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Computer and

its Hardware
Sheryl May C. Jagonia

Learning Objective

Define a Computer
Identify the Different Classes of Computer
Identify Different Kinds of Computer
Identify Task that a Computer can
Performed
Explain why Computers were so Powerful
Identify Different Operations that a
Computer can Performed

Learning Objective (contd.)


Explain How Does a Computer Know
What To Do
Identify Computer Components
Define Hardware
Identify Hardware Components

Topic 1

DEFINING A COMPUTER

What is a Computer?

A computer is an electronic
device that accepts data as input,
processes data by using stored
instructions and producing an
output which is the information

Topic 2

CLASSES OF COMPUTER

Analog Computer

Digital Computer

Topic 3

DIFFERENT KINDS OF
COMPUTER

Different Kinds of Computer


1) Supercomputers
2)Mainframe Computers
3)Minicomputers
4)Microcomputer/Personal
Computers

Supercomputers
Supercomputers: Extremely powerful
mainframe computers used in scientific and
engineering applications.

Mainframe Computer

Minicomputer

Fujitsu

IBM's AS/400e

Microcomputer/Personal
Computer

What Does A Computer Do?


Computers can perform four general operations,
which comprise the information processing cycle.
Input
Process
Output
Storage

Why Is A Computer So
Powerful?

SPEED
Millisecond: 1/1,000 of a second
Microsecond: 1/1M of a second
Nanosecond: 1/1B of a second
Picosecond: 1/T of a second

ACCURACY
-Binary
00000001000
10000111000

STORAGE & RETRIEVAL


CAPABILITIES
-Storage
-Retrieval

Storage Measurement
1 Bit

A single value of 0 or 1

8 Bits

1 byte or character

2^10 Bytes

1,000 bytes

1 Kilobyte (KB)

2^20 Bytes

1Million bytes

1 Megabyte (MB)

2^30 Bytes

1Billion bytes

1 Gigabyte (GB)

2^40 Bytes

1Trillion bytes

1 Terabyte (TB)

2^50 Bytes

1Quadrillion bytes

1 Petabyte (PB)

2^60 Bytes

1Quintillion bytes

1 Exabyte (EB)

What are the


operations that a
computer can perform?

How Does A Computer Know


What To Do?

It must be given a detailed list of


instructions, called a computer program
or software, that tells it exactly what to do.
Before processing a specific job, the
computer program corresponding to that
job must be stored in memory.
Once the program is stored in memory the
computer can start the operation by
executing the program instructions one
after the other.

Computer Component
Hardware: The mechanical and electronic
parts that perform the various tasks of the
computer.
Software: The programs that tell the
hardware what tasks are to be done and how.

Hardware vs. Software


The easiest way to tell the difference
between hardware and software is to kick it.
If it hurts your toe, its hardware.
Carl Farrell

Topic 4

COMPUTER HARDWARE

HARDWARE

Hardware Components
Central Processing Unit CPU
Memory and Storage device
Input devices
Display and output devices.
Motherboard

Central Processing Unit


The central processing unit (CPU) contains
electronic circuits that cause processing to
occur. The CPU interprets instructions to the
computer, performs the logical and
arithmetic processing operations, and
causes the input and output operations to
occur. It is considered the brain of the
computer.

CPU Components
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Control Unit

BUS
A bus can be:
Internal Ex: video card & memory
External USB device

2 Types of Memory
Main Memory
Secondary Memory

Main Memory
Read-Only Memory or ROM: Contains basic
instructions of the computer stored permanently
Non-Volatile memory
- PROM & EPROM

Secondary Memory
Random-Access Memory or RAM: In RAM
the computer copies and keeps temporarily the
users programs and data, in part or full, at the
time of execution.
Volatile memory
- Cache RAM

3 Types of Secondary Memory


Magnetic Disk
Magnetic Tape
Optical Discs

Magnetic Disk
Made of mylar or metal
Data can be accessed in any order,
regardless of its order on the surface

Magnetic Tape
Made of plastic material
Stores data sequentially

Optical Disk
Use lase beams to access and store data

Capacity of Secondary Memory


Devices
Devices

Storage Capacity

Memory Stick

16 GB

Hard Disk

2 TB

CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW

800 MB

DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVDRW

4.7 GB or more

Common Storage Devices

Storage Devices
Auxiliary storage devices are used to store
data when they are not being used in
memory. The most common types of
auxiliary storage used on personal
computers are floppy disks, hard disks and
CD-ROM drives

What is the difference


between a DISK and a
DISC?

