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Bonds in Solids

Crystal Geometry

Crystal Structure and Defects

Electron Theory of Metals

Diffusion in Solids

Crystal Geometry,

Structure and Defects

Minta Yuwana

2009

Learning Objectives

1. Describe the difference in atomic/molecular structure

between crystalline and noncrystalline materials.

2. Draw unit cells for face-centered cubic, bodycentered

cubic, and hexagonal close-packed crystal structures.

3. Derive the relationships between unit cell edge length

and atomic radius for face-centered cubic and bodycentered cubic crystal structures.

4. Compute the densities for metals having facecentered

cubic and body-centered cubic crystal structures given

their unit cell dimensions.

Learning Objectives

5. Given three direction index integers, sketch the direction

corresponding to these indices within a unit cell.

6. Specify the Miller indices for a plane that has been

drawn within a unit cell.

7. Describe how face-centered cubic and hexagonal closepacked crystal structures may be generated by the

stacking of close-packed planes of atoms.

8. Distinguish between single crystals and polycrystalline

materials.

9. Define isotropy and anisotropy with respect to material

properties.

Crystal

solids which have a regular periodic

arrangement in their component parties,

bounded by flat faces, orderly arranged in

reference to one another, which converge

at the edges and vertices.

Crystal

A crystal is symmetrical about its certain

elements like points, lines or planes

if crystal rotated about these elements, it is not possible to

distinguish its new position from the original position.

internal structure of crystal.

Symmetry helps one to classify crystals and

describing their behavior.

crystalline state is stable for all solids.

The atomic arrangement in crystal is

called the crystal structure.

In perfect crystal, there is a regular

arrangement of atoms.

points representing the centers of ions, atoms

or molecules.

Such points in space are called lattice points.

The totality of lattice points forms a crystal

lattice or space lattice.

The space lattice is defined as an array of

imaginary points which are so arranged in

space that each point has identical

surroundings.

The periodicity in the arrangement of ions,

atoms or molecules generally varies in different

directions.

If all the atoms, molecules or ions at the lattice

points are identical, the lattice is called a Bravias

lattice.

The space lattice of a crystal is described by

means of a three-dimensional co-ordinate

system

the coordinate axis coincide with any three edges of

the crystal that intersect at one point and do not lie in

a single plane.

The space-lattice concept was introduced by

R.J. Hauy

It was postulated that an elementary unit, having all

the properties of the crystal, should exist, or

conversely that a crystal was built up by the

juxtaposition of such elementary units.

vertices of a parallelepiped OABC as

OA OB OC

a space lattice is obtained by translations

parallel to and equal to OA,OB and OC.

The parallelepiped is called the unit cell.

Most of metallic crystals have highly symmetrical

structures with closed packed atoms.

Complex lattices are frequently encountered in

metals.

It comprise of several primitive translation lattices

displaced in relation to each other.

Body centered cubic (BCC) lattices,

Face centered cubic (FCC) lattices and

Hexagonal closed packed (HCP) lattices.

Basis

atoms rather than points.

To obtain a crystal structure, an atom or a

group of atoms must be placed on each

lattice point in a regular fashion.

Such an atom or a group of atoms is

called the basis

this acts as a building unit or a structural unit

for the complete crystal structure.

Basis

the crystal structure.

Space lattice + Basis Crystal Structure

crystal structure is a physical concept.

The crystal structure is obtained by placing

the basis on each lattice point such that

the centre of the basis coincides with the

lattice point.

Basis

Basis

Note:

the number of atoms in a basis may vary from

one to several thousands,

the number of space lattices possible is only

fourteen

one can obtain a large number of crystal structures

from just fourteen space lattices because of the

different types of basis available.

If the basis consists of a single atom only, a mono

atomic crystal structure is obtained.

Copper is an example of mono atomic face-centered cubic

structures.

Examples of complex bases are found in biological materials.

Unit Cell

The smallest repetitive division of crystal

structure.

The smallest component of the space

lattice.

The basic structural unit or building block

of the crystal structure by virtue of its

geometry and atomic positions within.

Unit Cell

Space lattices of various substances differ

in the size and shape of their unit cells.

The distance from one atom to another

atom measured along one of the axis is

called the space constant.

