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TOUCHSCRE

EN
TECHNOLOG
Y
INTRODUCTION TO TOUCHSCREEN
TECHNOLOGY

 A touch screen is an input device that
allows users to operate a computing
device by just touching the display
screen.

 The display screen has a sensitive glass
overlay and used to give the desired
input by touching it.
INTRODUCTION TO
TOUCHSCREEN
TECHNOLOGY

 A touch screen isbased on CRT
(Cathode Ray Tube) technology,
that accepts direct onscreen
input.

 The ability for direct onscreen input
is facilitated by an external (light
pen) or an internal device (touch
overlay)
CONSTRUCTION
REQUIREMENTS:
 To recognize one or more fingers
touching a display.
 To interpret the command that this
represents .
 To communicate the command to the
appropriate application.
TOUCH SENSORS

 A touch screen sensor is a clear glass


panel with a touch responsive surface
which is placed over a display screen
so that the responsive area of the
panel covers the viewable area of the
display screen.
 The sensor generally has an electrical
current or signal going through it and
touching the screen causes a voltage
or signal change. This voltage change
is used to determine the location of
the touch to the screen .
Picture showing a touchscreen
COMMERCIAL
MANUFACTURERS:


 APPLE INC.- iPhone, iPod Touch
 SONY- Sony Walkman X, Sony
Ericsson Aino
 LG- KM900 Arena
 Microsoft-Zune HD

ADVANTAGES:

 User friendly.

 Increases input speed.


 Reduces input errors.



DISADVANTAGES:

 Cause stress on human fingers when


used for more than a few minutes
at a time, since significant pressure
can be required for certain types of
touchscreens.
 Use of finger may result in an
ambiguous point of contact with
the screen.
DISADVANTAGES:


 Suffer from the problem of
fingerprints on the display.

 Presence of sunlight may reduce
the efficiency of some
touchscreens like IR touchscreens.
APPLICATIONS:

 User interactive displays like ATMs.


 Personal digital Assistants(PDAs).
 Satellite navigation devices.
 Mobile phones.
 Video games.
FUTURE TRENDS (soft touchscreen)
A mirror with touchscreen mp3 player
OVERVIEW

vA touchscreen basically comprises of


three things.
Ø Touch overlay on the screen
Ø Controller
Ø Software Driver
1. TOUCH OVERLAY

 It is the sensing portion placed
over the screen for detection and
is transparent covering the
viewable area of the display
screen. The sensing technique
used may vary depending upon
the technology.
2. CONTROLLER

 The controller is actually a


hardware that connects between
the touch sensor and the PC. It
takes information from the touch
sensor and translates it into
information that PC can
understand
3. Software Driver

 The driver is a software that allows


the touch screen and computer to
work together. It tells the
operating system how to
interpret the touch event
information that is sent from the
controller.

TOUCH SCREEN
TECHNOLOGIES
qResistive

qCapacitive

qDispersive Signal (DST)


qAcoustic (SAW)

qInfrared

qOptical

RESISTIVE TOUCHSCREEN

 A resistive touchscreen panel is


composed of several layers, the most
important of which are two thin,
metallic, electrically conductive layers
separated by a narrow gap.

 When an object, such as a finger
presses down on a point on the
panel's outer surface the two metallic
layers become connected at that
point.




 The panel then behaves as a pair of
voltage dividers with connected
outputs. This causes a change in
the electrical current which is
registered as a touch event and
sent to the controller for processing.

 LAYERS OF THE RESISTIVE
TOUCHSCREEN:
1.
2.Polyester Film .
3.Top Resistive Layer.
4.Conductive Transparent Metal
Coating.
5.Bottom Resistive Layer .
6.Insulating Dots .
7.Glass Substrate
ADVANTAGES OF RESISTIVE

TOUCHSCREEN

 Activated by any stylus


 High touch point resolution


 Low power requirements



DISADVANTAGES OF RESISTIVE

TOUCHSCREEN

 Reduced optical clarity



 Polyester surface can be damaged



CAPACITIVE
 A capacitive touchscreen panel
consists of an insulator such as
glass, coated with a transparent
conductor such as indium tinoxide
(ITO)

 Touching the surface of the screen


results in a distortion of the local
electrostatic field, measurable as a
change in capacitance
 Surface capacitance

 Only one side of the insulator is


coated with a conductive layer
small voltage is applied to the layer
 When a conductor, such as a human
finger, touches the uncoated
surface, a capacitor is dynamically
formed
 Location of the touch determined
from the change in the capacitance
as measured from the four corners
of the panel
Disadvantages
 it has no moving parts, it is
moderately durable
 Has limited resolution
 Prone to false signals from
parasitic capacitive
Projected capacitance

 Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT)


technology permits more accurate
and flexible operation by etching
the conductive layer.


 Etching a single layer to form a grid
pattern of electrodes.
Continued…

 Capacitance change at every


individual point on the grid .


