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Genetic Variability

by Design
Chris Ashcraft

Evolution vs. Creation
 Evolutionists say that
genetic information
accumulates gradually
through time by random

 Creationists say that God
created all genes in the
beginning. “No New Genetic
Information” is a popular
argument against evolution.

Seminar Content
Organisms were created with
the ability to change through
time (evolve). How is this
accomplished genetically?

Creation scientific investigation
comes from the presupposition
that God created life on earth as
described in the Bible.

Problems with Theories
Mechanisms Involved
Genetic Variability
Evidence of Design

Cell = Microscopic Factory
All living organisms are
composed of one or more
microscopic cells. Cells
are like factories full of
machinery, and we are
watching from a great
distance trying to
determine their function.

DNA = Information
• Chromosomes - long
strands of DNA that
contain many genes.

• Genes - codes that tell the
cell’s machinery which
proteins to make.

• Proteins - the organic
machinery and material
that make life happen.

46 Human Chromosomes
1.5 Meters Long Each

Amino Acid UGC = Cystein CUG = Leucine AGU = Serine GCA = Alanine "The gene is by far the most sophisticated program around. 1994 .  3 nucleotides comprise a coding unit called a codon." . Business Week.Bill Gates. which specifies the amino acid used in the protein. June 27.Genetic Code  DNA is molecular information used in a genetic program. Codon .

Unintentional genetic change resulting from errors or exposure to mutagens.Intentional genetic change introduced by cellular machinery. • Recombination . DNA Helix .Sources of Gene Variability • Mutation . • There is currently no method available to determine which source has altered genetic code.

change from one generation to the next.Alleles = Gene Varieties  Variations exist in a population because genes for any particular characteristic are present in more than one form.  Genes are even different from those you were born with. .  Genes are different from those your parents have. (alleles)  Many genes are variable or Organisms change so they may adapt.

He showed that variety was not random. but produced in predictable patterns. He theorized that variations in nature (mutations) were randomly inherited. .Evolution Before Genetics  Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species was published in 1859.  Gregor Mendel established Charles Darwin the basis for modern genetics in 1900.

.84 : 1 Gregor Mendel developed pure lines of plants. and counted the results.The Foundation of Genetics Parental Cross F1 Hybrid F2 Phenotypes F2 Ratio ================================================================ Round X Wrinkled Seed Round 5474 Round :1850 Wrinkled 2.15 : 1 Tall X Dwarf Plants Tall 1787 Tall : 227 Dwarf 2. When he self-pollinated the F1 hybrid. He found that traits showed dominance over others.01 : 1 Red X White Flowers Red 705 Red : 224 White 3. This showed that mechanisms were involved with the production of variability. he found that predictable patterns of traits would be found in the offspring.96 : 1 Yellow X Green Seeds Yellow 6022 Yellow : 2001 Green 3. bred them together.

Mendel’s Conclusions  Traits were inherited as distinct units. . (Alleles)  Pure Breeds have an identical pair of alleles (Homozygote) and pass the trait to every offspring. (Genes)  Sexually reproducing organisms have a pair of units for each trait.

.Canine History Domestic breeding history provides evidence for rapid production of variety.

Dog History .Variations in Domestic Breeds  Evolutionists say the alleles responsible accumulated over millions of years through random mutations.  Creationists have accepted the theory that the wolf already possessed the genetic diversity before it was domesticated. and were simply rearranged.

 However.Pure Breeds  While in nature. and limited to produce only wolf pups. How was the variety in the dog breeds produced from a genetically pure ancestor? . the wolf was Wolf Pups Genetic Homozygote a pure breed.  The wolves reproductive purity is no different than any dog breeds we have today. tremendous diversity was found in their progeny only centuries following domestication.

Implications of Breeding History  The production of diversity from a pure bred implies there is a rapid and continuous source of genetic variability.  Domestication removed the selective pressure that was used to create the purebred wolf. and is also needed to maintain them. .

Genetic Bottleneck Another proof that genetic information accumulates rapidly comes from the Biblical flood record. a single breeding pair for each kind was reintroduced following the flood. and 7 pairs of each clean animal. Only 8 people were on board the ark. Noah’s Ark Following the flood. .

the maximum number of original genes per locus is known.Locations of Genes (Locus)  Genes have a fixed location on chromosomes.  Today there are hundreds and even thousands of alleles (gene alternates) per locus.  Therefore.  14 animals can only possess 28 genes per locus.  8 people can only possess 16 genes per locus. .