The unit cell is formed by primitives or

intercepts a, b and c along X, Y and Z

axes respectively.

Unit Cell

A unit cell can be completely described by the three

vectors a, b, and c ( OP, OQ and OR) when the length

of the vectors and the angles between them (, , ) are

specified.

The three angles , and are called interfacial angles.

Taking any lattice point as the origin, all other points on

the lattice, can be obtained by a repeated of the lattice

vectors a, b and c.

These lattice vectors and interfacial angles constitute the

lattice parameter of a unit cell.

If the values of these intercepts and interfacial angles

are known, one can easily determine the form and actual

size of the unit cell.

Primitive Cell

Defined as a geometrical shape which, when

repeated indefinitely in 3-dimensions, will fill all

space and is equivalent of one lattice point, i.e.

the unit cell that contains one lattice point only at

the corners.

Note that in some cases the unit cell may coincide

with the primitive cell, but in general the former differs

from the latter in that it is not restricted to being the

equivalent of one lattice point.

Primitive Cell

The units cells, which contain more than

one lattice point are called non-primitive

cells.

The unit cells may be primitive cells, but all

the primitive cells need not to be unit cells.

Crystal Classes

The atoms or molecules or ions in

crystalline state are arranged in a regular,

repetitive and symmetrical pattern,

but the crystal will have the external

symmetrical shape only, if no restraint is

imposed during crystal growth.

Crystal Classes

Crystals possess symmetry

The symmetry of crystals is investigated

by means of symmetry operations,

as a result of which the crystal coincides

with itself in various positions.

Crystal Classes

The simplest of such operations

(rotation, reflection and translationparallel displacement) are associated

with the elements of symmetry.

The simplest elements of symmetry are

the axis and planes of symmetry.

Crystal Classes

The shape of the crystal is said to be

symmetrical if it possesses one or more

elements of symmetry.

A group of symmetry operations,

consisting commonly of a combination of

rotations, reflections and rotations with

reflection, is called a symmetry class.

Crystal Classes

The elements of symmetry are:

(i) The Symmetry Plane

(ii) The Symmetry Axis

(iii) The Centre of Symmetry

Crystal Classes

(i) The Symmetry Plane:

The shape of the crystal is said to be

symmetrical about a plane if it divides

the shape into two identical halves or

into two halves which are mirror images

of one another.

Note that only in an ideal crystal the faces

are of exactly same size.

Crystal Classes

(ii) The Symmetry Axis:

If the shape can be rotated about an axis so

that the shape occupies the same relative

position in space more than once in a

complete revolution, such an axis is called to

be axis of symmetry.

Such axes may be either 2, 3, 4 or 6 fold. The axis

of symmetry causes the crystal to occupy more

than one congruent position during rotation about

that axis during rotation by 360.

Crystal Classes

(iii) The Centre of Symmetry:

Within a crystal, there is some point about

which crystallographically similar faces are

arranged in parallel and corresponding

positions, e.g., the centre of the cube is a

centre of symmetry.

Note that a tetrahedron has no such centre. A

cube has highly symmetrical shape and contains

many planes and axis of symmetry.

Crystal Classes

The principal axes of a cube are four fold,

i.e. during each complete rotation about the

axis, the crystal passes four through identical

positions.

there are six two-fold axes.

The vertical axis of hexagonal prism is a

six-fold axes.

Crystal Classes

A symmetry operation is one that leaves the

crystal and its environment invariant.

Symmetry operations performed

about a point or a line are called point group

symmetry operations

by translations are called space group symmetry

operations.

symmetries independently and in compatible

combinations.

Crystal Classes

The different point group symmetry

elements that are exhibited by crystals:

(i) centre of symmetry or inversion centre

(ii) reflection symmetry

(iii) rotation symmetry.

Crystal System

If all the atoms at the lattice points are

identical, the lattice is said to be Bravais

lattice.

There are four systems and five possible

Bravais lattices in two dimensions.

dimensional space are oblique,

rectangular, square and hexagonal.

Crystal System

The rectangular crystal system has two

Bravais lattices,

rectangular primitive and

rectangular centered.

