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Ch3 Needs analysis

9710008M Venus
9710009M Carl
2015/1/2

Introduction
• What are “needs”?
Wants, desires, demands, expectation, motivations,
lacks, constraints, and requirements
(Brindley 1984) P54
• What are “needs analysis”?
Procedures for collecting information about learners’
needs
• When did “needs analysis” introduced into
teaching?
1960s; through the ESP movement (P28)
2015/1/2

To help determine if an existing course adequately addresses the needs of potential students 3.The Purpose of needs analysis 1. To find out what language skills a learner needs 2. To determine which students are most in need of training in particular language skills 2015/1/2 .

To collect information about a particular problem learners are experiencing 2015/1/2 .The Purpose of needs analysis 4. To identify a gap between what students are able to do and what they need to be able to do 6. To identify a change of direction that people in a reference group feel is important 5.

employment. 1993) Immediately needs: 1. in order to plan activities and objectives that are realistic and purposeful. political.The Purpose of needs analysis • ‘Needs’ also includes students’ rights ‘It’s school’s responsibility to take into account the cultural. 2. students’ right Not so immediately needs: 1.’ (Linse. consider best for ss 2015/1/2 . compulsory subject 2. and personal characteristics of students ….

potential and unrecognized needs • Needs analysis may take place 1.The Purpose of needs analysis • Needs also includes perceived and present needs. during 3. prior to 2. after a language program 2015/1/2 .

Examples of needs analyses conducted prior to a language program • Method: Staff questionnaire: * background information about the course the lecturer was describing * overview of problems experienced by ESL students * linguistic demands of the course * suggestions to which language skills should be focuses on * modifications made in teaching or in examinations Students questionnaire 2015/1/2 .

but seeks “to enable them to critically examine” and become active in shaping their own role in it. (Auerbach 1995) 2015/1/2 . a linguistic deficiency 2. “It’s not a thing that exists and might be encountered real-made on the street” (Porcher 1977) 3. language needs—need to survive in a English-dominant society • Planning an ESL curriculum involves: identifying ss’ language needs.What are needs? • Needs: 1.

The users of needs analysis Large-scale needs analysis • • • • • • curriculum officers in the ministry of education Teachers Learners Writers Testing personnel Staff of tertiary institutions Small-scale needs analysis • Teacher • Program coordinator 2015/1/2 .

The target population • • • • • • • • • • • Language learners or potential language learners Policy makers Ministry of education officials Teachers Academics Employers Vocational training specialists Parents Influential individuals and pressure groups Academic specialists Community agencies 2015/1/2 .

The target population • Subcategories of respondents students currently enrolled in a foreign language course students previously enrolled but no longer studying a language students who have never studied a foreign language • An important issue in determining the target population: Sampling Sampling involves asking a portion of potential population instead of the total population 2015/1/2 .

Administering the needs analysis • Who will administer the needs analysis. collect and analyze the results? * academic or research assistant * colleagues in different department * students who piloted the questionnaire * academic staff of the university * secretarial support 2015/1/2 .

Procedures for conducting needs analysis • • • • • • • • • Questionnaires Self-ratings Interviews Meetings Observation Collecting learner language samples Task analysis Case studies Analysis of available information 2015/1/2 .

1. Questionnaires a. Two types 。Structured items (limited answers chosen) 。Unstructured items (open-ended answers) c. disadvantages 。superficial or imprecise probably 。need a follow-up to gain more understandings 。many badly designed questionnaires * Advice: to familiar with the principles of good questionnaire design. . advantages 。prepare easily 。make tables to analyze easily b.

a disadvantage 。provide imprecise (impressionistic) information 3. Interviews (face-to-face or telephone) a. might be included as part of a questionnaire c. allowing for a more in-depth exploration of issues b. being useful at the preliminary stage c. Self-ratings a.2. using scales to rate knowledge or abilities b. disadvantages 。take time 。being proper for smaller groups .

a disadvantage 。perform not well while being observed c.4. learners’ behavior in a target situation b. specialized-training observer . allow to collect many information in a short time b. Observation a. disadvantages 。Impressionistic (imprecise information) 。subjective 。more ideas of outspoken members 5. Meetings a.

Task analysis a. achievement tests 。test the abilities in different domains d. written or oral tasks b. performance tests 。test on job-related or task-related 7. simulations or role plays c.6. Collecting learner language samples a. analyze many tasks the learners carry out 。future occupational or educational setting 。Assessment of demands of the task 2015/1/2 .

a single student or a selected group of students 。through a relevant work or educational experience 。in order to determine the characteristics of the situation 9. Analysis of available information a. Case studies a.8. first step in a needs analysis normally 2015/1/2 . various sources of available information 。books 。journal articles 。reports and surveys 。Records and files b.

presentation of project proposal g. contact with others d. Procedures for larger-scale needs analysis: a. collecting. identification of participating departments f. being made on the practical procedures a. interviews with teachers e. development of a pilot student and staff questionnaires 2015/1/2 . organizing. and reporting 2. analyzing. collect the information that will actually be used 3.Designing the needs analysis 1. avoiding information too much a. analysis of a wide range of survey questionnaires c. literature survey b.

tabulation or responses n. selection of staff and student subjects j. piloting of the questionnaires i. writing up of report and recommendations 2015/1/2 . administration of questionnaires l. review of the questionnaires h.g. developing a schedule for collecting data k. follow-up interviews m. analysis of responses o.

ongoing classroom observation f.4. follow-up individual and group interviews c. test 2015/1/2 . initial questionnaire b. meetings with students d. Procedures for smaller-scale needs analysis: a. meetings with other teachers e.

Needing more analysis and research a. bring meaning to the obtained information 2015/1/2 . Making a list a. degree of importance of needs b. more consultation (discussion) needed 4. (1985) remind the goal of analysis a. consisting of information from different sources and summarized in ranking 2. Stufflebeam et al.Making use of the information obtained 1. in order to develop aims and objectives 3. immediate or longer-term c. Some changes needed a.

help with the selection of proper teaching methods e. academics’ view c. employers’ view d. learners’ view b. provide other information used as part of a course 2015/1/2 .5. offer the basis for planning goals and objectives c. provide the basis for evaluation b. The function of the result of needs analysis a. teachers’ view 6. Take various views into account a. assist with developing tests d. provide the basis for developing a syllabus and materials f.

Thank you for listening !! 2015/1/2 .