> Sf(N)
Factor of safety
or Life of the part:
1
= Sf(N) /
b
N
Where
a
b = - 1/3 log (0.9 Sut / Se)
log (a) = log (0.9 Sut) - 3b

## A solid rod cantilevered at one end. The rod is

0.8 m long and supports a completely
reversing transverse load at the other end of +/1 kN. The material is AISI 1045 hot-rolled
steel. If the rod must support this load for 104
cycles with a factor of safety of 1.5, what
dimension should the square cross section
have? Neglect any stress concentrations at the
support end and assume f= 0.9.

## Stress concentration (SC) and fatigue failure

brittle materials are significantly affected by
cases
We use stress concentration factors to modify
the nominal stress
SC factor is different for ductile and brittle
materials

SC factor fatigue

= kfnom+ = kfo

t = kfstnom = kfsto

## kf is a reduced value of kT and o is the nominal

stress.
kf called fatigue stress concentration factor
Why reduced? Some materials are not fully sensitive
to the presence of notches (SCs) therefore,
depending on the material, we reduce the effect of
the SC

Fatigue SC factor

kf = [1 + q(kt 1)]
kfs = [1 + qshear(kts 1)]

q and qshear

## Notch sensitivity factor

Find using figures 6-20 and 6-21 in book (Shigley) for steels
and aluminums
Use q = 0.20 for cast iron

## As kf approaches kt, q increasing (sensitivity to notches, SCs)

If kf ~ 1, insensitive (q = 0)

Example

Machined finish
Find Fmax for:

= 1.8
Infinite life

Design Equation:

= Se /

Example, cont.

= Se /
What do we need?

Considerations?

Se

## Infinite life, steel

Modification factors
Stress concentration (hole)

## Find nom (without SC)

nom

P
P
F

2083 F
A b - d h 60 - 12 10

Example, cont.

1 qkt - 1 nom

k f nom

## From Fig. 6-20,

r = 6 mm
Sut = 448 MPa = 65.0 ksi
q ~ 0.8

Example, cont.

## From Fig. A-15-1,

d/b = 12/60 = 0.2
kt ~ 2.5

q = 0.8
kt = 2.5
nom = 2083 F

1 qkt - 1 nom
1 0.82.5 - 12083F
4583F

Example, cont.

Now, estimate Se

Steel:
Se = 0.5 Sut for Sut < 1400 MPa (eqn. 6-8)
700 MPa else
AISI 1020 As-rolled

## Note that Se is going to be our

material strength due to infinite

## We can estimate an S-N diagram

and see the difference in fatigue

## For steel and iron, note that the

fatigue strength (Sf) is never less
than the endurance limit (Se)

## For aluminum and copper, note

that the fatigue strength (Sf)
eventually goes to zero (failure!),
but we will use the value of Sf at
108 cycles as our endurance limit
(Se) for these materials

Correction factors

## Now we have Se (infinite life)

We need to account for differences between the lab specimen and a real
specimen (material, manufacturing, environment, design)
We use correction factors

These will account for differences between an ideal lab specimen and real life
Se = ka kb kc kd ke kf Se

## Strength reduction factors

Marin modification factors

ka surface factor
kb size factor
kd temperature factor
ke reliability factor
Kf miscellaneous-effects factor
Modification factors have been found empirically and are described in section 6-9 of
Shigley-Mischke-Budynas (see examples)

If calculating fatigue strength for finite life, (Sf), use equations on previous slide

Example, cont.

Modification factors
Surface:
ka = aSutb (Eq. 6-19)

## a and b from Table 6-2

Machined

ka = (4.45)(448)-0.265 = 0.88

Example, cont.

Size:

kb = 1 (Eq. 6-21)

kb

kc

kc = 0.85 (Eq. 6-26)

Example, cont.