Crystal System

Crystal System

Based on pure symmetry considerations,

there are only fourteen independent ways

of arranging points in three-dimensional

space,

such that each arrangement is in accordance

or in confirmation with the definition of a

space lattice.

groups and 230 space groups are called

Bravais lattices.

Crystal System

Each space lattice can be defined by

reference to a unit cell which, when

repeated in space an infinite number of

times, will generate the entire space

lattice.

Crystal System

To describe basic crystal structures,

the 14 types of unit cells are grouped in seven

different classes of crystal lattices,

i.e. to describe basic crystal structures, seven

different co-ordinate systems of reference axes are

required.

Crystal System

The number of lattice points in unit cell can be

calculated as:

Contribution of lattice point at the corner = th of the

point

Contribution of the lattice point at the face = of the

point

Contribution of the lattice point at the centre = 1 of the

point

number of lattice points (not the atoms) in it.

Crystal System

For example, the number of lattice points

per unit cell for

simple cubic (SC) is 1

body centered cubic (BCC) is 2

Face centered cubic (FCC) is 4

Crystal System

Volume of a unit cell can be calculated with the

help of the relation

Atomic Packing Factor (APF):

defined as the ratio of total volume of atoms in a unit

cell to the total volume of the unit cell.

also called relative density of packing (RDP).

Non dense, random packing

lower energy.

2

METALLIC CRYSTALS

tend to be densely packed.

have several reasons for dense packing:

-Typically, only one element is present, so all atomic

radii are the same.

-Metallic bonding is not directional.

-Nearest neighbor distances tend to be small in

order to lower bond energy.

Rare due to poor packing (only Po has this structure)

Close-packed directions are cube edges.

Coordination # = 6

(# nearest neighbors)

4

Close packed directions are face diagonals.

--Note: All atoms are identical; the face-centered atoms are shaded

differently only for ease of viewing.

Coordination # = 12

Callister 6e.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

APF for a body-centered cubic structure = 0.74

6 x 1/2 + 8 x 1/8

= 4 atoms/unit cell

a

Adapted from

Fig. 3.1(a),

Callister 6e.

Crystal System:

Close packed directions are cube diagonals.

--Note: All atoms are identical; the center atom is shaded

differently only for ease of viewing.

Coordination # = 8

Callister 6e.

APF for a body-centered cubic structure = 0.68

R

Adapted from

Fig. 3.2,

Callister 6e.

1 + 8 x 1/8

= 2 atoms/unit cell

HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED

STRUCTURE (HCP)

ABAB... Stacking Sequence

3D Projection

2D Projection

A sites

B sites

A sites

Callister 6e.

Coordination # = 12

APF = 0.74

Crystal System

Crystal System

Crystal System

Crystal System

Crystallographic Points,

Directions, and Planes

POINT COORDINATES

The position of any point

located within a unit cell

specified in terms of

fractional multiples of the

unit cell edge lengths

(a,b, and c).

POINT COORDINATES

POINT COORDINATES

Solution

From the sketch (a), edge lengths for this unit

cell are:

a = 0.48 nm, b = 0.46 nm, and c = 0.40 nm.

Fractional lengths are: q=1/4, r=1, s=1/2

The location of point:

the x axis (to point N) = *0.48 = 0.12 nm

the y axis (to point O) = 1*0.46 = 0.46 nm

The z axis (to point P) = *0.40 = 0.20 nm

POINT COORDINATES

POINT COORDINATES

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS

Defined as a line between two points, or a

vector.

The steps utilized in the determination of

the three directional indices are:

1. A vector of convenient length is positioned

such that it passes through the origin of the

coordinate system.

Any vector may be translated throughout the

crystal lattice without alteration, if parallelism is

maintained.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS

2. The length of the vector projection on each

of the three axes is determined;

these are measured in terms of the unit cell

dimensions a, b, and c.

divided by a common factor to reduce them

to the smallest integer values.

4. The three indices, without commas, are

enclosed in square brackets, thus: [uvw].

The u, v, and w integers correspond to the

reduced projections along the x, y, and z axes,

respectively.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS:

Hexagonal

equivalent directions will not have the

same set of indices.

Circumvented by utilizing a four-axis, or

MillerBravais, coordinate system.