 Use of a grid permits a higher
resolution than resistive technology
DISPERSIVE SIGNAL

 this system uses sensors to detect


the mechanical energy in the glass
that occurs due to a touch.

 Complex algorithms then interpret
this information and provide the
actual location of the touch.
Mechanical waves created with touch
Advantages

 No need for additional elements on


screen


 Provide excellent optical clarity ,
since mechanical vibrations are
used

 Any object can be used to generate
these events, including fingers and
Continued...

 Touch unaffected by surface


contaminants, such as dirt, dust..

 Operation unaffected by surface
damage.
Disadvantages

 More expensive to integrate.





 Only available for displays

ACOUSTIC(SAW)

 Surface acoustic wave (SAW)


technology uses ultrasonic waves
that pass over the touchscreen
panel.

 Transducers mounted at the edge of a
glass overlay to emit ultrasonic
sound waves along two sides

 Waves are reflected across the
surface of the glass and received by
sensors.

 A finger or stylus absorbs some of the
acoustic energy and the controller
measures the amplitude change of
the wave to determine touch
location.
Acoustic wave touch overlay
Advantages

 Good optical clarity



 Z-axis capability

 Durable glass front



Disadvantages

 Requires finger or sound absorbing


stylus .

 Signal affected by surface liquids or
other contaminants.

 Difficult to industrialize.
INFRARED

 optical-touch systems use an array of


infrared (IR) LEDs on two adjacent
edges of a display with
photosensors placed on the two
opposite edges.
 The LED and photosensor pairs create
a grid of light beams across the
display.
 An object (such as a finger ) that
touches the screen interrupts the
light beams, causing a decrease in
light at the corresponding
Infrared touch overlay
Disadvantages

 The relatively high cost of the


technology compared to competing
touch technologies .


 Issue of performance in bright
ambient light .
ADVANCEMENTS IN
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
1. STRAIN GAUGE CONFIGURATION-
 Also called Force panel technology

 WORKING PRINCIPLE:

 The screen is spring-mounted on the


four corners and strain gauges are
used to determine deflection when
the screen is touched.
CONTD………

 It can also measure the Z-axis and


the force of a person's touch.
 APPLICATIONS:

 used in exposed public systems such


as ticket machines due to their
resistance to damages.
ADVANCEMENTS IN
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
 2. OPTICAL IMAGING:
 WORKING PRINCIPLE:
 Two or more image sensors are
placed around the edges (mostly
the corners) of the screen.
 Infrared backlights are placed in the
camera's field of view on the other
sides of the screen.

 A touch shows up as a shadow and
each pair of cameras can then be
triangulated to locate the touch or
even measure the size of the
touching object.
 APPLICATIONS:

 This technology is growing in


popularity, due to its scalability,
versatility, and affordability,
especially for larger industrial units.
ADVANCEMENTS IN
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
 3. DISPERSIVE SIGNAL TECHNOLOGY:
 WORKING PRINCIPLE:

 This system uses sensors to detect


the mechanical energy in the glass
that occurs due to a touch.
 Complex algorithms then interpret
this information and provide the
actual location of the touch.
 ADVANTAGES:
 The technology claims to be unaffected
by dust and other outside elements,
including scratches.
 Since there is no need for additional
elements on screen, it also claims to
provide excellent optical clarity.
 Also, since mechanical vibrations are
used to detect a touch event, any
object can be used to generate these
events, including fingers and stylus.
CONTD………

DISADVANTAGES:

 After the initial touch the system


cannot detect a motionless finger.
ADVANCEMENTS IN
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
 4. ACOUSTIC PULSE RECOGNITION:
 It uses more than two piezoelectric
transducers located at some
positions of the screen to turn the
mechanical energy of a touch
(vibration) into an electronic signal.
 The screen hardware then uses an
algorithm to determine the location
of the touch based on the
transducer signals.
 ADVANTAGES:
 The touchscreen itself is made of
ordinary glass, giving it good
durability and optical clarity.
 It is usually able to function with
scratches and dust on the screen
with good accuracy.
CONTD……….

 The technology is also well suited to


displays that are physically larger.
 The touch recognition is not disrupted
by any resting objects.
COMPARISON OF
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOL RESISTIV SAW IR CAPACITI
OGY E VE

DURABILI 5 Yr. 5 Yr. 3 Yr. 2 Yr.


TY

STABILITY HIGH HIGHE HIGH OK


R

TRANSPARENCY OK GOOD GOOD OK


COMPARISON OF
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLO RESISTI SAW IR CAPACITI
GY VE VE
TOUCH Anything Finger/ Anythin Conductive
Pen g

INTENSE Good Good Good Bad


LIGHT-
RESISTANT
COMPARISON OF
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLO RESISTI SAW IR CAPACITI
GY VE VE

RESPONSE <10ms 10ms <20ms <15ms


TIME
COMPARISON OF
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLO RESISTIV SAW IR CAPACITI
GY E VE
MONITOR CRT CRT CRT or
LCD
CRT or LCD
OPTION

WATERPR Good Ok Ok Good


OOF