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By Anuradha Gaikwad

BRANDS

RIT

MBA

02-01-2015

BRAND NAME & LOGO

Face of brand word, letter, group of words


or letters that can be vocalised.

Logo unique to the product

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MBA

02-01-2015

A LEGAL INSTRUMENT
A trademark is legal version of a brand.
Can be registered & protected from being
used by others.
AMA defines TRADEMARK A brand that is
given legal protection. (usually represented
by symbol -
Brand can be called trademark only when it
is legally protected.

RIT

MBA

02-01-2015

ADVANTAGES OF BRANDING

Clarifies your position in the marketplace and ensures


sustainability
Validates your organizations mission, core values and
strategic priorities
Builds brand loyalty and enthusiasm among your constituents
Creates a work environment that attracts and retains top talent
Connects your organization with the partners and constituents
who will benefit the most
Operationalizes your strategic plan
Delivers on your brand promise
Aligns your organizations internal culture with your external
reputation, and aligns your organizations verbal identity with
your visual identity
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RIT

MBA

02-01-2015

DISADVANTAGES OF BRANDING

Branding is expensive, and adds costs which


must be borne by the consumer or by the donor. i.e.
value of Coca Cola is largely the value of the brand.
Branding requires long term support, and donors will
not be willing to sustain support.
If social concerns start competing with commercial
firms in marketing they unlevel, the playing field
because they are playing with donor money.
If social products knock commercial firms out of the
market, what happens when the donor support ends
and revenues are not sufficient to maintain the
product in the marketplace?
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MBA

02-01-2015

DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRANDS

Product Brands
Service Brands
E-brands
Media Brands
Not-for-profit Brands
Nation Brands
Government Brands
Global Brands
Organization Brands

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MBA

02-01-2015

PRODUCT BRANDS: FMCG


Characteristics:
Cost Inexpensive.
Balance of product to service
Almost exclusively tangible product, although
service component can be present (eg,
customer-care lines).
How purchased
Mainly through conventional fmcg distribution
networks supermarkets, other shops,
vending machines, relatively large volume
outlets.
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MBA

02-01-2015

PRODUCT BRANDS (FMCG: CONT.)

Frequency of purchase : Frequent.

Degree of research/thought/search prior to


purchase

Typically none, the brand is part of the consumer


repertoire, likely to be habitual.
Degree of customisation
Very little. Often wide range of variants but no real
customisation for individual customers.

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MBA

02-01-2015

PRODUCT BRANDS (BIG TICKET ITEMS)

Characteristics:
Cost Expensive.
Balance of product to service

ROLEX

Service is likely to take on a more


important role, before, during and after
purchase.
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PRODUCT BRANDS (BIG TICKET ITEMS)

How purchased
Traditionally through specialised outlets
(luxury = high status outlets) but increasingly more widely
distributed. Frequency of purchase Infrequent.
Degree of research on purchase
A great deal of thought, research and comparison
goes into the decision, although with luxury goods,
investment is more
emotional than financial.
Degree of customization Can be considerable.

02-01-2015

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SERVICE BRANDS
Service brands are characterized by the need to
maintain a consistently high level o service delivery
throughout hundreds, or even thousands of staff.
Although a product component may be involved, it is
essentially the service that is the brand.
These are more complex than product brands for two
reasons:
because it is always harder to brand something you
cant touch
because they are delivered directly by employees.

02-01-2015

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MBA

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MBA

02-01-2015

SERVICE BRANDS
Characteristics:
Intangibility

Service brands can seldom be tried out in advance,


which requires the establishment of a greater degree of
trust.
Inseparability of production and consumption

Services cannot generally be stockpiled in advance but


are produced and consumed in real time.
Inconsistency
Since humans are usually instrumental in delivering
services.
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DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF
SERVICE BRANDS:

Classic service brands eg, airlines, hotels, car rentals and banks.
Pure service providers eg, member associations
Professional Service Brands
eg, advisors of all kinds accountancy, management consultancy.
Agents eg, travel agents and estate agents.
(This category of a brand has become endangered by the rise of the
Internet.)
Retail brands
eg, supermarkets, fashion stores and restaurants.
Retail Brands are complex and multifaceted.
Consumers have a much more involved and interactive experience
with retail brands. The meanings of retail brands are more heavily
derived from consumers direct experience rather than from
advertising.

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BRANDS FROM OTHER SPHERES

E-brands

The Internet is a medium that presents new challenges for brand


owners, but the underlying principles of branding are unchanged.
The Internet is developing a more direct style of relationships between
customers and brand owners, and all those interactions
give an opportunity for strengthening the brand identity.

A distinction needs to be made between e-tailers,


- e-brands primary activity is to deliver physical products like
Amazon.com
- e-brands focus on delivering a service or experience, like CITEMAN

In both cases, however, it is the intangibles, the brand values that


will attract online customers.

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Media brands
eg, newspapers, magazines, television channels.
Not-for-profit organization brands

Non-profits are often at a disadvantage when it


comes to branding.
they dont have the deep pockets of
corporations who can afford to hire brand
specialists
they dont have staff whose job it is to protect
the integrity of the brand, and promote it at
every turn.
But successful branding can have a great effect
on raising awareness of the charity and its
mission, and on fund-raising

02-01-2015

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Nation brands

New ways of thinking lead to countries being positioned


as tourist destinations, enhancing status of goods and
services produced, and aiding under-developed
countries.
Government brands

Governments and political parties often have strong


brands as they are centerd on passionately held core
values, Branding is important in both securing votes and
in international diplomacy.
Global brands

Companies have been marketing their products and


brands in different countries for decades. However they
were almost always marketed according to local
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02-01-2015

FEATURES OF GLOBAL BRANDS


[QUELCH, 1999]

Strong in home market cash flow generated from domestic


market enables the company to fund a global roll-out
At least minimum level of awareness, recognition and sales all
over the world
The products meet the same human needs world-wide, even
though the physical product may be adapted locally (eg,
McDonalds).
Consistent positioning
Consumers value the provenance of the brand, its country of
origin, and even associate the countrys expertise with
specific products (eg, German cars, American jeans).
Focus on a specific product category
Use single corporate brand name.

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MBA

02-01-2015

ACT LOCAL, THINK GLOBAL


While there are global brands that have a global
presence, they dont have global consumers. The
brands core values can be global, although the
brand needs to have local relevance. To bring it to
life you need to be flexible and re-enact the brand
as appropriate.
It is the think global, act local strategy.
[Gavin Emsden, Nestle UKs head of consumer
insight and planning for beverages]

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