The three a1, a2 and a3 axes are all contained

within a single plane (called the basal plane)

and are at 120 angles to one another.

The z axis is perpendicular to this basal

plane.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS:

Hexagonal

indices, as [uvtw];

by convention, the first three indices pertain to

projections along the respective a1, a2 and a3

axes in the basal plane.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS:

Hexagonal

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS:

Hexagonal

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS:

Hexagonal

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

The orientations of planes for a crystal

structure are represented in a similar manner.

The unit cell is the basis, with the threeaxis coordinate system.

Except the hexagonal crystal system,

crystallographic planes are specified by three

Miller indices as (hkl).

equivalent and have identical indices.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

1. If the plane passes through the selected

origin,

within the unit cell by an appropriate translation,

or a new origin must be established at the corner

of another unit cell.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

2. At this point the crystallographic plane either

intersects or parallels each of the three

axes;

determined in terms of the lattice parameters a,

b, and c.

The reciprocals of a, b, c are taken as the index.

A plane that parallels an axis may be considered

to have an infinite intercept, and, therefore, a

zero index.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

3. If necessary, these three numbers are

changed to the set of smallest integers by

multiplication or division by a common

factor.

4. Finally, the integer indices, not separated by

commas, are enclosed within parentheses,

thus: (hkl).

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

An intercept on the negative side of the

origin is indicated by a bar or minus sign

positioned over the appropriate index.

Reversing the directions of all indices

specifies another plane parallel to, on the

opposite side of and equidistant from, the

origin.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

One interesting and unique characteristic

of cubic crystals is

that planes and directions having the same

indices are perpendicular to one another;

simple geometrical relationships between

planes and directions having the same

indices.

Atomic Arrangements

The atomic arrangement for a crystallographic

plane, depends on the crystal structure.

The (110) atomic planes for FCC and BCC crystal

structures are represented in the next figures;

reduced-sphere unit cells are also included.

Note that the atomic packing is different for each

case.

The circles represent atoms lying in the

crystallographic planes as would be obtained from a

slice taken through the centers of the full-sized hard

spheres.

Atomic Arrangements

A family of planes contains all those

planes that are crystallographically

equivalentthat is, having the same

atomic packing; and a family is designated

by indices that are enclosed in braces

such as {100}.

For example, in cubic crystals the (111),

(111), (111 ), (111 ), (111 ), (111), (111 ), and

(111 ) planes all belong to the {111} family.

Atomic Arrangements

On the other hand, for tetragonal crystal

structures,

the {100} family would contain only the (100), (100),

(010), and (010)

the (001) and (001) planes are not crystallographically

equivalent.

same indices, irrespective of order and sign, are

equivalent. For example, both (123) and (312)

belong to the {123} family.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

Hexagonal Crystals

The MillerBravais system of the fourindex (hkil) scheme is favored.

There is some redundancy in that i is

determined by the sum of h and k through

i = -(h + k)

Otherwise the three h, k, and l indices are

identical for both indexing systems.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

Linear density (LD) is defined as the

number of atoms per unit length whose

centers lie on the direction vector for a

specific crystallographic direction:

Linear Density

For example: determine the linear density of the

[110] direction for the FCC crystal structure.

An FCC unit cell (reduced sphere) and the [110]

direction therein are:

Linear Density

Represented in the figure (b) are those five

atoms that lie on the bottom face of this unit

cell; here the [110] direction vector passes

from the center of atom X, through atom Y,

and finally to the center of atom Z.

With regard to the numbers of atoms, it is

necessary to take into account the sharing of

atoms with adjacent unit cells (as discussed in

the atomic packing factor computations).

Linear Density

X

Y

Z

Linear Density

Each of the X and Z corner atoms are also shared

with one other adjacent unit cell along this [110]

direction (i.e., one-half of each of these atoms

belongs to the unit cell being considered), while

atom Y lies entirely within the unit cell.

along the [110] direction vector in the unit cell.

The direction vector length is equal to 4R

(Figure b); thus the [110] linear density for

FCC is

Planar Density

Planar density (PD) is taken as the

number of atoms per unit area that are

centered on a particular crystallographic

plane, or

Planar Density

For example, consider the section of a

(110) plane within an FCC unit cell.

