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The

position of a fluid particle is given by the vector position.

derivative of position gives the speed of particles

= . Calculating

There are two basic methods for describing the flow. In the first,

Euler's method, is observed a fixed area, called control volume ,

i.e. analyzing the situation in the fixed points of area .

particles and analyze how the characteristics of fluids related to the

particle, are changing as a function of time.

be used an example in biology, ornithological observing the migration

of birds. Euler method would require setting up observation stations

and measuring the number of birds fly over at a given time, while the

Lagrange's method meant placing radio transmitters on some birds

and tracking their movements.

Generally, in fluid mechanics is used Euler method description flow ,

while the Lagrange's method is used in particular cases . An

important fact is that the basic laws of physics are defined for

particles, and they should be for the purposes of fluid mechanics

converted into the corresponding field description (condition,

distribution) certain physical quantities in space ( part of space volume control ).

The simplest form of universal physical laws relate to the material

particle that is so small (infinitesimal small), that the velocity v,

density and other immanent properties are uniform inside it.

- The law of conservation of mass:

states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter

and energy (both of which have mass), the mass of the system must

remain constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if

it is not added or removed. Hence, the quantity of mass is

"conserved" over time. The law implies that mass can neither be

created nor destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space, or

the entities associated with it may be changed in form.

collision occurring between object 1 and object 2 in an isolated

system, the total momentum of the two objects before the collision is

equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision.

- The law of conservation of angular momentum:

external torque acts on an object or a closed system of objects, no

change of angular momentum can occur.

= +

mass , W work done on the border of material particles and heat

Q brought material particle on its border.

isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one

form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. The first law

is often formulated by stating that the change in the internal

energy of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat supplied to

the system, minus the amount of work done by the system on its

surroundings.

infinitesimally small size, while d/dt refers to time derivative .

It is necessary to clarify that the concept of the law of

conservation is indeed the preservation of quantity just in case of

the law of conservation of mass, while for the other three laws it is

more appropriate to term them as equilibrium law. A term, the law of

conservation is still being used by pointing to certain analogy to the

law of conservation of mass .

In fluid dynamics as a continuum, it is necessary to generalise the

laws of conservation of the material particles on material volume .

Physical volume is the system of an infinite number of infinitely

small of particles and always ( at each point in time ) consists of the

same particles .

mass, expressed in the material

volume is:

angular momentum is:

of momentum is:

energy (i.e. the first law of

thermodynamics)

= +

derivation. Operator

= + ( . )

is the operator of the material derivative . Application of material

derivative on a scalar of size gives

=

+ ( . )

=

+ ( . )

change of the quantity at a given point in space and is called local

derivation. The second member of the right side ( ) represents

change of quantity due to movement of the particles in space and is

called the convection (advection) derivative . In a certain sense

material derivative D/dt indicates a time-based change felt by an

observer who moves together with fluid (fluid particle) , while /t

indicates the change that an observer would feel if he is stationary

within control volume .

In the Cartesian coordinate system material derivate can be written

=

+

+

+

we used forms

angular momentum, energy ) which is the first integrated by the

material volume MV and then the result derived on material

derivative D/Dt by time . When fluid flow, the material volume moves

and deforms and with it the material surface that is unknown

function in time, until the problem itself has not been resolved .

Since the form of the material volume is unsuitable for use in

engineering, there is a need to define the system where conservation

laws can be applied. Therefore, we define the notion of control

volume.

Control volume ( CV ) is arbitrary,

theoretically defined volume limited

by control surface (CS) which defines

the dynamic and thermodynamic

effects of fluid. Through control

volume over time, is passing different

material volumes. The control surface

encloses part of the space and in a

certain coordinate system can be

static or movable, can expand or to

contract, depending on the preference

of the observer. Control volume and

control surfaces are analogous to

Euler description of fluid flow, while

the concept of material volume

corresponds to Lagrange description

of the flow .

Often is taken that the border of control volume (labeled CS) coincide in part

with fixed limits (inner wall S3) , while others are oriented perpendicular to

the flow direction (A1, A2) in order to simplify the process.

Reynolds transport theorem

Reynolds transformation theorem enables the transformation of the

fundamental laws of material volume to control volume. The basic

premise of the transformation is that material volume and a control

volume coincide at a certain point in time. After a moment of

coincidence of two volumes, with passage of time they will not

overlap because the material volume will be dragged away together

with particles that it form, while the control volume is at rest or

move at the discretion of the viewer. For the implementation of

transformation it is of interest only the moment when the two

volumes overlap. Written mathematical Reynolds transformation is:

By applying the Reynolds transport theorem, from formulation of the

material volume, it comes to the formulation of the conservation of

mass in the control volume, related to the Euler fluid flow description.

General quantity is replaced by the density i.e. = , it follows:

. = 0

in mass within the control volume plus the mass outflow from the

control volume through its border is equal to zero at all times.

and assume for above pipe that

and are average values through

the cross sectional area:

1 1 1 = 2 2 2 =

variable flow rate or less flow:

3

=[ ]

1 1 = 2 2 =

or for stationary flow with constant density of the fluid inside the

control volume: = 1 1 = 2 2

In addition to the concept of mass flow is used weight flow

==[ ]

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