Compendium Review Major Topic Two: Movement

Table of Contents Part 1 • The Skeleton System • Growth & Repair • Axial Skeleton • Appendicular Skeleton • Articulations

Part 2 • Muscular System • Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions • Whole Muscle Contraction • Muscular Disorders and Homeostasis

• Muscular System
• Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions • Whole Muscle Contraction • Muscular Disorders and Homeostasis

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Muscular System
There are three types of muscle in humans: smooth, cardiac, and skeletal, all of which contain muscle fibers (cells of tissue). 1. Smooth Muscle: contains uninucleated spindle-shaped cells; found in internal organ walls and aids in contraction; involuntary; does not fatigue as easily as other muscle. 2. Cardiac Muscle: contains striated, tubular, and branched uninucleated fibers that attach together at intercalated disks. The disks contain gap junctions which allow for quick contractions. Found in heart walls; involuntary; will fully relax before next contraction to avoid fatigue. 3. Skeletal Muscle: multinucleated, striated and tubular fibers; attached to skeleton; voluntary.




Pic from Human Biology Pg 228

Muscular System
Skeleton muscles support the body, make bones move, helps maintain body temperature, assist cardiovascular veins and lymphatic vessels, protects internal organs, and they stabilize joints. The muscles are compiled of bundles of fiber called fascicles and are covered in connective tissue called fascia which becomes the tendon beyond the muscle. The part of the muscle connected to bone that is stationary is known as origin; the part of the muscle connected to bone that moves is known as insertion.

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Muscles usually work with other muscles. A muscle that does most of the work is known as a prime mover. Muscles known as synergists are helping prime movers while the muscle opposite the prime move is known as the antagonist. In the above picture you can see that when the biceps flex (prime mover) the triceps relax (antagonist).

Muscular System: How do muscles get their names?
1. Size: vastus (huge), longus (long), and brevis (short). 2. Shape: latissimus (wide), terres (round), various symbols such as Greek letters or geometric figures. 3. Location: pectoralis (chest), gluteus (buttock), brachii (arm), sub (beneath), obliques are on the outside and inside (external and internal). 4. Direction of muscle fibers: rectus (straight), transverse (across), oblique (diagonal). 5. Attachment: some muscle names are given based on what it is attached to. The arm (brachium) and radius are attached to a muscle called the brachioradialis. 6. Number of attachments: How many origins on a muscle can determine its name. There are two origins on the biceps brachii. 7. Action: Some muscles are named after their functions.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 231

• Muscular System

• Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions
• Whole Muscle Contraction • Muscular Disorders and Homeostasis

Pic from

Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions
One Myofibril

Sarcolemma: Plasma Membrane Sarcoplasm: Cytoplasm; contains organelles, glycogen (energy) and myoglobin (stores oxygen). Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: Endoplasmic Reticulum T Tubule: Tubes that dip into muscle fibers sarcoplasm to contact reticulum with impulses (for Ca²+ release). Myofibrils: Contractile parts of fibers, encased by reticulum.

Z Line

In each myofibril are sarcomeres between two lines (z lines) and contain two protein myofilaments: thick filament (myosin) and thin filament (actin). The I band contains only actin, the H zone contains only myosin, the A band contains both overlapping.
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Z Line

A Band

I Band

Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions
Pic from Human Biology Pg 233

The thick filaments are constructed from molecules of a protein called myosin. Each sarcomeres has globular heads extending out the ends but not in the middle. These extensions are known as cross-bridge. The thin filaments are constructed from intertwining strands of the protein called actin.

Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions
1. Impulse travels down T tubules 2. Sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium 3. Muscle fibers contract; sarcomeres/myofibrils shorten (thin filament slides past thick filament.

Sarcomeres are relaxed

Sarcomeres are contracted This process of muscle contraction is known as the sliding filament model. Once broken down by myosin, ATP supplies the necessary energy for contraction. The cross-bridges on myosin pull actin towards the center.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 233

Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions

Contraction of muscle fibers is from motor neuron stimulation. Every motor neurons branch (axon branches) lies close to muscle fibers sarcolemma. This is known as a neuromuscular junction. The axon terminals contain acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) which is released via synaptic vesicle when the axon terminal receives a nerve impulse.

