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DEFINITION

Natural Gas is a naturally occurring gaseous mixture


of hydrocarbon and non hydrocarbon gases found in
underground rock reservoirs either on its own as free
gas or in association with crude oil.
* Hydrocarbon Components:
o C1 – C7+
* Non Hydrocarbon Components
- Nitrogen (N2)
- Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
- Carbon Dioxide (Co2)
- Water Vapour (H20)
TYPES OF NATURAL GAS DEPOSIT
 Associated Gas: Gas Co-exists in reservoir with Crude Oil.
 Non-Associated Gas: Gas exists without oil in the Reservoir.
 Gas Condensates: Gases exists in gaseous form in the reservoir but liquefy on
production due to reduction in pressure. Gas condensates are of higher quality
and are therefore of more economic value.
 Gases containing H2S and Co2 are called acid gases because they form acids or
acidic solution in the presence of water.
 A gas is called sour if it contains H2S in amounts above 4ppm
Methane CH4 LNG

Ethane C2H6

Propane C3H8

Butanes C4H10 LPG NGL


NG
Pentanes and Heavier C5H12

Non-Hydrocarbons

LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas


NGL: Natural Gas Liquids
LNG: Liquefied Natural Gas
GAS PRODUCTION SCHEMATIC
Pipeline
Market
Compression

Processing

Production Tubing

Reservoir Inflow Performance


USES OF NATURAL GAS

Current Use of Natural Gas and Future Options


PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS
- Ideal Gases : the Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
Where:
P = Absolute Pressure (psia)
V = Volume (ft3)
n = No. of Moles of gas
R = Universal Gas Constant
n=
m
M
T = Absolute Temperature (0R)
If M = Mass of gas (Ib)
And M = Molecular wt of the gas (Ibm/Ib-mol)
m
n=
M
m
⇒ Pv = RT
M
m
⇒ PM = RT = pRT
V
⇒ PM
P= = density of the gas
RT
Gas Gravity (yg): the specific gravity of a gas is defined as the ratio of
the density of the gas to the density of dry air, at stp.
pg Mg
yg = =
pair 29

Apparent molecular weight: a gas mixture behaves as if were a


pure gas with a definite molecular weight. This molecular weight is
known as an apparent molecular weight. It is defined as
Ma = ∑yiMi
Where
Ma = Apparent Molecular weight of Mixture
yi = Mole fraction of component
Mi = Molecular weight of component i
REAL GASES
The assumption for ideal gas law do not hold for gases at pressures and
temperatures that deviate from the ideal or standard conditions must be made
to account for the deviation from ideal behaviour.
The most widely used correction method is the gas compressibility factor or
the gas deviation factor or the Z-factor.
Vactual
Z=
Videal
Vactual
⇒ Videal =
Z
For a certain quantity of gas, we write

P1V1 P2V2
=
V1T1 Z 2T2
Where: Z1 = Gas deviation factor at condition 1
Z2 = Gas deviation factor at condition 2
Density of Real Gas
M
PV = Z RT
M
PM
⇒P=
ZRT
At standard conditions (P = 14.73psia, T = 520R)
2.7 Py g
⇒P=
ZT
THE THEOREM OF CORRESPONDING STATES
T
Reduced Temperature Tr =
Tc
Reduced Pressure P
Pr =
Pc
Reduced Volume V
Vr =
Where: Vc
T = actual temperature
P = actual pressure
V = critical temperature
Tc = critical temperature
Pc = critical pressure
Vc = critical volume
DETERMINATION OF Z - FACTOR
 Using Standing and Kate Correlation
 If Gas composition is given
- Pseudo critical pressure: Ppc = ∑yiPci
- Pseudo critical temperature: Tpc = ∑yiTci
 If Gas composition is not given but gas gravity is given:
Ppc = 709.604 – 58.718yg
Tpc = 170.491 + 307.344 yg
For a gaseous mixture
T
Tp r =
Tpc
P
Pp r =
Ppc
The interception of pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo reduced
temperature on standing and Katz chart gives the z factor
GAS FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR (Bg)
Where: V = volume at reservoir condition
Vsc = volume at standard condition

From the equation of state


V
Bg =
Vsc

ZnRT Psc
Bg = x
P Z sc nRTsc

= (
ZT Psc vol
Z scTsc P Std .Vol
)
At standard conditions: Psc = 14.7psia and Tsc =5200R, Zsc = 1

