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Lecture No: 18


Dr. T. Sivakumar,
Assistant Professor (Crop Physiology)

starvation leads slow respiration . Internal factors 1. 5. External factors 1. Inorganic salts . Temperature (Optimum 30°C .0°C) 2. 6. is called as extinction point.The rate of respiration is higher in young meristematic cells 3. Carbon dioxide . the rate of respiration increases (called as salt respiration). 4.Higher concentration retards the rate of respiration. the respiration is at its minimum. Water . The inhibition on the rate of carbohydrate breakdown by oxygen is called as Pasteur’s effect. 3. Wound or injury . Protoplasmic factors 2. Oxygen – low means toxic to plants.The effect of light is indirect on the rate of respiration through the synthesis of organic food matter in photosynthesis.If a plant or tissue is transferred from water to salt solution. Concentration of respiratory substrate . Light . The concentration of O2 at which aerobic respiration is optimum and anaerobic respiration is stopped. Age of cells .Injury or wounds result in increased respiration. 7.Factors affecting respiration A. dry seeds.

3 It occurs in chloroplast. 10 Reduced coenzymes such as NADPH2. 2 The substrate is glycolate The respiratory substrate may be carbohydrate. fat or protein. No ammonia is produced 12 Phosphorylation does not occur Oxidative phosphorylation occurs. NADH2 and FADH2 are produced. Several ATP molecules are produced. 9 ATP molecules are not produced. wheat and cotton ( mainly in C3 plants) It occurs in C4 plants ( maize and sugar cane) 5 It occurs in the green tissues of plants It occurs in all the living plants (both green and non green ) 6 The optimum temperature is 25. peroxisome and mitochondria The process occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria 4 It occurs in temperate plants like.35ºC It is not temperature sensitive 7 This process increases with increased CO2 concentration. This process saturate at 2-3 percent O2 in the atmosphere and beyond this concentration there is no increase. NADH2 and FADH2 are not produced. 11 One molecule of ammonia is released per molecule of CO2 released. Reduced coenzymes such as NADPH2. 8 Hydrogen peroxide is formed during the reaction Hydrogen peroxide is not formed. .Differences between Photorespiration and Dark respiration Photorespiration Dark /Mitochondrial respiration 1 It occurs in the presence of light It occurs in the presence of both light and dark.

2 Light is not essential for the process Light is very much essential 3 Oxygen is absorbed in the process Oxygen is liberated 4 Carbon dioxide produced 5 Potential energy is converted into Light energy is converted into Kinetic energy chemical energy (potential energy) 6 Glucose and oxygen are the raw Carbon dioxide and water are the materials raw materials 7 Energy is released during respiration Energy is stored during and hence it is an exothermic photosynthesis and hence it is an process. endothermic process 8 Reduction in the dry weight 9 Chlorophyllous necessary and tissues water are Carbon dioxide is fixed to form carbon containing compound Gain in the dry weight are not Chlorophyllous tissues essential for the process are .Differences between respiration and photosynthesis Respiration Photosynthesis 1 It is catabolic process resulting in It is an anabolic process resulting the destruction of stored food in the manufacture of food.

zymase is not required but Zymase is required in the case of many other enzymes and coenzymes are carbohydrates required .Differences between aerobic respiration and fermentation Aerobic respiration Fermentation 1 It occurs in all living cells of the plants Occurs outside the plant cells and in throughout the day and night certain microorganisms 2 It takes place in the presence of O2 Absence of oxygen 3 The end products are CO2 and H2O End products are CO2 and alcohol or other organic acids 4 It is not toxic to plants It is toxic to plants 5 Food material is completely oxidised Incomplete oxidation is observed 6 Large amount of energy (673 kCal) is Very small amount of energy (21 kCal) released per glucose molecule is released per glucose molecule 7 The complete oxidation yields 38 ATP The incomplete oxidation in molecules fermentation yields only two ATP molecules 8 The enzyme.

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