The Ach binds to sarcolemma receptors which trigger the sarcolemma to send impulses down the T tubules to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Sarcomere contraction follows after the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Synaptic Vesicle Acetylcholine

Axon Terminal

Ach Receptor

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Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions
Taking a closer look at the ACTIN filament!

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This diagram shows the roles of calcium and myosin work in muscle contraction

When the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca²+ it binds with troponin, a protein found along the actin filament. Once the binding occurs between the Ca²+ and troponin, the protein threads called tropomyosin shift on the actin filament exposing the myosin binding sites.

• Muscular System • Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions

• Whole Muscle Contraction
• Muscular Disorders and Homeostasis

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Whole Muscle Contraction
Stimulation to a motor unit can result in a muscle twitch, or a contraction of a muscle that lasts just a second. If the stimulation is repeated without stopping, the motor unit will not fully relax because it is aroused and ready for the next stimulation. This is known as tetanus.
Muscle Twitch Repeated stimulation

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Where do muscles get their energy from? Triglycerides and glycogen are stored in muscles while plasma fatty acids and glucose are obtained from circulating blood. Depending on the intensity of the exercise and how long one exercises determines what energy source is used. Submaximal exercise (65%-75% effort) is the most efficient way to burn fat (adipose tissue) because your muscles will use plasma fatty acids as their fuel source.

Whole Muscle Contraction
Muscle cells can produce ATP in 3 ways: creatine phosphate pathway, fermentation, and cellular respiration.
1. CP Pathway: Fastest way to get energy to muscles; helps by rapidly regeneration ADP to ATP. When the muscle cells are working, creatine phosphate is being broken down. Once the cells rest they rebuild creatine phosphate. 2. Fermentation: Muscle cells breakdown glycogen; the breakdown of glucose to lactate; produces two ATP. 3. Cellular Respiration: Supplies ATP when exercise is at submaximal level; makes use of glucose and fatty acids.

Pics from Human Biology Pg 237

Whole Muscle Contraction
Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers VS. Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers Fast-twitch motor units contain a lot of fibers and provide explosive power, but tend to fatigue sooner. They are lighter in color because they contain few blood vessels, myoglobin, and mitochondria as compared to slow-twitch fibers. Slow-twitch motor units contain a smaller amount of fibers but have more endurance. The energy source is acquired aerobically making them resistant to fatigue. Only when their energy supply is gone do they get tired. They are darker in color because they contain many myoglobin, mitochondria, and they lie close to capillary beds. Also, they can sustain long steady exercises because of their fat and glycogen reserve.

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• Muscular System • Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions • Whole Muscle Contraction • Muscular Disorders & Homeostasis

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Muscular Disorders and Homeostasis
Common muscle disorders include spasms or convulsions, cramps, facial tics, strains and sprains. A tendon that becomes inflamed and painful to move is known as tendinitis. Repetitive movements over a long period of time can inflame the bursa (fluid sacs near joints) causing bursitis. Many over the counter drugs can help with pain and inflammation.

More sever muscle diseases include myalgia which is constant achy muscles due to overuse of a muscle or a viral infection. Similar to myalgia, fibromyalgia is widespread constant pain that can be felt with the lightest of pressure. There are many hereditary muscular dystrophy disorders that are associated with the degeneration of muscles, as well as autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis that are associated with extreme muscle weaknesses/contraction impairment. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a degenerative disease of motor neurons; slowly resulting in paralyzed muscle movement. To maintain homeostasis, the muscular and skeleton systems work together to produce different types of movements and protect internal body parts. The skeleton system helps by producing blood cells and releasing calcium for a variety of process. Also, muscles help maintain our body temperature.

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Works Cited
East Tennessee State University. Histology of Muscle for Web. Accessed 7 Apr 2008. Mader, Sylvia S. Human Biology. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2008. Pages 227-245. Med Note. “Exercise, Sports and Doping.” 5 Feb 2006. Accessed 7 Apr. 2008. <>. "Muscle." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 7 Apr 2008, 17:36 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 7 Apr 2008>. "muscle fibre." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 07 Apr. 2008 <>. <

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