ZT 3
⇒ Bg = 0.0283 ft / scf
P
VISCOSITY OF NATURAL GAS
This is defined as a measure of resistance to flow exerted by the gas. The unit of viscosity is the centipaise.
There are two ways of estimating viscosity
 Laboratory method
 Correlations
 By Lab Method
If analysis of the gas mixture is known and the viscosities of the components are known, then

µ
=
∑ ( µ
2iy i Mi )
∑(y )
2
i Mi
 By Correlations
µ
2 = f ( M , T ) and µ = f ( Pr Tr )
µ

1
(a) Compute AMW of the gas ∑yiMi
µ
(b) Determine the g iof the gas mixture at 1 atmosphere using chart. If the pressure of
the mixture is above 1 atm then
3. Calculate pseudo critical temperature/pressure
4. Calculate reduced temperature/pressure
5. Determine the viscosity ratio (µ g/ µ gi ) from chart

6. Calculate µ g

7. If the gas contains non-HC components, then the should be corrected using chart.
ESTIMATION OF GAS RESERVES
Three methods are available
1.Volumetric Method
2.Material Balance Method
3.Pressure Decline Method
Volumetric Method
This is applied in a new field for rough estimates. No production history is
required. We need only geological data like porosity, water saturation etc.

43560 Ahφ (1 − S wi )
G
Bgi
Where: A = Area of the reservoir (Acres)
h = Formation thickness (ft)
φ = Porosity
Swi = Water Saturation
Bgi = Initial gas formation vol factor
G = Gas initial in plae
Gas produced at any given condition (Gp) is
 1 1 
G p =43560 Ah φ(1 −S wi ) − 

B gi B g 

Recovery Factor
Gp Bgi
Eg = = 1−
G Bg

MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD


This is used for reservoir that has produced long enough.
There are two cases:
- Without water production/influx
- With water production/influx

 Without water production/influx


G ( Bg − Bgi )
Gp =
Bg

 With water production/influx


G ( Bg − Bgi ) We − W p Bw
Gp = +
Bg Bg
PRESSURE DECLINE METHOD
P PbTG p Pi
=− +
Z Z bTbVi Z i
COMPRESSION OF NATURAL GAS
Add energy to the gas

TYPES

(1)Positive Displacement Compressors


- Reciprocating Compressors
- Rotary Blowers

(2)Continuous flow compressors


- Centrifugal Compressors
- Ejectors

Reciprocating compressors are the most commonly used in


gas industry
COMPONENTS
- Piston
- Cylinder
- Suction/Discharge Valves
- Connecting Rod
- Impeller
- Shaft
- Diffuser
- Volute

COMPRESSION CYCLE
- Ideal Cycle
- Actual Cycle
MULTISTAGE COMPRESSOR ARRANGEMENT

Ps Pd
1 2 3

Compressor Ratio r = Pd
Ps
For design purposes r<6
For practical purposes r ≤ 4
- Optimum Number of stages is given by
1

r =  d 
P n

 Ps 
Where:
Pd = discharge pressure (psia)
Ps = suction pressure (psia)
n = No of stages required
COMPRSSOR DESIGN
This involves
1. The determination of compressor capacity
2. The determination of power requirements

- Determination of compressor capacity

πd LSEv
2
q=
4
Where
q = Flow capacity (scfd)
d = Piston diameter (ft)
L = Stroke length (ft)
S = Compressor speed (rpm)
Ev = Volumetric efficiency
The volumetric efficiency is calculated from
 Z1  1k 
Ev = 1 − A − C  r − 1
 Z 2  

Z1 = gas derivation factor at suction condition


Z2 = gas derivation factor at discharge condition
K = Cp/Cv = Isentropic exponent
DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSOR HORSEPOWER
Theoretical HP is determined by 3 ways
- Analytical method
- Mollier diagram
- Quickie estimate

ANALYTICAL METHOD:

3.027 Pb K  Z s ( K − 1) 
W= T1  (r) − 1
Tb K −1  K 
Where:
W = Power required HP/MNscf
Pb = Pressure at standard condition (psia)
Tb = Temperature standard condition (oR)
T1 = Suction Temperature (oR)
Z2 = Gas deviation factor at suction condition
Mollier Diagram
W = 0.0432 ∆ H
where
W = Power required (HP/MNSIFD)
∆ H = Enthalpy change (BTU/Ib-mol)
Quickie Charts
Used for making quick estimates. They give higher values than other
methods. Should not replace accurate methods.
(Copy charts on Page 140).
VPb T1
bHp = 14.4 T ( bHp / MMcfd )
b