Planar Density

Although six atoms have centers that lie on

this plane,

only one-quarter of each of atoms A, C,D, and F,

one-half of atoms B and E,

total equivalence of just 2 atoms are on that plane.

the length (horizontal dimension) = 4R, the width

(vertical dimension) = 2R2.

Thus, the area of this planar region = 8R22

CLOSE-PACKED CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

Face-centered cubic and hexagonal closepacked crystal structures have atomic packing

factors of 0.74,

the most efficient packing of equal-sized spheres or

atoms.

crystal structures may be described in terms of

close-packed planes of atoms (i.e., planes

having a maximum atom or sphere-packing

density);

a portion of one such plane is illustrated in Figure

3.13a.

CLOSE-PACKED CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

CLOSE-PACKED CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

Both crystal structures may be generated by the

stacking of these close-packed planes on top of

one another;

the difference between the two structures lies in the

stacking sequence.

Let the centers of all the atoms in one closepacked plane be labeled A.

Associated with this plane are two sets of equivalent

triangular depressions formed by three adjacent

atoms, into which the next close-packed plane of

atoms B may rest.

The remaining depressions are those with the down

vertices, which are marked C.

CLOSE-PACKED CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

A second close-packed plane may be

positioned with the centers of its atoms

over either B or C sites; at this point both

are equivalent.

Suppose that the B positions are arbitrarily

chosen; the stacking sequence is termed AB.

The centers of the third plane are situated

over the C sites of the first plane, This yields

an ABCABCABC . . .

CLOSE-PACKED CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

ABCABC... Stacking Sequence

2D Projection

A

B

B

C

A

B

B

B

A sites

C

C

B sites

B

B

C sites

20

Compounds: Often have similar close-packed structures.

Structure of NaCl

Close-packed directions

--along cube edges.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

21

CLOSE-PACKED CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

The real distinction between FCC and HCP lies

in the position of the third close-packed layer.

For HCP, the centers of this layer are aligned directly

above the original A positions.

This stacking sequence, ABABAB . . . , is repeated

over and over. (the ACACAC . . . is equivalent).

These close-packed planes for HCP are (0001)-type

planes.

The correspondence between this and the unit cell

representation is shown in following figure.

CLOSE-PACKED CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

Charge Neutrality:

--Net charge in the

structure should

be zero.

--General form:

Stable structures:

--maximize the # of nearest oppositely charged neighbors.

Adapted from Fig. 12.1,

Callister 6e.

15

Coordination # increases with

Issue: How many anions can you

arrange around a cation?

Callister 6e.

6e.

Callister 6e.

6e.

16

On the basis of ionic radii, what crystal structure

would you predict for FeO?

Cation

Al3+

Fe 2+

Fe 3+

Ca 2+

Anion

O 2Cl F-

Answer:

r cation 0.077

r anion

0.140

0.550

based on this ratio,

--coord # = 6

--structure = NaCl

Callister 6e.

17

AmXp STRUCTURES

Consider CaF2 :

r cation 0.100

0.8

r anion

0.133

Result: CsCl structure w/only half the cation sites

occupied.

Only half the cation sites

are occupied since

#Ca2+ ions = 1/2 # F- ions.

6e.

18

COOLING OF AN IRON WIRE

Demonstrates "polymorphism"

have more than one

crystal structure.

19

Solid Bodies

Solids exist in nature in two principal

forms:

Crystalline:

Single

Poly

non-crystalline (amorphous)

Crystalline bodies

Remain solid up to a definite temperature

(melting point) at which they change from

the solid to liquid state.

During cooling, the inverse process of

solidification takes place, again at the

definite solidifying temperature, or point.

In both cases, the temperature remains

constant until the material is completely

melted or respectively solidified.

Crystalline bodies

Characterized by an ordered arrangement

of their ions, atoms or molecules.

The properties of crystals depend on

the electronic structure of atoms

the nature of their interactions in the crystal,

the spatial arrangement of their ions, atoms or

molecules,

the composition, size and shape of crystals.

Crystalline bodies

may be either in the form of

single crystal (grain) or

an aggregate of many crystals usually

known as polycrystalline separated by

well-defined grain boundaries.