Temperature:

Reliability:

kf = 1

Endurance limit:

Miscellaneous:

Design Equation:

Se 177MPa

1.8

4583F

177x106
F
21.4 kN
45831.8

## Alternating vs. fluctuating

Alternating

Fluctuating

P
m
A
Mr
a
I

Alternating Stresses

## a characterizes alternating stress

Fluctuating stresses

Mean Stress

'm

2
Stress amplitude

'
a

max min

max - min
2

Together, m and a
characterize fluctuating
stress

## Fluctuating Stresses in Compression and

Tension

Soderberg
Modified Goodman
Gerber
ASME-elliptic
Yielding
Points above the line: failure
Book uses Goodman primarily
Straight line, therefore easy algebra
Easily graphed, every time, for every problem
Reveals subtleties of insight into fatigue problems
Answers can be scaled from the diagrams as a check on the
algebra

## As with alternating stresses, fluctuating stresses have been

investigated in an empirical manner
For m < 0 (compressive mean stress)

a > Sf
Failure
Same as with alternating stresses
Or,

a
Sf

<1

m
Sut

Failure

Static Failure

## Fluctuating stresses, cont.

Note: m + a = max

Relationship is easily
seen by plotting:

Goodman Line

## Safe design region

(for arbitrary fluctuations
in m and a )

a
Sf

m
Sut

Sf

m
Sut

## (safe stress line)

Important point: Part can fail because of fluctuations in either a, m, or both.
Design for prescribed variations in a and m to get a more exact solution.

Case 1: m fixed

Sa

Case 2: a fixed

Sm

## Special cases of fluctuating stresses

Case 3: a / m fixed

Sa

Sm

1

a
Sf

m
Sut

Example

Given:

## Sut = 1400 MPa

Syt = 950 MPa
Heat-treated (as-forged)
Fmean = 9.36 kN
Fmax = 10.67 kN
d/w = 0.133; d/h = 0.55

Find:

## for infinite life, assuming

Fmean is constant

Example, cont.

Find m and a

My
I
1
1
1
I bh3 w - d h 3 75 - 10183 3.16x10-8 m 4
12
12
12
h
ym ax 0.009 m
2
1
F L 1
M m m Fm L 9.36x103 0.3 702 Nm
4
2 2 4

1
F L 1
M m ax m ax Fm axL 10.67x103 0.3 800 Nm
4
2 2 4
M y
m m m ax 200 MPa
I
M y
m ax m ax m ax 228 MPa
I
a m ax - m 28 MPa

Example, cont.

m = 200 MPa
a = 28 MPa

nominal

the SC factors

Su = 1400Mpa

## kt ~ 2.2 (Figure A15-2)

q ~ 0.95 (Figure 7-20)
kf = 2.14

k f 1 qkt - 1

a a k f a

nom

m m k f m

nom

2.1428 60 MPa
2.14200 428 MPa

Example, cont.

Find strength
Eqn. 7-8: Se = .504Sut

## Se ~ 700 MPa since Sut 1400 MPa

Modification factors
Surface:

Size :

ka aSut

Equation (7 - 19) :
2.8 d eq 51 mm

Bending

a 271
b -0.995
ka 0.201

d eq 0.808hb
kb 1.24d eq
kb 0.86

kc 1 (Eq. 7 - 25)

1
2

- 0.107

Example, cont.

Design criteria

Goodman line:
a
Se

m
S ut

1/ n

a and m,
a

121

121 1400

121 1400
1 60 428

121 1400
1.25

1400

Example, cont.

## However, we know that

Fmean = constant from
problem statement

m = constant
Sa m

1
S e Sut
Sa
428

1
121 1400
Sa 84 MPa
S
84
a
1 .4
a 60

Less conservative!

Could be very complicated calculation to keep track of each load
case
Assuming all stress components are completely reversing and
are always in time phase with each other,
1. For the strength, use the fully corrected endurance limit for
bending, Se
2. Apply the appropriate fatigue SC factors to the torsional stress,
the bending stress, and the axial stress components
3. Multiply any alternating axial stress components by the factor
1/kc,ax
4. Enter the resultant stresses into a Mohrs circle analysis to find
the principal stresses
5. Using the results of step 4, find the von Mises alternating stress
a
6. Compare a with Sa to find the factor of safety
Additional details are in Section 6-14