OR
qPb T1
bHp = ( bHp / MMcfd )
(10) Tb
4

Where
V = Inlet capacity of compressor (mmcfd)
q = Inlet capacity of compressor (cfm)
Pb = Standard pressure (Psia)
Tb = Standard temperature (oR)
T1 = Inlet temperature of compressor (oR)
(bHp/MMcfd) = Factor determined from chart
bHp = Power requirement (HP)
GAS METERING
 To determine volumetric flow rates
 To determine pressure loss for a particular flow rate
EQUIPMENT USED
 Orifice meter
 Turbine meter
 Pilot tube
 Critical flow prover
ORIFICE METERING
 Means of measuring the PD caused by a change in velocity of the gas as it
passes through a restriction placed in the pipe.
 Gas flow rate in scf/hr is given as

qsc =C hwp f

Where: qsc = gas flowrate scf/hr


C = Orifice constants
hw = differential press across the orifice (inches H2O)
pf = flowing pressure (Psia)
* *
C = Fb Fpb Ftb Fg Ftf Fr Fpv Fm Y

Basic Orifice Factor (Fb): Dependends on the location of the differential taps and the
internal pipe diameter and orifice diameter value is obtained from table.
Pressure Base Factor (Fpb ): for pressure correction if the pressure base used is not
14.73psia.

Fpb = 14.73
Pb

Temperature Base Factor (Ftb ): for temperature correction if the base temperature is
not 520R.

Tb
Ttb =
520
Specific Gravity Factor (Fg): For SG correlation if the gas SG is other than 1.00

−0.5
Fg = Y g
Flowing Temperature Factor (Ftf ): For flowing temperature correction
if the flowing temperature of gas is other than 600F
0.5
 
=520
Tf 
Ftf
 

Reynolds Number Factor (Fr): It accounts for variation of the discharge


coefficient with Reynolds number. Value obtained from chart
Supercompressibility factor (Fpv ): It corrects the variation from the ideal
gas law:
Fpv = 1( Ζ) 0.5

Expansion Factor (Y): It accounts for change in gas density as the


pressure changes across the orifice. The change is usually small and
therefore ignored
Manometer Factor (Fm): For correction when mercury-type manometer
is used. It accounts for different heads of gas above the two legs of the
manometer. Usually small value and therefore insignificant.
Turbine Meter
 A velocity responsive meter that is connected in the pipeline such that
the entire gas stream passes through the meter.
 A propeller in the meter turns at a velocity which is proportional to the
velocity of the fluid flowing through it
 A secondary element to sense and totalize the revolutions of the
propeller is connected.

Flow in Wells
Several methods are available for calculating static and flowing pressure
drop in gas wells. The most widely used method is that of cullender and
smith.
The pressure gradient equation applicable to any fluid at any pipe
inclination angle is give as

dp g fρv 2 ρvdv
= ρSinθ + + ............(1)
dL g c 2 g c d g c dL
OR
dp  dρ   dρ   dρ 
=  +  +   ............(2)
dL  dL  el  dL  f  dL  acc
Static Bottom – Hole Pressure
For a vertical (θ = 900, Sin θ = 1), shut in (v = 0) gas well, equation 1 becomes

dp gρ g
=
dh gc
PM
ρg =
ZRT
dρ gMdh
⇒ = .................(3)
ρ g c RZT
ρws dρ gM H
∫ρ ts
=
ρ g c RZ T ∫0
dh
In oilfield unit
 ( 0.01875 y g H ) 
ρws = ρts exp  
 ( ZT ) 
Where

Pws = Static or shut – in BHP (psia)

Pts = Static tubing pressure (psia)

yg = Gas gravity

H = Well depth (ft)

T = Averagetemperature in the tubing OR


Z = Gas compressibility factor
Cullender and Smith Method
From equation (3), we can write

ρws TZ M H MH
∫ρ ts ρ
dρ =
R ∫0
dh =
R
= 0.01875 y g H

This integral is written in short notation as

ρws TZ ρws
∫ρ ts ρ
dρ = ∫ Idρ = 0.01875 y g H
ρts

Using a series expansion

2 ∫ Idρ = ( ρ MS − ρ ts )( I MS − I ts ) + ( ρ ws − ρ ms )( I ws + I ms )
Where
ρ ms = Pressure at mid point of well (H/s)
Ims = I evaluated at ρ ms ,T
Its = I evaluated at ρ ts , Ts
Iws = I evaluated at ρ ws , Tf

