TOUCHSCRE EN TECHNOLOG Y

INTRODUCTION TO TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
  A touch screen is an input device that

allows users to operate a computing device by just touching the display screen.

  The display screen has a sensitive glass

overlay and used to give the desired input by touching it.

INTRODUCTION TO TOUCHSCREEN  TECHNOLOGY
 A touch screen is

based on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) technology, that accepts direct onscreen input.

  The ability for direct onscreen input

is facilitated by an external (light pen) or an internal device (touch overlay)

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS:
 To recognize one or more fingers

touching a display.  To interpret the command that this represents .  To communicate the command to the appropriate application.

TOUCH SENSORS
 A touch screen sensor is a clear glass

panel with a touch responsive surface which is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the display screen.  The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen .

Picture showing a touchscreen

COMMERCIAL MANUFACTURERS:
   APPLE INC.- iPhone, iPod Touch  SONY- Sony Walkman X, Sony

Ericsson Aino  LG- KM900 Arena  Microsoft-Zune HD

ADVANTAGES:
 User friendly.

 Increases input speed.

 Reduces input errors. 

DISADVANTAGES:
 Cause stress on human fingers when

used for more than a few minutes at a time, since significant pressure can be required for certain types of touchscreens.  Use of finger may result in an ambiguous point of contact with the screen.

DISADVANTAGES:
  Suffer from the problem of

fingerprints on the display.
  Presence of sunlight may reduce

the efficiency of some touchscreens like IR touchscreens.

APPLICATIONS:
    

User interactive displays like ATMs. Personal digital Assistants(PDAs). Satellite navigation devices. Mobile phones. Video games.

FUTURE TRENDS (soft touchscreen)

A mirror with touchscreen mp3 player

OVERVIEW
vA touchscreen basically comprises of three things. Ø Touch overlay on the screen Ø Controller Ø Software Driver

1. TOUCH OVERLAY
  It is the sensing portion placed

over the screen for detection and is transparent covering the viewable area of the display screen. The sensing technique used may vary depending upon the technology.

2. CONTROLLER
 The

controller is actually a hardware that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand

3. Software Driver
 The driver is a software that allows

the touch screen and computer to work together. It tells the operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller.

TOUCH SCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
qResistive qCapacitive qDispersive Signal (DST)

qAcoustic (SAW)

qInfrared

qOptical

RESISTIVE TOUCHSCREEN
 A

resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers, the most important of which are two thin, metallic, electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. an object, such as a finger presses down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point.


 When

    The panel then behaves as a pair of

voltage dividers with connected outputs. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing.

LAYERS OF THE RESISTIVE TOUCHSCREEN: 1. 2.Polyester Film . 3.Top Resistive Layer. 4.Conductive Transparent Metal Coating. 5.Bottom Resistive Layer . 6.Insulating Dots . 7.Glass Substrate

ADVANTAGES OF RESISTIVE TOUCHSCREEN
 Activated by any stylus

 High touch point resolution

 Low power requirements
  

DISADVANTAGES OF RESISTIVE TOUCHSCREEN
 Reduced optical clarity 

 Polyester surface can be damaged

CAPACITIVE
 A

capacitive touchscreen panel consists of an insulator such as glass, coated with a transparent conductor such as indium tinoxide (ITO)

 Touching the surface of the screen

results in a distortion of the local electrostatic field, measurable as a change in capacitance


Surface capacitance
 Only one side of the insulator is

coated with a conductive layer small voltage is applied to the layer  When a conductor, such as a human finger, touches the uncoated surface, a capacitor is dynamically formed  Location of the touch determined from the change in the capacitance as measured from the four corners of the panel

Disadvantages

 it has no moving parts, it is

moderately durable  Has limited resolution  Prone to false signals from parasitic capacitive

Projected capacitance
 Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT)

technology permits more accurate and flexible operation by etching the conductive layer.

  Etching a single layer to form a grid

pattern of electrodes.

Continued…
 Capacitance change at every

individual point on the grid .
   Use of a grid permits a higher

resolution than resistive technology

DISPERSIVE SIGNAL
 this system uses sensors to detect

the mechanical energy in the glass that occurs due to a touch.
  Complex algorithms then interpret

this information and provide the actual location of the touch.

