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K.V.N & RAJ

WHAT IS THE FINAL CONTROL


ELEMENT?
THE CORRECT DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL OF
FLOWING LIQUIDS OR
GASES FOR THE EXCHANGE OF ENERGY OR
REDUCTION OF PRESSURE OR
SIMPLY TO FILL A TANK
DEPENDS ON SOME FORM OF FINAL CONTROL
ELEMENT .
THE ONE WHICH ISTHE MOST WIDELY USED IS

K.V.N & RAJ

DIFF. PRES

AREA
SPRING RATE

STEM
TRAVEL

VARIABLE AIR PRESSURE IS APPLIDE TO A FLEXIBLE


DIAPHRAGM TO OPPOSE A SPRING. THE COMBINATION OF
DIAPHRAGM AND SPRING FORCES ACTS TO BALANCE THE
FLUID FORCES ON THE VALVE
OR
IN SPRING AND DIAPHRAGM ACTUATORES STEM
POSITIONING IS ACHIEVED BY A BALANCE OF FORCES
ACTING ON THE STEM . THESE FORCES ARE DUE TO
PRESSURE ON THE DIAPHRAGM, SPRING, TRAVEL AND
FLUID FORCES ON THE VALVE PLUG.
THE FOLLOWING EQUATION CAN BE DERIVED FROM A
SUMMATION OF FORCES ON THE VALVE PLUGS ADOPTING
THE POSITIVE DIRECTION ,DOWNWARD . (STADY STATE
EQUATION) PA - KX - PV AV = 0

PRES.
DROP.
AV
PV
EFFECTIVE INTRANAL
VALVE AREA

EQUATION APPLIES TO A PUSHDOWN TO CLOSE


ACTUATOR AND VALVE COMBINATION WITH FLOW UNDER
THE PLUG.
- PA + KX + PV AV = 0
K.V.N & RAJ

1.body
2.yoke
3.actuator
K.V.N & RAJ

AN ASSEMBLY OF A BODY,
BONNET ASSEMBLY,BOTTOM

FLANGE AND TRIM ELEMENTS.


THE TRIM INCLUDES A VALVE PLUG
WHICH OPENS, SHUTS OR PARTIALLY
OBSTRUCTS ONE OR MORE PORTS.
K.V.N & RAJ

A STRUCTURE BY WHICH
THE

DIAPHRAGM CASE

ASSEMBLY IS SUPPORTED
RIGIDLY ON THE
BONNET ASSEMBLY.

K.V.N & RAJ

AN ASSEMBLY UTILIZING
AIR PRESSURE ACTING
ON A DIAPHRAGM TO
DEVELOP A FORCE TO
MOVE THE ACTUATOR
STEM.
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GLAND
PACKING

BODY FLANGE
STEM WITH
PLUG

INLET

OUTLET
SEAT
K.V.N & RAJ

TRIM IS THE HEART OF THE VALVE WITH A PRIMARY FUNCTION TO


PROPORTION THE VALVE ORIFICE OR IN SUCH A MANNER THAT A
PRESCRIBED RELATIONSHIP EXISTS BETWEEN FLOW CAPACITY AND
VALVE PLUG LIFT.
THE SECONDARY FUNCTION MAY BE TO SHUT OFF TIGHTLY.
THE TRIM OF A VALVE CONSISTS OF ALL THE PARTS WHICH WILL BE
WETTED OTHER THAN THE BODY AND THE BONNET.
THUS , TRIM INCLUDES THE SEAT AND PLUG , THE STEM ,THE
GLAND FOLLOWER , GLAND NUT,PLUG GUIDE,BUSHINGS AND
CAGES.

STUFFING BOX COMPONENTS CONSIDERED AS TRIM ARE THE


PACKING FOLLOWER ,SPRING ,LANTERN RING, AND PACKING
RETAING RING.
SECONDARY TRIM PARTS ARE STEM TO PLUG ATTATCHMENTS ,SEAT
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RETAING RINGS ,SEAT TO BODY SEALS,SPACERS.

THE PLUG IS THE MOVING COMPONENT OF THE VALVE WHICH

THROTTLES FLOW BY POSITIONING ITSELF WITHIN THE SEAT ORFICE


AND SHUTS OFF FLOW BY CONTACTING THE SEAT.

THE PLUG IS MOVED AGAINST DYNAMIC FLUID FLOW FORCES BY

STEM FORCE TRANSMITTED FROM THE ACTUATOR.

THROTTLING MAY BE DONE BY CONTOURED OR v PORT PLUG OR

SHAPED OPENING IN A CLOSE FITTING CAGE GUIDE.