0.01875 y g H
ρ ms = ρ ts +
I ms + I ts
0.01875 y g H
ρ ws = ρ ms +
I ms + I ss
FLOWING BOTTOM HOLE PRESURE

25 y g q 2T Z f ( MD ) ( exp( S ) − 1)
ρ wf = ρ tf exp( S ) +
2

Sd 5

Where
Pwf = Flowing bottom – hole pressure (psia)
S = 0.0375yg (TVD)/TZ
MD = Measure depth (ft)
TVD = True vertical depth (ft)
T = 0R
q = MMScfd
d = inches
f = F(NRR, E /d) (Jain or Colebrook equation)
FLOW IN PIPELINES

ρ ρ 0.5
C
T b
2
−  2

q = 
1 2
 D 2.5
Pb y g fT Z L 
 

Value of C depends on the units used


ρ T d L q C
Psia 0
R in Mi scfd 77.54
Psia 0
R in ft scfd 56.38
Psia 0
R in ft MMscfd 5.638 x 10-3
Kpa 0
K M m M3/d 1.149 x 106

Where
f = friction factor
D = Diameter of pipeline (inches)
L = Length of Pipeline (miles)
Evaluation of friction factor
0.032
Weymouth = 1
D 3

Panhandle A = f
0.085 / N Re0.147

Panhandle B =
0.015
N Re 0.183
Pipeline flow equation without f becomes
a3 a4
a2
ρ − ρ 
2 2
 Tb  1 
q = a1 E 
ρ 
  1
T ZL
21
   [d ]
a5

 b  
 
  yg
 

Where the values of as are


a1 a2 a3 a4 a5

Weymouth: 433.50 1.000 0.5000 0.5000 2.667


Panhandle A: 435.87 1.0788 0.5394 0.4604 2.618
Panhandle B: 737.00 1.0200 0.5100 0.4900 2.530

q = ft3/day
T = 0
R
ρ = psia
L = miles
d = inches

Weymouth equation is used for pipeline diameter of d≤ 16 inches


Pipeline in Series
∆ρ T =∆ ρ 1 +∆ ρ 2 +∆ ρ 3

N
Li
Le = d 5.333
∑d i −1
5.333
i

Pipeline in Parallel

qT = q1 + q2 + q3

N N 2.5
di
qT = C ∑ 0.5 = C 1 ∑ di a 5
i −1 f i i −1
WELL PERFORMANCE
Two – phase flow problem in flowing wells can be handled by
1. Fluid gravity adjustment
2. Correlations – Hagedorn & Brown

Gravity Adjustment
- Adjusting gas gravity to a mixture gravity to account for the added density
due to the liquid.
- The mixture gravity is given by

y g + 4591 y L R
ym =
1 +1123 / R
Where ym = adjusted fluid gravity
yg = dry gas gravity
yL = liquid specific gravity
R = Producing gas liquid ratio (Scf/STB)
Hagedorn and Brown Method:
 Ignoring acceleration component

dp g fρ f Vm2
= ρ mCosφ +
dh g c 2gcd
ρ m = ρ LHL + ρ g (1 – HL)
ρ L= Liquid density
ρ g = gas density
HL = Liquid holdup (fraction of pipe occupies by liquid)
φ = angle of well segment from vertical
Vm = VSL + Vsg
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity = qL/Aρ
A ρ = area of flowing string π d2/4
d = flow string ID
ρ f = ρ n2/ ρ m
ρ n = ρ Lλ + ρ (1- λ )
λ =V /V
The fraction factor is calculated Jain equation as

1  ∈ 21.25 
= 1.14 − 2 Log  + 
f d N RE 
0.9

ρ nVm d
N Re m =
µm
Where
µ ( 1− H L )
µ µ HL
m = L g

µ
L = Liquid viscosity

µ
g = gas viscosity
To determine HL, we need to calculate

0.25

N LV = 1.938VSL  ρ L 
 σ
0.25

N gV = 1.938Vsg  ρ L 
 σ
0.5

N d = 120.872d  ρ L 
 σ
0.25
1.0
µ 
N L = 0.15726  3
 ρ Lσ 
L
Where VSL, VSg = ft/Sec
ρ L = Ib/ft3
σ = dynes / cm
d = ft
µ L = centipoise
Then
1. Calculate NL
2. Find CNL from figure 4.7
3. Calculate XH