Mechanical waves created with touch

Advantages
 No need for additional elements on screen    Provide excellent optical clarity , since mechanical vibrations are used   Any object can be used to generate these events, including fingers and

Continued...
 Touch unaffected by surface

contaminants, such as dirt, dust..
  Operation unaffected by surface

damage.

Disadvantages
 More expensive to integrate.     Only available for displays

ACOUSTIC(SAW)
 Surface

acoustic wave (SAW) technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel.

  Transducers mounted at the edge of a

glass overlay to emit ultrasonic sound waves along two sides

 Waves

are reflected across the surface of the glass and received by sensors.

  A finger or stylus absorbs some of the

acoustic energy and the controller measures the amplitude change of the wave to determine touch location.

Acoustic wave touch overlay

Advantages
 Good optical clarity   Z-axis capability

 Durable glass front 

Disadvantages
 Requires finger or sound absorbing

stylus .
  Signal affected by surface liquids or

other contaminants.
  Difficult to industrialize.

INFRARED
 optical-touch systems use an array of

infrared (IR) LEDs on two adjacent edges of a display with photosensors placed on the two opposite edges.  The LED and photosensor pairs create a grid of light beams across the display.  An object (such as a finger ) that touches the screen interrupts the light beams, causing a decrease in light at the corresponding

Infrared touch overlay

Disadvantages
 The relatively high cost of the

technology compared to competing touch technologies .

  Issue of performance in bright

ambient light .

ADVANCEMENTS IN TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
1. STRAIN GAUGE CONFIGURATION Also called Force panel technology  WORKING PRINCIPLE:  The screen is spring-mounted on the four corners and strain gauges are used to determine deflection when the screen is touched.

CONTD………
 It can also measure the Z-axis and

the force of a person's touch.  APPLICATIONS:  used in exposed public systems such as ticket machines due to their resistance to damages.

ADVANCEMENTS IN TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
2. OPTICAL IMAGING:  WORKING PRINCIPLE:  Two or more image sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen.  Infrared backlights are placed in the camera's field of view on the other sides of the screen.
 

 A touch shows up as a shadow and

each pair of cameras can then be triangulated to locate the touch or even measure the size of the touching object.  APPLICATIONS:  This technology is growing in popularity, due to its scalability, versatility, and affordability, especially for larger industrial units.

ADVANCEMENTS IN TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
3. DISPERSIVE SIGNAL TECHNOLOGY:  WORKING PRINCIPLE:  This system uses sensors to detect the mechanical energy in the glass that occurs due to a touch.  Complex algorithms then interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch.

ADVANTAGES:  The technology claims to be unaffected by dust and other outside elements, including scratches.  Since there is no need for additional elements on screen, it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity.  Also, since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch event, any object can be used to generate these events, including fingers and stylus.

CONTD………

DISADVANTAGES:  After the initial touch the system cannot detect a motionless finger.

ADVANCEMENTS IN TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY

4. ACOUSTIC PULSE RECOGNITION:  It uses more than two piezoelectric transducers located at some positions of the screen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch (vibration) into an electronic signal.  The screen hardware then uses an algorithm to determine the location of the touch based on the transducer signals.

ADVANTAGES:  The touchscreen itself is made of ordinary glass, giving it good durability and optical clarity.  It is usually able to function with scratches and dust on the screen with good accuracy.

CONTD……….
 The technology is also well suited to

displays that are physically larger.  The touch recognition is not disrupted by any resting objects.

COMPARISON OF TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOL RESISTIV SAW OGY E DURABILI 5 Yr. TY STABILITY HIGH 5 Yr. IR CAPACITI VE 3 Yr. 2 Yr.

HIGHE HIGH OK R GOOD GOOD OK

TRANSPARENCY OK

COMPARISON OF TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLO RESISTI SAW GY VE TOUCH IR CAPACITI VE Anything Finger/ Anythin Conductive Pen g
Good Good Good

INTENSE LIGHTRESISTANT

Bad

COMPARISON OF TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLO RESISTI SAW GY VE RESPONSE <10ms TIME 10ms IR <20ms CAPACITI VE <15ms

COMPARISON OF TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLO RESISTIV SAW GY E CRT MONITOR CRT OPTION IR
CRT or LCD

CAPACITI VE
CRT or LCD

WATERPR Good OOF

Ok

Ok

Good

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