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MECH 401

Mechanical Design Applications


Dr. M. OMalley Master Notes
Spring 2008
Dr. D. M. McStravick
Rice University

Reading

Homework

Chapter 6
HW 4 available, due 2-7

Tests

Fundamentals Exam will be in class on 2-21

Nature of fatigue failure

Starts with a crack

Usually at a stress concentration

Crack propagates until the material fractures


suddenly
Fatigue failure is typically sudden and
complete, and doesnt give warning

Fatigue Failure Examples

Various Fatigue Crack Surfaces [Text fig. 6-2]


Bolt Fatigue Failure [Text fig. 6-1]
Drive Shaft [Text fig. 6-3]
AISI 8640 Pin [Text fig. 6-4]
Steam Hammer Piston Rod [Text fig. 6-6]
Jacob Neu chair failure (in this classroom)

Fatigue Example 1

Fatigue Failure Example

Fatigue Failure Example

Fatigue Failure Example

Stamping Fatigue Failure Example

Schematic of Various Fatigue Failure

Jim Neu Chair Failure (Pedestal)

Fatigue Failure of Chair Shaft

Seat Fatigue Failure

Fatigue

Fatigue strength and endurance limit


Estimating FS and EL
Modifying factors
Thus far weve studied static failure of machine elements
The second major class of component failure is due to dynamic loading

Variable stresses
Repeated stresses
Alternating stresses
Fluctuating stresses

The ultimate strength of a material (Su) is the maximum stress a


material can sustain before failure assuming the load is applied only
once and held
A material can also fail by being loaded repeatedly to a stress level that
is LESS than Su

Fatigue failure

More Fatigue Failure Examples (ASM)

More Fatigue Failure Examples (ASM)

More Fatigue Failure Examples

Approach to fatigue failure in analysis and


design

Fatigue-life methods (6-3 to 6-6)

Stress Life Method (Used in this course)


Strain Life Method
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method

Stress-life method (rest of chapter 6)

Addresses high cycle Fatigue (>103 ) Well


Not Accurate for Low Cycle Fatigue (<103)

The 3 major methods

Stress-life

Based on stress levels only


Least accurate for low-cycle fatigue
Most traditional

Strain-life

Easiest to implement
Ample supporting data
Represents high-cycle applications adequately

More detailed analysis of plastic deformation at localized regions


Good for low-cycle fatigue applications
Some uncertainties exist in the results

Linear-elastic fracture mechanics

Assumes crack is already present and detected


Predicts crack growth with respect to stress intensity
Practical when applied to large structures in conjunction with computer
codes and periodic inspection

Fatigue analysis

2 primary classifications of
fatigue

Alternating no DC component

Fluctuating non-zero DC
component

Analysis of alternating stresses

As the number of cycles


increases, the fatigue strength
Sf (the point of failure due to
fatigue loading) decreases
For steel and titanium, this
fatigue strength is never less
than the endurance limit, Se
Our design criteria is:
S f (N )

As the number of cycles


approaches infinity (N ),
Sf(N) = Se (for iron or Steel)

Method of calculating fatigue strength

Seems like we should be able to use graphs


like this to calculate our fatigue strength if
we know the material and the number of
cycles
We could use our factor of safety equation
as our design equation
But there are a couple of problems with this
approach

S-N information is difficult to obtain and thus is


much more scarce than -e information
S-N diagram is created for a lab specimen

Smooth
Circular
Ideal conditions

Therefore, we need analytical methods for


estimating Sf(N) and Se

S f (N )

Terminology and notation

Infinite life versus finite life

Infinite life
Se

Implies N

Use endurance limit (Se) of material


a

Lowest value for strength


Finite life

Implies we know a value of N (number of cycles)

Use fatigue strength (Sf) of the material (higher than Se)

S f (N )

Prime () versus no prime

Strength variable with a (Se)

Implies that the value of that strength (endurance limit) applies to a LAB SPECIMEN in
controlled conditions
Variables without a (Se, Sf)

Implies that the value of that strength applies to an actual case


First we find the prime value for our situation (Se)
Then we will modify this value to account for differences between a lab specimen and our
actual situation
This will give us Se (depending on whether we are considering infinite life or finite life)
Note that our design equation uses Sf, so we wont be able to account for safety factors until
we have calculated Se and Se

Estimating Se Steel and Iron

For steels and irons, we can estimate the


endurance limit (Se) based on the ultimate
strength of the material (Sut)
Steel

Se

= 0.5 Sut
for
Sut < 200 ksi (1400 MPa)
= 100 ksi (700 MPa) for all other values of Sut

