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Organization of the Human Body


Organization of the Human Body

Mechanistic approach (HOW) •Explains function in terms of sequences of physical and chemical processes •“Why do I shiver when I’m cold?”… “Temperature-sensitive nerve cells detect a fall in temperature…then signal to the brain…etc” Physiology = Mechanistic .What is Physiology? • Physiology: The study of how the body functions How do we explain events that happen in the body? 1. Teleological approach (WHY) •Explains function in terms of meeting a bodily need •“Why do I shiver when I’m cold?”… “To help warm up” 2.

Organization of the Human Body • Chemical level • Cellular level • Tissue level • Organ level • Body system level • Organism level .

Proteins. Fats. Hydrogen and Nitrogen = 96% of body) • Molecules (ex.Organization of the Human Body Chemical level: • Atoms (Oxygen. Carbon. CHO. and nucleic acids) .

Organization of the Human Body Cellular level: Cells • The basic unit of structure and function in the body • The smallest unit capable of carrying out the processes associated with life • Are all cells the same? .

Eliminating CO2. not all) .Synthesizing proteins • As in gland cells of the digestive system . and wastes • As in kidney function .Organization of the Human Body Cell differentiation: division division division. each with a specialized function ex. etc The body is made of many types of cells. .Reproducing (for most cells. etc.

Nervous tissue 3. Muscle tissue 2. Connective tissue . Epithelial tissue 4.Organization of the Human Body Tissue level: • Cells of similar structure and specialized function combine to form tissues • 4 primary tissues types 1.

smooth (liso)muscle.Organization of the Human Body Tissue level: 1. Nervous tissue • Consists of cells specialized for initiating and transmitting electrical impulses • Found in the brain spinal cord and peripheral nerves . 2. skeletal muscle. Muscle tissue • Consists of cells specialized for contracting and generating force • Cardiac muscle.

blood .Organization of the Human Body Tissue level: 3.GLANDS • Consists of cells specialized for exchanging materials between the cell and its environment. tendons. supports and anchors various body parts • Loose connective tissue. (Skin) (Exocrine and endocrine glands) 4. • Epithelial sheets and secretory glands. Connective tissue • Connects. bone. Epithelial tissue .


Organization of the Human Body Organ level: • Organs consist of two or more types of primary tissue organized to perform a particular function or functions. Stomach: contain 4 tissues types • Lined with protective epithelial tissue • Epithelial gland cells also secrete digestive juices • Smooth muscle tissue lines the stomach wall and mixes the ingested food when it contracts • Nervous tissue controls the contractions • Connective tissue binds everything together . • Ex.

intestines . liver. • Each system is a collection of organs that perform related functions • Ex. pancreas. gall bladder. throat. salivary glands. esophagus. stomach.Organization of the Human Body Body system level: • The body has 11 systems that are essential for survival. Digestive system: • Consists of organs that cooperate to break down food • ie. mouth.

Body systems: .

Body systems: .

g. nervous. and endocrine systems Blood Pressure Vessel diameter . • E. • Depends on circulatory. blood pressure regulation.Organization of the Human Body Organism level: • Consists of various body systems structurally and functionally linked. urinary.

Homeostasis .

temperature. and other characteristics are absolutely unchanging – The body is in a constant state of dynamic equilibrium – Example: Body temperature 38oC 37oC 36oC .Homeostasis • Defined as maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment – Does not mean that composition.

. • Each cells contributes to maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment.Homeostasis • Homeostasis is essential for survival and function of all cells.

Homeostasis .

control system must be able to – Detect deviations from normal in the internal environment that need to be held within narrow limits – Integrate this information with other relevant information – Make appropriate adjustments in order to restore factor to its desired value .Homeostatic Control Systems • In order to maintain homeostasis.

Monitors magnitude of a controlled variable • Control centre .Makes a response to produce a desired effect .Compares sensor’s input with a set point • Effector .Homeostatic Control Systems 1. Negative feedback system – Primary type of homeostatic control – Opposes initial change – Components • Sensor .

Negative Feedback .

Negative feedback Body Temperature Fig. 1.12 .

Positive feedback system – Amplifies an initial change – Do not occur as often as negative feedback system – Example: • Uterine contractions become increasingly stronger until the birth of the baby .Homeostatic Control Systems 2.

Positive Feedback .

• Positive – Self amplifying cycle in which physiological changes lead to even greater changes in the same direction.Types of Feedback • Negative – A process where the body senses changes and actives processes that negate or reverse it. – Rapid change . etc. blood sugar. – Body temperature.