You are on page 1of 16

Lecture No: 6

TRANSPIRATION - TYPES STEWARDS Theory of Mechanism Significance

and Factors Affecting TRANSPIRATION and

Dr. T. Sivakumar, Asst. Professor (Crop Physiology)

Introductory Definition
TRANSPIRATION:Loss of water (either excess
or mandatory) from the aerial parts of plants in
the form of water vapours though stomata.
GUTTATION:Loss of water (either excess or
mandatory) from the aerial parts of plants in the
form of water droplets through hydathode.
1. Thermoregulation
2. Water and Nutrient conduction

1. Stomatal transpiration - Its contribution is 85 - 90%
of the total transpiration
2. Cuticular transpiration - Its contribution is 10% of the
total transpiration.
3. Lenticular transpiration - lost by woody stems

1. Stomatal transpiration
Most of the transpiration takes place through this.
More numbers of stomata are confined in the lower sides of the leaves.
In monocots (e.g.. Grasses), they are equally distributed on both sides.
In aquatic plants with floating leaves, they are present on the upper surface.

2. Cuticular transpiration
Cuticle is impervious to water, even though, some water
may be lost through it. It may contribute a maximum of
about 10% of the total transpiration.

3. Lenticular transpiration
Some water may be lost by woody stems through lenticels which is
called as lenticular transpiration.

Mechanism of stomatal transpiration

It can be studied in 3 steps.
Osmotic diffusion of water in the leaf from
xylem to intercellular space above the
stomata through the mesophyll cells.
Opening and closing of stomata (stomatal
Simple diffusion of water vapours from
intercellular spaces to other atmosphere
through stomata.

Significance of Transpiration
Plants waste much of their energy in absorbing
large quantities of water and most of which is
ultimately lost through transpiration i.e.
Transpiration as advantageous to plant if it is
involved in Thermoregulation and Water and
Nutrient conduction.
Otherwise it is an unavoidable process which
is rather harmful.

Advantages of transpiration
1. Helped in upward movement of water from root
to shoot i.e. Ascent of sap.
2. Helped in absorption of water and translocation
of mineral salts for the plants from soil through
xylem elements
3. Helped in temperature regulation by way of
dissipating excess heat energy produced by
the leaves after photosynthesis; and thus
prevents them from excessive heating.

Factors affecting transpiration

1. Internal water conditions
2. Structural features

1. Atmospheric humidity
2. Temperature
3. Wind

4. Light
5. Available soil water
6. CO2

A. External factors
1. Atmospheric relative humidity (RH) is inversely related because
atmosphere is more saturated with moisture when relative humidity is
high and retards the diffusion of water vapour from the intercellular
spaces of the leaves to the outer atmosphere through stomata.
In dry atmosphere, the RH is low and the air is not saturated with
moisture and hence, the rate of transpiration increases.
2. Temperature is directly related by lowering the relative humidity and
Opening of stomata widely
3. Winds normal speed is directly related by facilitating the diffusion of
waster vapour from the intercellular spaces of the leaves to the outer
atmosphere though stomata.
When the wind is blowing violently, the rate of transpiration
decreased because it creates hindrance in the outward diffusion of water
vapours from the transpiring part and it may also close the stomata.
4. Light is directly related because of opening of stomata and raising of
temperature. Where as in dark, stomata will close and transpiration is
almost stopped.
5. Available soil water is directly related
6. CO2 inversely related An increase in CO2 concentration in the
atmosphere (Over the usual concentration) more so inside the leaf,
leads towards stomatal closure and hence it retards transpiration.

B. Internal factors
1. Internal water conditions
Deficiency of internal water due to less or nil
absorption of water by the plants will result
in decrease of transpiration rate.
2. Structural features
The number, size, position and the
movement of stomata affect rate of
transpiration. E.g. In dark stomata are
closed and stomatal transpiration is

Sunken stomata help in reducing the

rate of stomatal transpiration. In xerophytes,
the leave size is reduced or may even fall to
check transpiration in addition to thick

A number of substances are applied to retard their
transpiration in the plants. Such substances are called
as antitranspirants.
E.g. colourless plastics, silicone, oils, low viscosity
waxes, phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA), abscisic acid
(ABA), CO2, etc.
Mechanism: Colourless plastic, silicone oils and low
viscosity waxes belong to one group as these are
sprayed on the leaves to form film which is permeable
to O2 and CO2 but not to water where as ABA and
Fungicide (PMA) at low concentration (10-4m) or a little
rise in CO2 concentration from the natural 0.03% to
0.05% induces partial closure of stomatal pores for a
period of two weeks.

In some plants, water drops ooze out from the
uninjured margins of the leaves through the
special types of stomata called water stomata or
hydathodes at the margins where a main vein
Below this there is a small cavity followed by
epithem. Under high root pressure the water is
given to the epithem then it is released into the
When this cavity is completely filled with watery
solution, the later begins to ooze out in the form of
watery drops through the water pore
E.g. Garden nasturtium, tomato, colocasia etc
It takes place usually early in the morning due to
high absorption and root pressure and very low



1. Water is lost from aerial parts of Watery solution oozes out from
plants in the form of invisible uninjured margins of aerial leaves
water vapours


Transpiration occurs mostly It occurs only through hydathodes

through stomata. It may also (water stomata)
takes place through cuticle and

3. It takes place throughout the day, It takes place only early in the
its rate being maximum at noon. morning when root pressure and the
rate of water absorption are higher

You are not responsible for what

people think about U.
But, U are responsible for what U
give them to think about U.