Iron

Se

= 0.4(min Sut)f/ gray cast Iron Sut<60 ksi(400MPa)

= 24 ksi (160 MPa) for all other values of Sut


Note: ASTM # for gray cast iron is the min Sut

S-N Plot with Endurance Limit

S f (N )
a

Se
a

Se

Estimating Se Aluminum and Copper


Alloys

For aluminum and copper alloys, there is no endurance limit


Eventually, these materials will fail due to repeated loading
To come up with an equivalent endurance limit, designers
typically use the value of the fatigue strength (Sf) at 108 cycles
Aluminum alloys
Se (Sf at 108 cycles)
Copper alloys
Se (Sf at 108 cycles)

= 0.4 Sut
for
Sut < 48 ksi (330 MPa)
= 19 ksi (130 MPa) for all other values of Sut
= 0.4 Sut
for
Sut < 35 ksi (250 MPa)
= 14 ksi (100 MPa) for all other values of Sut

Constructing an estimated S-N diagram

Note that Se is going to be our


material strength due to infinite
loading

We can estimate an S-N diagram


and see the difference in fatigue
strength after repeated loading

For steel and iron, note that the


fatigue strength (Sf) is never less
than the endurance limit (Se)

For aluminum and copper, note


that the fatigue strength (Sf)
eventually goes to zero (failure!),
but we will use the value of Sf at
108 cycles as our endurance limit
(Se) for these materials

Estimating the value of Sf

When we are studying a case of


fatigue with a known number of cycles
(N), we need to calculate the fatigue
strength (Sf)
We have two S-N diagrams

One for steel and iron


One for aluminum and copper

We will use these diagrams to come


up with equations for calculating Sf
for a known number of cycles
Note: Book indicates that 0.9 is not
actually a constant, and uses the
variable f to donate this multiplier.
We will in general use 0.9 [so f=0.9]

Estimating Sf (N)

For steel and iron


For f=0.9

S 'f N aN b

For 103 < N < 106

1 0.9Sut
b - log
3 S e

log a log 0.9Sut - 3b

For aluminum and copper


S 'f N aN b

For N < 108

1 0.9Sut
b - log
3 S e

Where Se is the value of


Sf at N = 108

log a log 0.9Sut - 3b

5.7

Correction factors

Now we have Se (infinite life)


We need to account for differences between the lab specimen and a real
specimen (material, manufacturing, environment, design)
We use correction factors

These will account for differences between an ideal lab specimen and real life
Se = ka kb kc kd ke kf Se

Strength reduction factors


Marin modification factors

ka surface factor
kb size factor
kc load factor
kd temperature factor
ke reliability factor
Kf miscellaneous-effects factor
Modification factors have been found empirically and are described in section 6-9 of
Shigley-Mischke-Budynas (see examples)

If calculating fatigue strength for finite life, (Sf), use equations on previous slide

Endurance limit modifying factors

Surface (ka)

Accounts for different surface finishes

Size (kb)

Different factors depending on loading

Accounts for effects of operating temperature (Not significant factor for T<250 C [482 F])

Reliability (ke)

Endurance limits differ with Sut based on fatigue loading (bending, axial, torsion)

Temperature (kd)

Bending and torsion (see pg. 280)


Axial (kb = 1)

Loading (kc)

Ground, machined, cold-drawn, hot-rolled, as-forged

Accounts for scatter of data from actual test results (note ke=1 gives only a 50% reliability)

Miscellaneous-effects (kf)

Accounts for reduction in endurance limit due to all other effects


Reminder that these must be accounted for

Residual stresses
Corrosion
etc

Surface Finish Effect on Se

Temperature Effect on Se

Reliability Factor, ke

Steel Endurance Limit vs. Tensile Strength

Compressive Residual Stresses

Now what?

Now that we know the strength of our part under


non-laboratory conditions
how do we use it?

Choose a failure criterion


Predict failure

Part will fail if:


> Sf(N)
Factor of safety
or Life of the part:
1
= Sf(N) /
b
N
Where
a
b = - 1/3 log (0.9 Sut / Se)
log (a) = log (0.9 Sut) - 3b

Example Homework Problem 6-9

A solid rod cantilevered at one end. The rod is


0.8 m long and supports a completely
reversing transverse load at the other end of +/1 kN. The material is AISI 1045 hot-rolled
steel. If the rod must support this load for 104
cycles with a factor of safety of 1.5, what
dimension should the square cross section
have? Neglect any stress concentrations at the
support end and assume f= 0.9.