Crystalline bodies

Polycrystalline material is stronger than

ordinary one

Tiny crystals (grains) have different

orientations with respect to each other and

grain boundaries obstruct the movement of

dislocations.

exhibit same properties in every plane and

direction

Amorphous Bodies

Amorphous substances have no crystalline

structure in the condensed state

ordinary glass, sulphur, selenium, glycerin and most

of the high polymers can exist in the amorphous

state.

softened in a wide temperature range and

become viscous and only then change to the

liquid state.

In cooling, the process takes place in the

opposite direction.

SINGLE VS POLYCRYSTALS

Single Crystals

Data from Table 3.3,

Callister 6e.

(Source of data is R.W.

Hertzberg, Deformation

and Fracture Mechanics

of Engineering

Materials, 3rd ed., John

Wiley and Sons, 1989.)

direction: anisotropic.

-Example: the modulus

of elasticity (E) in BCC iron:

Polycrystals

-Properties may/may not

vary with direction.

-If grains are randomly

oriented: isotropic.

(Epoly iron = 210 GPa)

anisotropic.

200 mm

4.12(b), Callister 6e.

(Fig. 4.12(b) is courtesy

of L.C. Smith and C.

Brady, the National

Bureau of Standards,

Washington, DC [now

the National Institute of

Standards and

Technology,

Gaithersburg, MD].)

24

Amorphous Bodies

On repeated heating, long holding at 20-25C or,

in some cases, deformation of an amorphous

body, the instability of the amorphous state may

result in a partial or complete change to the

crystalline state.

Examples of such changes are the turbidity effect

appearing in inorganic glasses on heating or in optical

glasses after a long use, partial crystallization of

molten amber on heating, or additional crystallization

and strengthening of nylon fibers on tension.

Crystalline materials...

atoms pack in periodic, 3D arrays

typical of: -metals

-many ceramics

-some polymers

crystalline SiO2

Adapted from Fig. 3.18(a),

Callister 6e.

Noncrystalline materials...

atoms have no periodic packing

occurs for: -complex structures

-rapid cooling

"Amorphous" = Noncrystalline

noncrystalline SiO2

Adapted from Fig. 3.18(b),

Callister 6e.

26

GLASS STRUCTURE

Basic Unit:

4Si0 4 tetrahedron

Si 4+

O2-

Glass is amorphous

Amorphous structure

occurs by adding impurities

(Na+,Mg2+,Ca2+, Al3+)

Impurities:

interfere with formation of

crystalline structure.

Quartz is crystalline

SiO2:

(soda glass)

Adapted from Fig. 12.11,

Callister, 6e.

28

Single crystal

No matter how large, is a single grain.

Regular polyhedrons whose shape

depends upon their chemical composition.

Single crystals of metals of many cubic

centimeters in volume are relatively easy to

prepare in the laboratory.

Single crystal

Some engineering applications require single crystals:

--diamond single

crystals for abrasives

--turbine blades

GE Superabrasives,

Worthington, OH. Used with

permission.)

(Fig. 8.30(c) courtesy

of Pratt and Whitney).

of atomic structure.

--Ex: Certain crystal planes in quartz

fracture more easily than others.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

22

Whiskers

Very thin filaments, hair-like single crystals

of about 13 mm length and perhaps 104

cm diameter.

Produced as dislocations of free crystals

and are without any structural defect.

Far stronger than polycrystals of same

material.

Whiskers

Used as reinforcements in materials to increase

strength by embedding fibers of one material in

a matrix of another.

The properties of fiber or whisker-reinforced

composites can often be tailored for a specific

application.

decreases its strength and increases its ductility.

The cost of whiskers and the expensive

fabrication is the major disadvantage of the

method.

Whiskers

Whiskers are the most defect-free crystalline

solids available today.

Whiskers can bear considerably high stresses

both at low and relatively elevated temperatures.

The best-known composite are probably, fiber

glass,

consists of glass-reinforcing fibers in a matrix of either

an epoxy polymer or polyester

boron, iron, silver, copper and tin can be

produced by means of special techniques.