THE PLUGS (OR CAGE SLOTS) ARE SHAPED TO THROTTLE FLOW

WITH GIVEN CHARACTERSTICS SUCH AS QUICK OPENING, LINEAR,


PARABOLIC OR EQUAL PERCENTAGE .
K.V.N & RAJ

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K.V.N & RAJ

VENT
DIAPHRAGM

PLATE

DIAPHRAGM
CASINGS

DIAPHRAGM
INPUT SIGNAL

ACTUATOR

SPRING
ACTUATOR STEM
SPRING SEAT

SPRING ADJUSTER

YOKE
STEM CONNECTOR
INDICATOR
GLAND STUDS

STUFFING BOX

INDTR. SCALE

LOCK NUT
BONET FLANGE

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K.V.N & RAJ

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LIMITING SCREW FOR


THE closed POSITION

SIGNAL PORT

PISTON ROD
CYLINDER

SIGNAL PORT
BALL STEM

LIMITING SCREW
FOR THE open
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POSITION

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GLOBE VALVE
BALL VALVE
CAGE VALVE
ANGLE VALVE

BUTTERFLY VALVE
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BALL VALVE
ITS INITIAL APPLICATION PRIMARILY IN PULPE AND
PAPER INDUSTRY , WHERE STRAIGHT THROUGH
FLOW PATH , TIGH SHUT OFF CAPABILITY AND
EASE OF OPERATION .

ALSO MOST SUITABLE FOR HANDLING OF SLURRIES


BECAUSE IT MINIMISES THE TENDENCY OF THE
METERIALS EITHER SETTLE OR STAIN .

IT HAS BEEN ACCEPTED WHERE TIGHT SHUT OFF IS A


NECESSITY OR ITS HIGH FLOW CAPACITY..
K.V.N & RAJ

K.V.N & RAJ

GLOBE VALVE
THE MOST COMMON CONTROL VALVE BODY STYLE IS IN
THE FORM OF GLOBE,AND SIMILAR IN APPEARANCE TO
A HAND VALVE. IT CAN BE EITHER SINGLE SEATED OR
DOUBLE SEATED
SINGLE SEATED USUALLY EMPLOYED WHEN THIGHT
SHUT -OFF IS REQUIRED.
IN DOUBLE SEATED THE TOP AND BOTTOM GUIDED
CONSTRUCTION, THE STROKE CAN BE REVERSE BY
SIMPLY INVERTING THE VALVE BODY.

K.V.N & RAJ

The butterfly valve, generally in sizes 4and above,


offers the advantages of simplicity, low cost, light
weight,and space saving, in combination with good
flow-control characteristics.
Because of the simple body design, elastomer
inserts can be easily adapted to give tight shut-off
with in the temperature limits of the insert material..

The most common body design is the flange


less WAFER type for bolting between line flanges
(sandwich model).
K.V.N & RAJ

The most common type of rotary valve used for control


is the BUTTERFLY valve.the typical application range is in
sizes from 2 through 36 or larger,for low or moderate
pressures,or on unusual applications involving large
flows at high static pressures ,but with limited pressure
drop.The typical valve, on throttling service, is limited to
60 deg.
In all metal construction, the vane to body clearance
in the closed position gives a leakage flow that is
generally equivalent to the leakage of double seated
valves.
K.V.N & RAJ

The hallow cylindrical trim element i.e guide to align the


moment of a valve plug with a seat ring and also retains
the seat ring in the valve body.

Often in cage valves the cage contains openings

which determines the flow characteristics of the control


valve.

Top entry or cage valves have the advantages of easy


trim removal.

Valves of this type usually have steam lined body


passages to permit increased flow capacity.

The inner valve parts, often referred to asQUICK

CHANGE TRIM can easily be removed , after removing


the bonnet, because of options of internal threads.
K.V.N & RAJ

The valve plug can also be made as the piston


having hallow internal passage that permits the fluid
pressure both sides of the plug.

A sliding seal located in a grove near the top of the


piston, seals the upper plug area against the outlet
portion of the valve.

This balanced design tends to cancel out the

hydrostatic forces acting on the plug and leads to great


reduction in the required actuated forces.

THIS valve is stem guided only which is an advantage


for slurry applications.

K.V.N & RAJ

Angle body valves are recommended


for fluids which trend to evaporate or
containing suspended solid particles or for
high viscosity liquids.
Cavitation is reduced to their particular
shape, formation of deposits prevented.
These valves are with stand so that fluid
enters the lower end while o/l each at
side; as flow tends open valve slamming
of plug when valves closes is prevented
and maximum flow rate ensured.
These valves will be supplied with
linear (PL) or equal percentage plug
(EQP) and specified prolonged guide
bushing.
K.V.N & RAJ

The Diaphragm valves are highly used for water and corrosive fluids.

