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MANAGEMENT MANAGE MANAGEMENT MANAGE MANAGEMENT MANAGE MANAGEMENT MANAGE MANAGEMENT MANAGE MANAGEMENT MANAGE
N A M
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INTRODUCTION PROCESS LEVELS SKILLS ROLES EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT CONCLUSION
Management can be defined as a set of activities (including planning, organizing, directing and controlling) Directed at an organization’s resources (human, financial, physical and informational) With the aim of achieving the organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner.
Efficiency :It means achieving result in the most economical manner using minimum resources. As per Peter Drucker (Management Guru) it means “Doing the job right” .
Effectiveness :It means getting work done or achieving the desired result. As per Peter Drucker (Management Guru) it means “Doing the right job” .
Management as a Science Management as an Art Management as a Profession
Planning :- It is a process of defining an organization’s goals, making an overall strategies and ways to integrate and coordinate the organizational activities. Organizing :- It is the process of arranging and allocating work, authority and resources among organizational members. Directing :- It is the process of directing and influencing people in such a way that they will put in their effort to attain organizational objectives. Controlling :- It is the process of monitoring the organization’s progress towards its goal.
Top level management Middle level management First line management
THEY ARE AT TOP MOST IN ORG. RESPONSIBLE FOR SETTING UP THE STRATEGIES. RESPONSIBLE FOR TAKING DECISION.
Responsible for performance of first line managers. Implementing of plans made by top level management.
They are responsible for supervising and coordinating the activities of entry level employees.
Technical skills Human skills Conceptual skills
Technical skill is need by first line managers and supervisors. The human skill is interpersonal skill needed by every person working in organization for interaction. Conceptual skill is mostly needed by top level managers for taking corporate decision.
Inauguration of new plans
Inspiring the employees to produce more Coordinating activities of two project group
He seeks the information that is of value He transmit the relevant information. Addressing a press conference.
Developing new ideas
Review strategies To tackle problems & crises Revising budget plans
Administrative Theory Scientific Theory Behavioral management Theory Management Science Theory Organizational Enviornment Theory
This is the 2nd type of classical theory is also called as Organizational theory main emphasis is on the development of the Management Principles Important contribution was made by:
was a German who was educated as a
gave an ideal type of organization which he called as
Define Job and Tasks Create authority in CHAIN OF COMMAND Recruit & select On Quality
Rules & Regulations
Division of Labour
of labour: Breaking down of jobs into welldefined tasks
Hierchacy: Position organized in a hierchacy
Orientation: Managers are career professionals, not owner of unit they manage Contd….
Max Weber’s Bureaucracy
Formal Rules & Regulations
Formal Selection: Selection based on qualification Formal Rules & Regulations: Standard working procedure Impersonality: Uniform application of rules and controls, independent of the personality Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
was a MD of large French coal mining firm
contrast with Taylor, his concrened was specially towards Top-line managers
introduced five functions of managers: Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating Controlling
Technical Activity Commercial Activity Financial Activity Accounting Activity Managerial Activity Security
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14)
Division of work Authority & Responsibility Unity of Command Line of Authority Centralization Unity of Direction Equity Order Initiative Discipline Remuneration of personnel Stability of tenure of personnel Subordination of individual interest to the common interest Esprit of crops
Evolution of Modern Management Began in the industrial revolution in the late 19th century as: Managers of organizations began seeking ways to better satisfy customer needs.
Large-scale mechanized manufacturing began to supplanting small-scale craft production in the ways in which goods were produced. Social problems developed in the large groups of workers employed under the factory system. Managers began to focus on increasing the efficiency of the worker-task mix.
Principles to increase efficiency:
Study the ways jobs are performed now and determine new ways to do them. Gather detailed time and motion information. Try different methods to see which is best. Codify the new methods into rules. Teach to all workers the new method. Select workers whose skills match the rules. Establish fair levels of performance and pay a premium for higher performance. Workers should benefit from higher output
Managers frequently implemented only the increased output side of Taylor’s plan.
Workers did not share in the increased output.
Specialized jobs became very boring, dull.
Workers ended up distrusting the Scientific Management method.
Workers could purposely “under-perform.”
Management responded with increased use of machines and conveyors belts.
study of how managers should behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals. Focuses on the way a manager should personally manage to motivate employees.
Mary Parker Follett An influential leader in early managerial theory Held a horizontal view of power and authority in organizations Suggested workers help in analyzing their jobs for improvements—the worker knows the best way to improve the job. If workers have relevant knowledge of the task, then they should control the task.
An approach to management that uses rigorous quantitative techniques to maximize the use of organizational resources.
management—utilizes linear programming, modeling, simulation systems. Operations management—techniques to analyze all aspects of the production system. Total Quality Management (TQM)— focuses on improving quality throughout an organization. Management Information Systems (MIS) —provides information about the organization.
set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources.
Open System A system that takes resources for its external environment and converts them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment for purchase by customers. Inputs: the acquisition of external resources. Conversion: the processing of inputs into goods and services. Output: the release of finished goods into the environment.
Closed system A system that is self-contained and thus not affected by changes occurring in its external environment. Often undergoes entropy and loses its ability to control itself, and fails. Synergy Performance that results when individuals and departments coordinate their actions
gains of the whole surpass the sum of the performance of the individual components.
It is also known as the functional or empirical approach. The main contributors to these theories are Henri Fayol , Taylor, Max Weber Salient features Management is viewed as a systematic process of interrelated functions. Principles of management are used as a guideline for the executives. Functions , Principles and skills of management are universal. Formal education and training is needed for the development of the required skills. Emphasis is placed on the economic efficiency. People are motivated by economic gains and other incentives. Classical theory pillar mainly stands on three pillars :Bureaucracy, Scientific management and Administration. Though this approach provides Specialization, structure, rationality, predictability and democracy but at the same time a lot of paperwork , compartmentalization of work rigidity
Neo classical theory is the sum total of three parts Hawthorne experiments, Human relation movements and behavioral approaches. Elton Mayo , Herzberg, Mc Gregor were the major contributors toward this theory. Work Environment Leader
work group is the sum total of the Techno economic system and social system.
are motivated by many others factor as per the situation.
may show different behavior when act separately and different when act in group.
is affected due to the factors inside and outside the work place.
relation is more important.
Social and psychological needs play an important role in the performance of the employee. People working in the organization may have different goals than the organizational goal/s but they should be guided towards the pre stated objectives. Own informational group plays an important role in the determination of future course of action. Individual may react differently in different situations so they should be carefully managed toward the common goal.
Pioneered by Elton Mayo and his associates Salient Features Focus on individual, his needs and behavior Highlight interpersonal relations Emphasis on motivation morale and job satisfaction Conflict in an organization is always destructive and should be always avoided. Based on Hawthorne experiments. Emphasis on improving the working condition, interpersonal relation, supervisory styles and communication systems. People working in the organization may have different goals but it is the work of management to guide them toward the common goal. People behavior as a individual may be different than his behavior in a group. People working in the organization form their own informal groups and these groups have a significant
There is no one best theory or approach to management. The evolution of management has provided current researchers and managers with some proven principles that improve management success. The study of management will continue to build and improve upon past research.
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