Solution: -- See Board Work--

Stress concentration (SC) and fatigue failure

Unlike with static loading, both ductile and


brittle materials are significantly affected by
stress concentrations for repeated loading
cases
We use stress concentration factors to modify
the nominal stress
SC factor is different for ductile and brittle
materials

SC factor fatigue

= kfnom+ = kfo

t = kfstnom = kfsto

kf is a reduced value of kT and o is the nominal


stress.
kf called fatigue stress concentration factor
Why reduced? Some materials are not fully sensitive
to the presence of notches (SCs) therefore,
depending on the material, we reduce the effect of
the SC

Fatigue SC factor

kf = [1 + q(kt 1)]
kfs = [1 + qshear(kts 1)]

kt or kts and nominal stresses

Table A-15 & 16 (pages 1006-1013 in Appendix)

q and qshear

Notch sensitivity factor


Find using figures 6-20 and 6-21 in book (Shigley) for steels
and aluminums
Use q = 0.20 for cast iron

Brittle materials have low sensitivity to notches

As kf approaches kt, q increasing (sensitivity to notches, SCs)


If kf ~ 1, insensitive (q = 0)

Property of the material

Example

AISI 1020 as-rolled steel


Machined finish
Find Fmax for:

= 1.8
Infinite life

Design Equation:

= Se /

Se because infinite life

Example, cont.

= Se /
What do we need?

Considerations?

Se

Infinite life, steel


Modification factors
Stress concentration (hole)

Find nom (without SC)


nom

P
P
F

2083 F
A b - d h 60 - 12 10

Example, cont.

Now add SC factor:

1 qkt - 1 nom

k f nom

From Fig. 6-20,

r = 6 mm
Sut = 448 MPa = 65.0 ksi
q ~ 0.8

Example, cont.

From Fig. A-15-1,

Unloaded hole
d/b = 12/60 = 0.2
kt ~ 2.5

q = 0.8
kt = 2.5
nom = 2083 F

1 qkt - 1 nom
1 0.82.5 - 12083F
4583F

Example, cont.

Now, estimate Se

Steel:
Se = 0.5 Sut for Sut < 1400 MPa (eqn. 6-8)
700 MPa else
AISI 1020 As-rolled

Sut = 448 MPa

Se = 0.50(448) = 224 MPa

Constructing an estimated S-N diagram

Note that Se is going to be our


material strength due to infinite
loading

We can estimate an S-N diagram


and see the difference in fatigue
strength after repeated loading

For steel and iron, note that the


fatigue strength (Sf) is never less
than the endurance limit (Se)

For aluminum and copper, note


that the fatigue strength (Sf)
eventually goes to zero (failure!),
but we will use the value of Sf at
108 cycles as our endurance limit
(Se) for these materials

Correction factors

Now we have Se (infinite life)


We need to account for differences between the lab specimen and a real
specimen (material, manufacturing, environment, design)
We use correction factors

These will account for differences between an ideal lab specimen and real life
Se = ka kb kc kd ke kf Se

Strength reduction factors


Marin modification factors

ka surface factor
kb size factor
kc load factor
kd temperature factor
ke reliability factor
Kf miscellaneous-effects factor
Modification factors have been found empirically and are described in section 6-9 of
Shigley-Mischke-Budynas (see examples)

If calculating fatigue strength for finite life, (Sf), use equations on previous slide

Example, cont.

Modification factors
Surface:
ka = aSutb (Eq. 6-19)

a and b from Table 6-2


Machined

ka = (4.45)(448)-0.265 = 0.88

Example, cont.

Size:

Axial loading
kb = 1 (Eq. 6-21)

Load:

kb

kc

Axial loading
kc = 0.85 (Eq. 6-26)

Example, cont.

Temperature:

Reliability:

kf = 1

Endurance limit:

ke = 1 (no info given)

Miscellaneous:

kd = 1 (no info given)

Se = kakbkckdkekfSe = (0.88)(0.85)(227) = 177 MPa

Design Equation:

Se 177MPa

1.8

4583F

177x106
F
21.4 kN
45831.8

Fluctuating Fatigue Failures

Alternating vs. fluctuating


Alternating

Fluctuating

P
m
A
Mr
a
I

Alternating Stresses

a characterizes alternating stress

Fluctuating stresses

Mean Stress

'm

2
Stress amplitude


'
a

max min

max - min
2

Together, m and a
characterize fluctuating
stress

Alternating vs. Fluctuating

Modified Goodman Diagram

Fluctuating Stresses in Compression and


Tension

Failure criterion for fluctuating loading

Soderberg
Modified Goodman
Gerber
ASME-elliptic
Yielding
Points above the line: failure
Book uses Goodman primarily
Straight line, therefore easy algebra
Easily graphed, every time, for every problem
Reveals subtleties of insight into fatigue problems
Answers can be scaled from the diagrams as a check on the
algebra

Gerber Langer Plot for Fluctuating Stresses

Fluctuating stresses, cont.