Drop tight shutoff is possible with a 50psi d.p for large valves.
The valve design is both abrasive resistant and non clogging
There is no packing for these type of valves and hence min leakage

The metal bonnet offers a pressure retaining backup in case of the


diaphragm rupture.
They can be serviced while still being in line .
Two diaphragm valve design are available.
The wier type with a raised bridge valve and the straight way type
where the diaphragm projects into approximately the full pipe bore.
K.V.N & RAJ

STEM WITH
PLUG
GLAND
PACKING

INLET

BODY FLANGE

OUTLET
SEAT
K.V.N & RAJ

K.V.N & RAJ

3-WAY Control valves


The three-way control valves
used for mixing services, consist
of a valve body, a flanged fitting
which replaces the bottom flange

and houses the lower seat.


These valves are provided
with a double plug acting on both
seats fir mixing applications with
two inlets and one outlet.
K.V.N & RAJ

Inner valves in the double seated


valves are almost always capable of
overcoming large unbalanced
forces created by fluid pressure.
Thus double seated valves does
not normally require the fitting of
oversized top work.

This is specially true in the case


of liquids and is the case of large
pressure differentials, when the
dynamic unbalance forced by for
exceed the static forces

Unlike the single seated valve,


these valves are not suitable when
good tightness with valve in closed
position is essential. Sometimes for
It should be remembered that
temperatures upto 180 deg c and
whilst unbalanced forces are small for certain pressure differentials,
when valve is closed and are due to disks of Teflon or other synthetic
materials may be fitted on plugs
slight difference in diameter
inorder to ensure perfect tightness
unbalance forces occur when valve of valve.
is opened.
K.V.N & RAJ

1
MIL 22000
HAND OPERATED SINGLE
SEATED FORGED BODY
CONTROL VALVE
RANGES 0.5 - 1.5
RATING ANSI CLASS 150 #
TO 2500 #

3
SPECIAL VALVES
PNEUMATICALLY
OPERATED VALVES FOR
NUCLEAR APPLICATION.

2
MIL-25000 VALVE
ENGINEERED STREAM
LINED SINGLE SEATED
CONTRIO VALVE SIZE 1
ANSI CLASS 600
K.V.N & RAJ

K.V.N & RAJ

MIL78000
ANTICAVITATION
&NOISE MULTI STAGE
VALVE
SIZES 1TO 8
RATING ANSI 600 # 25000#

6
5
MIL 41000
HEAVY DUTYBALANCED
CAGE GUIDED GLOBE
VALVE
SIZES 1.5 TO 20
RATING ANSI 150#2500#

MIL 70000
SINGLE PORTED TOP
GUIDED ANGLE VALVESIZE
0.5 TO 10 RATING ANSI
150# 2500#

Control valve noise is a result of the turbulence introduced into the flow stream
in producing the permanent head loss required to fulfill the basic function of the
valve. Also it can be defined as unwanted sound or as a sound without value.

Sources of valve noise:- Basically there are three; Mechanical


vibration,Cavitation and Aerodynamic.

Mechanical vibration is caused by turbulence, pressure oscillations or


unsteady flow forces generated by velocity and /or large mass flows. It can be
eliminated by changing the plug type. The change in mass and spring rate shifts
the resonant frequency out of the excitation range.

Cavitation noise is a function of the severity level of cavitation. It


increases with pressure drop and flow to some maximum level and then decreases
to a lower magnitude.This decrease is due to the reduction in downstream pressure
recovery to a level near the fluid vapor pressure which results in reduced collapse
of bubbles or cavitation.
K.V.N & RAJ

There are number of ways to reduction or eliminate the


cavitation.
Among these are
Fishers cavitrol I and III,
Hammel-Dahls Flash-Flo,
YarwaysTurbo-cascade,
Copes and Masoneilans step trim
designs,
Valteks dragon Tooth and
control Components Self Drag.
K.V.N & RAJ

Aerodynamic noise is basically caused by turbulent fluid interacting


with laminar fluid in the mixing region or shock waves due to high
velocity and / or mass flow of gas .

This can be eliminated by multi-path flow geometry in various cage


type designs.
The second type of design uses a a labyrinth step leg with a
Christmas tree shape to provide volume extension with pressure drop.
The third one uses multiple short friction passages on a metal plate.

The fourth one uses multiple concentric grooves on a metal disc look
like V - shaped teeth and intermesh closely with the teeth and adjacent
disc.
K.V.N & RAJ

K.V.N & RAJ

1.BODY

7.GLAND BRIDGE

2.BONET

8. GLANDFOLLOWER

3.PLUNGER

9.BONET GASKET

4.CAGE

10.GLAND WASHER

5.SEAT

11.YOKE NUT

6.GLAND BRIDGE

12.GLAND STUD

13. GLAND NUT


14.BONET STUD
15.BONE TNUT
16.GLAND PACKING
17.SPIRAL PIN
20.TRIM
21.TRIM SPACER

DISCUSSION OF BENCH SET

THE BENCH SET PRESSURE IS USED TO ADJUST THE INTIAL


COMPARISION OF THE ACTUATOR SPRING WITH THE VALVE ACTUATOR
ASSEMBLY ON THE BENCH.