 Meiosis . Sexual reproduction occurs when two cells give half their DNA to offspring. Cell Nucleus  Mitosis .DNA Recombination Recombination generates unique offspring by altering DNA before cells divide.Cell division of sex cells. and is likely the time when genes are edited to add new information to the population. .Normal cell division.

and all the DNA is copied before dividing.  Prior to division.DNA Condensation  Cells continuously grow and divide into daughter cells. . the chromosomes condense and perform recombination.

chromosomes during cell division are composed of two duplicate chromatids. which will be given to separate daughter cells.DNA Chromosomes Because cells replicate all their DNA first. .

pairs of chromosomes with homologous sequences unite and recombine their DNA. Homologues possess similar DNA and genes for the same trait. Homologous Chromosomes .Homologous Recombination Prior to cell division.

The exact changes made during these reactions remain largely unknown. .Cell Division Following division. the chromosomes given to daughter cells are always unique.

Gene Crossover . and changes to genes are the result of errors or other mutations. and both believe the rapid variety produced in breeds is simply the result of gene rearrangements.Evolutionist Assumptions • It is assumed that recombination is simply shuffling preexisting genes (crossovers). • Creationists have accepted the former.

the useful genes that are there to be shuffled must have been created at the beginning. Lester. This shuffling of the genes can produce superior combinations of different genes. However." The History of Life. because we see that mutations are incapable of supplying useful variation.Creationist Assumptions "Recombination explains why children look different from their parents. Creation Research Society Quarterly 31(2) 1994 p96 Typical Creationist Perspective “No New Genetic Information” . Lane P.

.Evidence of Gene Crossover Breeding experiments can be used to show that genes are exchanged between chromosomes. not possessed by the parents are evidence of a gene crossovers. New combinations of traits.

crossing-over was assumed to occur randomly along the length of chromosomes  Research has now shown that crossing-over is not a randomized process. Mitosis .  Hotspots & coldspots  Sex-specific differences.  Meiosis vs.Non Random Crossover  Since their discovery and use in genetic mapping.

Recombination is intentionally altering the genome. any alteration found to exist should be assumed the result of these reactions. Given our limited knowledge. . but the exact products remain largely unknown.New Alleles by Recombination Recombination within genes can create new alleles.

. Used to incorporate foreign DNA (genetic transformation). Repairs several types of DNA damage. high cell density. and development. Performed during mitosis to create cellular diversity.  Is induced by a wide variety of environmental stresses such as nutrient deprivation.     Performed during meiosis to create offspring diversity.Homologous Recombination A large group of reactions where a piece of homologous (similar) DNA is used to edit another. and a great many carcinogens.  Is induced or shut off as a programmed cell function during differentiation.

This type of recombination does not exchange genes at loci. .Crossover vs Gene Conversion Gene conversion is a class of homologous recombination that alters sequences on only one homologue using pseudo genes as donors. and is used to creates new alleles.

Have distinct variable and invariable regions. Antagonists of variable proteins are also variable. most genes remain constant.  Housekeeping Genes are conserved between vastly unrelated organisms.     Frequently involved with inter-species contacts. More variable than neutral regions between genes. Gene Expression) .Variable Genes  Many genes are highly variable or change regularly from one generation to the next.  However. (Metabolism.

.Antibody Function  Antibodies protect us from invaders by labeling foreign substances (antigen).  Each B-cell that produces antibodies is specialized to label only one antigen.  A limited number of genes is able to produce a virtual unlimited number of antibodies.

 Assumed the result of random mutations. (Maturity) Variable vs.  Repeated rounds of gene conversion alter the variable region of the gene to develop increased specificity after antigen binding.Custom Antigen Binding  Antibodies are customized to match the foreign particle like a lock and key. but it is now known that recombination is involved. Constant .

found in 2002 to be gene conversion . Human immunity is due to single base-pair substitutions.  AID . Gene conversion was recently established as being subsequently responsible. which was first thought the result of splicing errors.(activation-induced cytidine deaminase) is required for gene conversion to occur in the V-region.Variable Antibody Genes  Following VDJ splicing additional diversity was found. but VDJ splicing will still occur without hypervariability.

 Diseases are eliminated by vaccinations because everyone develops antibodies.  Random processes do not produce certain outcomes! . immunization is guaranteed.  Following inoculation with a functional serum.Non-Random Immunity  Vaccines are the proteins isolated from the organism or virus that causes disease.

Major Histocompatibility Complex  MHC is a label that identifies your cells from all others.  MHC is also important in immunological response and presented along with the antigen as a check. Antigen is Presented with MHC . and is the cause for rejected tissue following transplant surgery.

and are localized to specific areas that are rich in CpG nucleotide dimers. The changes vary greatly from one allele to the next.Major Histocompatibility Complex  As of 1999 the human MHC Alleles per MHC Locus loci were sequenced. .  Gene conversion using template DNA that resides elsewhere in the genome is responsible for the creation of new MHC genes.  MHC editions are not random.