Storage Devices
Floppy Disks
A floppy disk is a portable,
inexpensive storage
medium that consists of a
thin, circular, flexible plastic
disk with a magnetic coating
enclosed in a squareshaped plastic shell.
can typically store 1.44
megabytes of data.

Storage Devices
CD-ROM Drives
Typically installed on all new computer
systems. (Were add-on device until the
mid 1990s).
Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes
(MB or millions of bytes).
Most mass-produced commercial
software is packaged on a CD.
Used more often now for backup storage
as CD-RW (read/write) technology
Data is read from CD by a laser.
Optical storage device.

Storage Devices
Compact Disk
A compact disk (CD), also
called an optical disc, is a
flat
round,
portable
storage medium that is
usually 4.75 inch in
diameter.
The capacity of a CDROM is 650 MB of data.

Input Devices

Keyboard
Mouse
Trackball
Joysticks
Light pen
Scanners
Digital Camera

Input Devices (contd.)


Voice Recognition
System
Touch Screens
Data Tablet
Bar Code Readers
Optical Character
Readers (OCR)

Input Devices (contd.)


Magnetic Ink
Character
Recognition (MICR)

Optical Mark
Recognition (OMR)

Input Devices
Input devices are use to input data and issue
commands.
Input is all information put into a computer. Input
can be supplied from a variety of sources:
A person
A storage device on computer
Another computer
A peripheral device
Another piece of equipment, such as a musical
instrument or thermometer

Output Devices
Monitor or Display
It is the main output device of a
computer. It displays text as well
as pictures in black and white or
any color.
( Ex: CRT and LCD)
Printer: Another output device
to which the computer can
directly send the data to obtain
hard copy printouts of the
results. (Ex: Dot Matrix Printer,
Bubble or Ink Jet Printer, Laser
Printer

Output Devices (contd.)


Output Devices
Plotters
A plotter is an output
device similar to a
printer, but normally
allows you to print larger
images.

Speakers
Enhances the value of
educational and
presentation products.

Hardware Component
Output Devices
Speech synthesizers
Gives you the ability to
not only to display text
on a monitor but also to
read the text to you

MOTHERBOARD

Motherboard
In personal computer, a motherboard is the
central printed circuit board (PCB) in many
modern computers and holds many of the
crucial components of the system, providing
connectors for other peripherals. The
motherboard is sometimes alternatively known
as the mainboard, system board, or,
on Apple computers, the logic board. It is also
sometimes casually shortened to mobo.

Motherboard Parts
CPU Socket - This holds the CPU or
central processing unit of the computer. A
CPU does most of the heavy lifting and
thinking inside of a computer.
RAM slots - These hold the RAM, or
Random Access Memory. RAM is the
workbench in your computer, holding all of
your open programs for you.

Motherboard Parts
North Bridge - This chip is usually located
right beneath the CPU socket and its usual
functions are to communicate effectively
between the CPU, RAM, Graphics Chips,
and South Bridge on your computer.
South Bridge - This chip handles all the
communication between all the other
input/output devices on your computer (USB
ports, mouse, keyboard, speakers, etc.) and
the North Bridge

Motherboard Parts
PCIe, PCI, AGP and ISA card slots - These
slots are used to expand the capabilities of
your motherboard, from TV tuners for
watching TV to a better sound card for your
7.1 channel surround sound system.
Front Panel pin out - This is usually a group
of 9 pins that connects the power and reset
buttons, and the power and hard drive lights
on the front of your computer to the
motherboard.

Motherboard Parts
USB and audio pin-outs - These connect to
a cable that runs to the front of your
computer so that you can have front facing
USB and audio ports.
Back IO Connector - This is usually where
you plug in most of your stuff on your
computer and usually has your keyboard and
mouse ports, USB ports, Video connector,
audio jacks, network jack, among others.

Motherboard Parts
SATA, IDE, and Floppy connectors These connect up to the main storage
devices on your computer, including your
hard drive, DVD/CD drive, and of course,
the floppy drive on the front of your
computer.
BIOS - This holds the information your
motherboard needs to start itself, and also
keeps track of the current time.