THE CORRECT INITIAL COMPARISION ENSURES THAT THE


ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY WILL FUNCTION PROPERLY WHEN IT IS PUT INTO
SERVICE AND THE PROPER ACTUATOR DIAPHRAGM OPERATING
PRESSURE IS APPLIED.

THE BENCH SET RANGE IS ESTABLISHED WITH THE ASSUMPTION


THAT THERE IS NO PACKING FRICTION. WHEN ATTEMPTING TO ADJUST
THE SPRING IN THE FIELD, IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO ENSURE THAT THERE
IS NO FRICTION BEING APPLIED LOOSE PACKING.

ACCURATE ADJUSTMENT TO THE BENCH SET RANGE CAN BE


MADE DURING THE ACTUATOR MOUNTING PROCESS BY MAKING THE
ADJUSTMENT BEFORE THE ACTUATOR IS CONNECTED TO THE VALVE.
K.V.N & RAJ

1
2

K.V.N & RAJ

K.V.N & RAJ

TAG NO:SERIAL NO :VENDOR:ISSUIED ON :REPAIR REQIREMENTS :-

BODY SIZE:SERVICE:LINE PRESS. :FINISHED ON :-

WORK DONE :-

MATERIALS USED :-

K.V.N & RAJ

A PROPER EVALUATION OF FLOWING CONDITIONS, THE REQUIRED VALUE


FL0W COEFFICIENT CV CAN BE DETERMINED.
BY DEFINITION,THIS FLOW COEFFICIENT IS THE NUMBER OF GALLONS /
MIN OF WATER WHICH WILL PASS THROUGH ANY FLOW RESTRICTION WITH A
PRESSURE DROP 1 PSI.
FOR EXAMPLE, A CONTROL VALVE WITH A MAX FLOW COEFFICIENT CV OF
12 HAS AN EFFECTIVE PORT AREA IN THE FULL OPEN POSITION SUCH THAT IT
PASSES 12 GALLONS / MIN OF WATER WITH A 1 PSI DROP.

THE BASIC VALVE CAPACITY PERIMITS C.V IS DEFINED AS

CV = Q / (

P)1/2

Q = CV (

P/G )1/2

Q = CAPCITY IN GALLONS / MINUTE


P = PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL IN PSI

G = SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FLUID


K.V.N & RAJ

FAIL SAFE CONDITIONS


FAIL SAFE ACTIONS DEFINED AS THE POSITION THE VALVE WILL
ASSUME, THAT IS , OPEN OR CLOSE UPON FAILURE OF THE INPUT
POWER TO THE VALVE ACTUATOR
THE VALVE TO REMAIN OPEN TO CONTINUE THE FLOW AND
RELIEVE PRESSURE BUT AT THE MAXIMUM FLOW RATE
OR
IF THE VALVE MUST CLOSE ,TO PREVENT LOSS OF FLUID ,
OR
TO PREVENT EXCESSIVE FLOW

OTHERS MAY REQUIRE THE VALVE TO REMAIN IN ITS LAST


TROTTLING POSITION AND THE CONTROL OF THE PROCESS
MAY BE HANDLE MANUALLY
K.V.N & RAJ

BIBLIOGRAPHY

K.V.N & RAJ

FLOW TO OPEN / CLOSE

K.V.N & RAJ

ANOTHER FACTOR WHICH MUST BE CONSIDERED IS THE EFFECT OF


FLUID FORCES ACTING ON THE VALVE STEM PLUG ASSEMBLY AND
THEIR RELATON , TO THE AVAILABLE ACTUATOR POWER IN THE
FORM OF SPRING THRUST
GL0BE VALVES WITH FLOW UNDER THE PLUG ARE SUBJECT TO AN
OPENING THRUST FROM THE BUILD UP OF LINE PRESSURE. THE
ACTUATOR SPRING FOR AIR TO OPEN VALVE MUST BE
SUFFICIENT TO OVER COME THESE FORCES.
FLOW IS OVER THE PLUG ,THE BUILD OF THESE FORCES TENDS TO

MAINTAIN THE PLUG IN CLOSED POSITION.IF A VALVE MUST FAIL OPEN


THEN THE SPRING FORCE OF THE ACTUATOR FOR FAIL SAFE ACTION
MUST BE ABLE TO OVER COME THIS D.P LOADING ON THE CLOSED
PLUG.

K.V.N & RAJ

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K.V.N & RAJ

K.V.N & RAJ