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One of the most important variable of the fluid is velocity .

position of a fluid particle is given by the vector position.

is a function of time ( if the particle is in motion) . The time

derivative of position gives the speed of particles

= . Calculating

the speed ( x, y, z, t ) of all particles gives the velocity field.

There are two basic methods for describing the flow. In the first,
Euler's method, is observed a fixed area, called control volume ,
i.e. analyzing the situation in the fixed points of area .

The second , Lagrange's method follows the motion of individual

particles and analyze how the characteristics of fluids related to the
particle, are changing as a function of time.

As an illustration of the differences between these two methods can

be used an example in biology, ornithological observing the migration
of birds. Euler method would require setting up observation stations
and measuring the number of birds fly over at a given time, while the
Lagrange's method meant placing radio transmitters on some birds
and tracking their movements.
Generally, in fluid mechanics is used Euler method description flow ,
while the Lagrange's method is used in particular cases . An
important fact is that the basic laws of physics are defined for
particles, and they should be for the purposes of fluid mechanics
converted into the corresponding field description (condition,
distribution) certain physical quantities in space ( part of space volume control ).

Material particles, material volume and control volume

The simplest form of universal physical laws relate to the material
particle that is so small (infinitesimal small), that the velocity v,
density and other immanent properties are uniform inside it.

The basic conservation laws for material particle can be expressed:

- The law of conservation of mass:

The law of conservation of mass, or principle of mass conservation,

states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter
and energy (both of which have mass), the mass of the system must
remain constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if
it is not added or removed. Hence, the quantity of mass is
"conserved" over time. The law implies that mass can neither be
created nor destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space, or
the entities associated with it may be changed in form.

- The law of conservation of momentum:

The law of momentum conservation can be stated as follows. For a

collision occurring between object 1 and object 2 in an isolated
system, the total momentum of the two objects before the collision is
equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision.
- The law of conservation of angular momentum:

The law of conservation of angular momentum states that when no

external torque acts on an object or a closed system of objects, no
change of angular momentum can occur.

- The law of conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics):

= +

where e is the total energy ( kinetic + internal potential ) per unit

mass , W work done on the border of material particles and heat
Q brought material particle on its border.

The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an

isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one
form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. The first law
is often formulated by stating that the change in the internal
energy of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat supplied to
the system, minus the amount of work done by the system on its

In the previous given expressions for conservation, indicates

infinitesimally small size, while d/dt refers to time derivative .
It is necessary to clarify that the concept of the law of
conservation is indeed the preservation of quantity just in case of
the law of conservation of mass, while for the other three laws it is
more appropriate to term them as equilibrium law. A term, the law of
conservation is still being used by pointing to certain analogy to the
law of conservation of mass .
In fluid dynamics as a continuum, it is necessary to generalise the
laws of conservation of the material particles on material volume .
Physical volume is the system of an infinite number of infinitely
small of particles and always ( at each point in time ) consists of the
same particles .

The law of conservation of

mass, expressed in the material
volume is:

The law of conservation of

angular momentum is:

The law of conservation

of momentum is:

The law of conservation of

energy (i.e. the first law of

= +

Explanation of the material derivatives

Material derivatives also referred as substantial, individual or full

derivation. Operator

= + ( . )

is the operator of the material derivative . Application of material
derivative on a scalar of size gives

+ ( . )

+ ( . )

The first member on the right side /t represents the rate of

change of the quantity at a given point in space and is called local
derivation. The second member of the right side ( ) represents
change of quantity due to movement of the particles in space and is
called the convection (advection) derivative . In a certain sense
material derivative D/dt indicates a time-based change felt by an
observer who moves together with fluid (fluid particle) , while /t
indicates the change that an observer would feel if he is stationary
within control volume .
In the Cartesian coordinate system material derivate can be written


In all four previous terms of the conservation of the material volume

we used forms

where represents a quantity per unit volume (mass, momentum,

angular momentum, energy ) which is the first integrated by the
material volume MV and then the result derived on material
derivative D/Dt by time . When fluid flow, the material volume moves
and deforms and with it the material surface that is unknown
function in time, until the problem itself has not been resolved .
Since the form of the material volume is unsuitable for use in
engineering, there is a need to define the system where conservation
laws can be applied. Therefore, we define the notion of control

The relationship between material and control volume

Control volume ( CV ) is arbitrary,
theoretically defined volume limited
by control surface (CS) which defines
the dynamic and thermodynamic
effects of fluid. Through control
volume over time, is passing different
material volumes. The control surface
encloses part of the space and in a
certain coordinate system can be
static or movable, can expand or to
contract, depending on the preference
of the observer. Control volume and
control surfaces are analogous to
Euler description of fluid flow, while
the concept of material volume
corresponds to Lagrange description
of the flow .

Often is taken that the border of control volume (labeled CS) coincide in part
with fixed limits (inner wall S3) , while others are oriented perpendicular to
the flow direction (A1, A2) in order to simplify the process.

The transformation of the material in the control volume,

Reynolds transport theorem
Reynolds transformation theorem enables the transformation of the
fundamental laws of material volume to control volume. The basic
premise of the transformation is that material volume and a control
volume coincide at a certain point in time. After a moment of
coincidence of two volumes, with passage of time they will not
overlap because the material volume will be dragged away together
with particles that it form, while the control volume is at rest or
move at the discretion of the viewer. For the implementation of
transformation it is of interest only the moment when the two
volumes overlap. Written mathematical Reynolds transformation is:

where represents a general quantity

The law of conservation of mass

By applying the Reynolds transport theorem, from formulation of the
material volume, it comes to the formulation of the conservation of
mass in the control volume, related to the Euler fluid flow description.
General quantity is replaced by the density i.e. = , it follows:

. = 0

As the physical interpretation, it could be said that the increase

in mass within the control volume plus the mass outflow from the
control volume through its border is equal to zero at all times.

Solving previous integral calculus

and assume for above pipe that
and are average values through
the cross sectional area:
1 1 1 = 2 2 2 =

The term represents mass flow [kg/s] . By introducing a new

variable flow rate or less flow:
=[ ]

previous relation can be written:

1 1 = 2 2 =

or for stationary flow with constant density of the fluid inside the
control volume: = 1 1 = 2 2
In addition to the concept of mass flow is used weight flow

==[ ]