As with alternating stresses, fluctuating stresses have been


investigated in an empirical manner
For m < 0 (compressive mean stress)

a > Sf
Failure
Same as with alternating stresses
Or,

max m - a S yc (or Suc )

For m > 0 (tensile mean stress)

Modified Goodman criteria

a
Sf

<1

m
Sut

Failure

Static Failure

Modified Goodman Langer Equations

Fluctuating stresses, cont.


Note: m + a = max

Relationship is easily
seen by plotting:

m + a > Syt (static failure by yielding)

Goodman Line

Safe design region


(for arbitrary fluctuations
in m and a )

a
Sf

m
Sut

Sf

m
Sut

(safe stress line)


Important point: Part can fail because of fluctuations in either a, m, or both.
Design for prescribed variations in a and m to get a more exact solution.

Special cases of fluctuating stresses

Case 1: m fixed

Sa

Case 2: a fixed

Sm

Special cases of fluctuating stresses

Case 3: a / m fixed

Sa

Sm

Case 4: both vary arbitrarily


1

a
Sf

m
Sut

Example

Given:

Sut = 1400 MPa


Syt = 950 MPa
Heat-treated (as-forged)
Fmean = 9.36 kN
Fmax = 10.67 kN
d/w = 0.133; d/h = 0.55

Find:

for infinite life, assuming


Fmean is constant

Example, cont.

Find m and a

My
I
1
1
1
I bh3 w - d h 3 75 - 10183 3.16x10-8 m 4
12
12
12
h
ym ax 0.009 m
2
1
F L 1
M m m Fm L 9.36x103 0.3 702 Nm
4
2 2 4

1
F L 1
M m ax m ax Fm axL 10.67x103 0.3 800 Nm
4
2 2 4
M y
m m m ax 200 MPa
I
M y
m ax m ax m ax 228 MPa
I
a m ax - m 28 MPa

Stress Concentration Factor

Example, cont.

Since this is uniaxial


loading,

m = 200 MPa
a = 28 MPa

nominal

We need to take care of


the SC factors

Su = 1400Mpa

kt ~ 2.2 (Figure A15-2)


q ~ 0.95 (Figure 7-20)
kf = 2.14

k f 1 qkt - 1

a a k f a

nom

m m k f m

nom

2.1428 60 MPa
2.14200 428 MPa

Example, cont.

Find strength
Eqn. 7-8: Se = .504Sut

Se ~ 700 MPa since Sut 1400 MPa

Modification factors
Surface:

Size :

Load :

ka aSut

Equation (7 - 19) :
2.8 d eq 51 mm

Bending

a 271
b -0.995
ka 0.201

d eq 0.808hb
kb 1.24d eq
kb 0.86

kc 1 (Eq. 7 - 25)

1
2

- 0.107

Se 0.201 0.86 700 121 MPa

Example, cont.

Design criteria

Goodman line:
a
Se

m
S ut

1/ n

For arbitrary variation in


a and m,
a

121

121 1400

121 1400
1 60 428

121 1400
1.25

1400

Example, cont.

However, we know that


Fmean = constant from
problem statement

m = constant
Sa m

1
S e Sut
Sa
428

1
121 1400
Sa 84 MPa
S
84
a
1 .4
a 60

Less conservative!

Combined loading and fatigue


Size factor depends on loading
SC factors also depend on loading
Could be very complicated calculation to keep track of each load
case
Assuming all stress components are completely reversing and
are always in time phase with each other,
1. For the strength, use the fully corrected endurance limit for
bending, Se
2. Apply the appropriate fatigue SC factors to the torsional stress,
the bending stress, and the axial stress components
3. Multiply any alternating axial stress components by the factor
1/kc,ax
4. Enter the resultant stresses into a Mohrs circle analysis to find
the principal stresses
5. Using the results of step 4, find the von Mises alternating stress
a
6. Compare a with Sa to find the factor of safety
Additional details are in Section 6-14

More Fatigue Failure Examples