N LV (CNL )ρ0.1
XH =
N d N g0v.575 ρa0.1
Where ρ a = 14.7psia

4. Find HL/ψ b from figure 4.8


5. Calculate Xψ

N gr N L0.38
Xψ =
N d2.14
6. Find ψ from figure 4.9
7. Calculate HL = ψ  H L 
 ψ

FIELD HANDLING OF NATURAL GAS
A typical well stream is a high velocity, turbulent and constantly
expanding mixture of gases, hydrocarbon liquids, water vapour,
free water, solids and other contaminants. Field processing of
NG consists of four basic processes.

1. Separation of the gas from free liquids and entrained solids


2. Processing the gas to remove condensable and recoverable
hydrocabon vapoours
3. Processing the gas to remove condensable water vapour to avoid
hydrate formation.
4. Processing the gas to remove other undesirable components
such as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide
SEPARATORS
Separation of well stream gas from free liquids/solids is
accomplished in a separator

FUNCTIONS OF SEPARATORS
1. Causes of primary – phase separation of the liquid hydrocarbons
from these that are mostly gas.
2. Refine the primary separation by removing most of the entrained
liquid mist from the gas.
3. Further refine the separation by removing the entrained gas from
the liquid.
4. Discharge the separated gas and liquid from vessel and ensure
that no re-entrainment of one into the other.

TYPES
1. Vertical
2. Horizontal
3. Horizontal Double Barrel
Each has specific advantages and selection is based on which one will
accomplish the desired results at the lowest cost.

ACID GAS REMOVAL


- Maximum Allowable of H2S is sales Gas is
(0.25gm per 100ft3 or 4ppm/100ft3)
Hydrogen sulphide and carbon Dioxide are removed by Absorption process:
Chemicals used are:
MEA
DEA
Sulfinol
Molecular sieve
Iron Sponge

GAS DEHYDRATION

 Removal of water vapour from natural gas


 Maximum allowable is 7Ib of H20/Mcf of gas
Processes involved
1. Absorption
2. Adorption
LIQUID HYDROCABON RECOVERY
 Products extracted from the gas in liquid recovery may include:
Ethane
Propane
Isobutane
Normal butane
Natural Gasoline
HYDROGEN SULPHIDE TREATMENT
 Clans process
 Two stages involved
 Thermal step: H2S is partially oxidized in a furnance to S02

Temperature 1000 – 14000c


 Catalytic step: H2S reacts over V205 catalyst with S02

1 H 2 S + 1 02 →1 S 02 + 1 H 2 0
3 2 3 3
1 H 2 S + 1 S 0 2 →S + 2 H 2 0
3 3 3
H 2 S + 1 0 2 →S + H 2 0
2
GAS CONDENSATE SYSTEMS
 Gas at initial reservoir conditions but condenses to form same liquid at
some point in its path to the separator.
 They include both wet gas and retrograde condensate reservoirs.
- Wet gas – Fluid initially exists as a gas in the reservior and remains in the
gaseous phase as pressure declines at reservoir temperature. However, in
being produced to the surface, the temperature drops, causing
condensation in the piping system and separator.
- Retrograde gas – fluid exists as a gas at initial reservoir conditions. As
reservoir pressure declines at reservour temperature, the dew point line is
crossed and liquid forms in the reservoir, piping system and separator.
PHASE BEHAVIOUR
The phase behaviour of a fluid can be described by determining its response to
pressure and temperature changes.
- Liquid: molecules are very close together
- Gas: molecules are widely separated
- Confining forces: Pressure and molecular attraction
- Dispersing forces: Kinetic energy (temperature) and molecular repulsion.
- The magnitudes of the confining and dispersing forces dictate whether the
fluid is a liquid or a gas.
For multicomponent system

The difference in molecule size and energy has influence on the phase
change.
- The locus of all the points where the first bubble of gas appears in
liquid as pressure and temperature conditions are changed is called
the bubble point here.
- The locus of all points where the first droplet of liquid appears in a
gas as the conditions are changed is called dew point line.
- The highest pressure at which a gas can exist is called the
cricondenbar.
- The highest temperature at which a liquid can exist is called the
cricondentherm
CALCULATION OF VAPOUR – LIQUID EQUILIBRIA
From the relationship:
yi
Ki = ⇒ yi = K i xi
xi
and
Zin = xiL + yiV
Zi n
⇒xi =
L +K iV
Σ xi=1 and + Σ yi = 1