Whiskers

Whiskers of a wide variety of substances,

e.g., mercury, graphite, sodium and

potassium chlorides, copper, iron, and

aluminium oxide, have been grown from

super saturated media.

Whiskers grown in this way are usually a few

micrometers in diameter and up to a few

inches long.

Some are exceptionally strong, both in bend

tests and in tension tests.

Whiskers

In addition to exceptional strength,

whiskers often have unique electrical,

magnetic, or surface properties.

This behavior can be interpreted to mean that

the crystal structure of whiskers is virtually

perfect, particularly with respect to line

defects.

Actually it appears that some whiskers contain line

defects whereas others do not. However, no

general correlation between whisker properties

and whisker structure have been established.

Polycrystalline

Most crystalline solids

made up of millions of grains

each grain constitutes microstructure

commonly said as polycrystalline.

Grain

a tiny single crystals

oriented randomly with respect to each other

POLYCRYSTALS

Most engineering materials are polycrystals.

color inset pages of

Callister 6e.

(Fig. K is courtesy of

Paul E. Danielson,

Teledyne Wah Chang

Albany)

1 mm

Nb-Hf-W plate with an electron beam weld.

Each "grain" is a single crystal.

If crystals are randomly oriented,

overall component properties are not directional.

(i.e., from a few to millions of atomic layers).

23

Some metals, as well as nonmetals, may

have more than one crystal structure, a

phenomenon known as polymorphism.

When found in elemental solids, the

condition is often termed allotropy.

The prevailing crystal structure depends

on both the temperature and the external

pressure.

One familiar example is found in carbon:

graphite is the stable polymorph at ambient

conditions,

diamond is formed at extremely high pressures.

BCC crystal structure at room temperature,

changes to FCC iron at 912C.

other physical properties accompanies a

polymorphic transformation.

DENSITY COMPUTATIONS

DENSITY COMPUTATIONS

Element

Aluminum

Argon

Barium

Beryllium

Boron

Bromine

Cadmium

Calcium

Carbon

Cesium

Chlorine

Chromium

Cobalt

Copper

Flourine

Gallium

Germanium

Gold

Helium

Hydrogen

Symbol

Al

Ar

Ba

Be

B

Br

Cd

Ca

C

Cs

Cl

Cr

Co

Cu

F

Ga

Ge

Au

He

H

At. Weight

(amu)

26.98

39.95

137.33

9.012

10.81

79.90

112.41

40.08

12.011

132.91

35.45

52.00

58.93

63.55

19.00

69.72

72.59

196.97

4.003

1.008

Density

(g/cm 3 )

2.71

-----3.5

1.85

2.34

-----8.65

1.55

2.25

1.87

-----7.19

8.9

8.94

-----5.90

5.32

19.32

-----------

Atomic radius

(nm)

0.143

-----0.217

0.114

Adapted from

-----Table, "Charac-----teristics of

0.149 Selected

0.197 Elements",

inside front

0.071 cover,

0.265 Callister 6e.

-----0.125

0.125

0.128

-----0.122

0.122

0.144

----------12

metals ceramic

s polymer s

Why?

Metals have...

close-packing

(metallic bonding)

large atomic mass

Ceramics have...

less dense packing

(covalent bonding)

often lighter elements

Polymers have...

poor packing

(often amorphous)

lighter elements (C,H,O)

Composites have...

intermediate values

13

Incoming X-rays diffract from crystal planes.

Callister 6e.

Measurement of:

Critical angles, qc,

for X-rays provide

atomic spacing, d.

25

XRD pattern

SUMMARY

Atoms may assemble into crystalline or

amorphous structures.

We can predict the density of a material,

provided we know the atomic weight, atomic

radius, and crystal geometry (e.g., FCC,

BCC, HCP).

Material properties generally vary with single

crystal orientation (i.e., they are anisotropic),

but properties are generally non-directional

(i.e., they are isotropic) in polycrystals with

randomly oriented grains.

27

Mechanical Properties

Thermal Properties

Electrical and Magnetic Properties

Superconductivity

Alloy Systems

Phase Diagrams and Phase Transformations

Heat Treatment

Deformation of Materials

Corrosion

Organic Materials:

Polymers and Elastomers

Wood

Composites

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