Cone Snail Toxins  Venom typically shows a high frequency of genetic variability. and used to medically treat disorders such as epilepsy.000 present in the genus. . Snakes.  It has been estimated that there are 100 unique peptides toxins for each Cone Snail species with an estimated 50. Conotoxins block neural transmitters. Scorpions. etc.

Conotoxin Variability  Cysteine codons were found at specific positions that remained conserved within the most hypervariable portion of the gene. . AT TA Some cone shells are highly valued and some worth upwards of $1000 to collectors. C…C…CC…C…C  Conotoxin genes are also varied more often by transversions rather than transitional substitutions.

.Genetic Warfare Antagonists of variable genes are also typically variable.  Toxins vs. Antigens Organisms are engaged in a type of genetic warfare. and constantly upgrading their arsenal to gain an advantage. Antitoxins  Antibodies vs.

the ability of organisms to adapt almost certainly remains underestimated. • Antibodies follow antigen • SOS Response in Bacteria • Heat Shock Protein in Flies • Since the intentional production of gene variability has not yet been realized. Thermus aquaticus was found in Yellowstone Hotsprings surviving at temperatures up to 176 degrees F. .Environmental-Dependent Editing • Genetic editions at times occur as a direct response to environmental stimulus such as stress.

1970. & Evolution.Replication makes an exact copy.102 . Why Rely On Mutations?  Darwinian Evolution attempts to explain the origin of genetic information other than by intentional creation. p. Recombination makes changes. and Darwinian Evolution is based on atheistic philosophy "Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation found in natural populations and the only new material available for natural selection to work on. Populations." Ernst Mayr.  Purposeful genetic variability implies intelligent design. therefore variability must theoretically have existed before cellular mechanisms were present. Species.

Natural Science is Atheistic  A 1998 report in Nature finds that. "among the top natural scientists. Academy of Science possess the lowest rate of belief of all the science disciplines. 394:6691 (1998) . disbelief is greater than ever. with only 5.5% believing in God. almost total". (20:1 ratio) Nature Vol.  The biologists in the National Evolution is an attack upon Christianity.


and interspecies gene transfer through homologous recombination (HR). Transformations offer proof of the flexibility of the genome. .Genomic Variability Genetic transformations are performed with regularity today. and facilities designed for this purpose can be found on every major university campus in the United States.

Prokaryote Genetic Transformations  Bacteria acquire new genes by absorbing DNA molecules from their surroundings. (HR)  Stress induces bacterial to uptake and incorporate DNA. heat. coli has made possible the cloning of many genes including human. starvation. salt. and revolutionized the biotechnology industry. etc.  The ability to deliberately transform the bacterium E. .

(22 caliber / gas)  Cells will uptake and splice the foreign DNA into their genome through homologous recombination.Eukaryote Genetic Transformation  Anything that stresses the cell membrane improves the efficiency of genetic transformation  Biolistics .DNA coated gold particles shot at cells using high pressure delivery. .

Natural Transformation . which it forces the plant to produce.  The Bacteria uses amino acids called opines as food.Crown Gall Disease and Natural Genetic Transformation  Agrobacterium Tumerfaciens genetically transforms plants as a parasitic strategy.  It also induces tumors to multiply the number of opine producing cells.

• The genes or hormones DNA Transfection can not be used by the bacteria. .Agrobacterium Transformation • A Tumor is induced because the bacteria transforms the plant with genes that make plant growth regulators. and were likely stolen from plants.

.Genetic Constructs HindIII NOSP HindIII SacI BamHI HrpN Full Length NOSP SS NOST SacI BamHI HrpN Full Length EcoRI pE58 EcoRI NOST pE60 (BglII/BamHI) HindIII SacI BamHI NOSP SS H8 HrpN Fragment EcoRI NOST pE88 (BglII/BamHI) Molecular biologists make genetic constructs using gene fragments obtained from various organisms by cutting and splicing them together. It is likely that the cell performs a similar type of self genetic engineering.

and may demonstrate the application of recombination to use foreign genes for new purposes.Genetic Engineer Agrobacteria has apparently constructed a plasmid that contains acquired plant grown hormones. .

being understood from what has been made. so that men are without excuse. which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on . Romans 1:20 For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities--his eternal power and divine nature--have been clearly seen. NWcreation.Creation Science Colossians 2:8 See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy.


.Diversity by Design Because a limited amount of genetic information was introduced following the flood. new genetic information is produced rapidly by intelligent design. and millions of years were not involved in the production of the vast quantity of alleles at each locus.

Plant Transformation Strategy  Transfect tissue with     selectable DNA Grow tissue under selection strategy Isolate somatic embryos Regenerate plant Test to confirm presence of foreign gene Genetic transformation techniques have been used to creation herbicide resistant crops (Roundupready). . etc. and insect resistant crops (BT).