Hence

Zi n
∑ i ∑L +K V =1
x =
i

and

Zi n
∑ i ∑V + L
y = =1
Ki
Where
n = total No. of moles V in mixture
L = total No. of moles V in liquid
V = total no of moles V in vapour
Zi = mole fraction of component i in mixture
Ki = equilibrium ratio of component
yi = mole fraction of component i in vapour phase
xi = mole fraction of component i in liquid phase

BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE


At bubble point
V →0
L →n
Hence Zi n
∑y i = Lim ∑
V →0 L +V
=1
ki
OR
Zi
∑ K =1
i
NOTE
If Σ ZiKi > 1, the assumed pressure is below ρ b

If Σ ZiKi > 1, the assumed pressure is above ρ b

Zi
If ∑ Ki
<1 The assumed pressure is below ρ d

Zi
If ∑ Ki
>1 The assumed pressure is above ρ d
DETERMINATION OF INITIAL OIL & GAS IN PLACE

Let: R = Initial surface gas – oil ratio


y0 = Specifi gravity of the tank oil
Mo = Molecular weight of the tank oil
yg = Specific gravity of produced gas

Standard conditions: 14.7psia


600F
379.4 Scf/mole
Ome the basis of one bbl of tank oil/R Scf of gas
- The mass of total well fluid (Mw) is
Mw = 0.07636RYg + 350Y0
- The total moles of fluid in one bbl of oil and R cubic feet of gas is
nt = 0.002636R + 350 y0/Mo
- The molecular weight of the well fluid Mw
Mw 0.07636 Ry g + 350 y0
Mw = =
nt Y
0.002636 R + 350 0
M0
- The specific gravity of the well fluid is
Mw
yw =
nt
OR
Ry g + 4584 y0
yw =
y
R + 132,800 0
M0

44.29 y0 6084
M0 = =
1.03 − y0 API − 5.9
141.5
y0 =
API + 131.5

ng = No. of Mole of gas = R


395.4
y
N0 = No of mole of oil = 350 0
M0
The fraction of the total gas that is produced on the surface as gas is
ng
fg =
ng + n0
The total initial gas in place per acre – foot of bulk reservoir rock is

16,528,664 ρ φ(1 − S w )
G= ( Mcf / acre − ft )
ZRT
Hence:

Initial Gas In Place = fgG


f gG
Intial Oil in Place =
R
THERMODYNAMICS CONCEPTS
Natural gas processing involves controlling the mass and energy
transfer within, to or from the fluid/stream under consideration.
The calculations in natural gas processing involve the prediction of
enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of the system.
These functions are determined using

1.PVT data
2.Tables of data
3.Generalized correlations for H and S
4.Figures showing H & S as functions of system PVT

Kinetic Energy
MV 2
EK =
2
Potential Energy

Eρ = Mgh
Internal Energy (U) energy of system by virtue of its state.
Enthalpy (H): H = U + ρ V

Heat (Q): energy in transition across the boundary of the system

Entropy (S): S = Q/T


Q = MCρ ∆ t

Calculation Using ρ VT Data


Both enthalpy and entropy can be expressed in terms of other
thermodynamic properties.
  dv  
dH = C ρ dT + V − T    dρ
  dT  ρ 
dT  dv  
dS = C ρ −    dρ
T  dT  ρ 
Where Cρ = Sρ ht at constant pressure
ρ , T = Pressure and Temperature (absolute units)
V = Corresponding volume of the system

Calculation using Table of Thermodynamic Properties


The thermodynamic property of a two – phase mixture is found from
the saturated tables as:
t = (1 – x) tg + x tf

Where t = thermodyanmical property (h, S, V) of mixture


tg = thermodyanmical property of saturated vapour
tf = thermodyanmical property of saturated liquid
X = composition of liquid in mixture
Calculation using Charts and Figures

The four useful chaarts are


(1) Enthalpy – temperature (H.T)
(2) Enthalpy – pressure (H.P)
(3) Enthalpy – Entropy (H.S) Mollier diagram
(4) Temperature – Endropy (T.S)

GAS UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION


- LNG
- GTL
- POWER
- FEEDSTOCK

(Fig required)