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of hydrocarbon and non hydrocarbon gases found in

underground rock reservoirs either on its own as free

gas or in association with crude oil.

* Hydrocarbon Components:

o C1 – C7+

* Non Hydrocarbon Components

- Nitrogen (N2)

- Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)

- Carbon Dioxide (Co2)

- Water Vapour (H20)

TYPES OF NATURAL GAS DEPOSIT

Associated Gas: Gas Co-exists in reservoir with Crude Oil.

Non-Associated Gas: Gas exists without oil in the Reservoir.

Gas Condensates: Gases exists in gaseous form in the reservoir but liquefy on

production due to reduction in pressure. Gas condensates are of higher quality

and are therefore of more economic value.

Gases containing H2S and Co2 are called acid gases because they form acids or

acidic solution in the presence of water.

A gas is called sour if it contains H2S in amounts above 4ppm

Methane CH4 LNG

Ethane C2H6

Propane C3H8

NG

Pentanes and Heavier C5H12

Non-Hydrocarbons

NGL: Natural Gas Liquids

LNG: Liquefied Natural Gas

GAS PRODUCTION SCHEMATIC

Pipeline

Market

Compression

Processing

Production Tubing

USES OF NATURAL GAS

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

- Ideal Gases : the Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT

Where:

P = Absolute Pressure (psia)

V = Volume (ft3)

n = No. of Moles of gas

R = Universal Gas Constant

n=

m

M

T = Absolute Temperature (0R)

If M = Mass of gas (Ib)

And M = Molecular wt of the gas (Ibm/Ib-mol)

m

n=

M

m

⇒ Pv = RT

M

m

⇒ PM = RT = pRT

V

⇒ PM

P= = density of the gas

RT

Gas Gravity (yg): the specific gravity of a gas is defined as the ratio of

the density of the gas to the density of dry air, at stp.

pg Mg

yg = =

pair 29

pure gas with a definite molecular weight. This molecular weight is

known as an apparent molecular weight. It is defined as

Ma = ∑yiMi

Where

Ma = Apparent Molecular weight of Mixture

yi = Mole fraction of component

Mi = Molecular weight of component i

REAL GASES

The assumption for ideal gas law do not hold for gases at pressures and

temperatures that deviate from the ideal or standard conditions must be made

to account for the deviation from ideal behaviour.

The most widely used correction method is the gas compressibility factor or

the gas deviation factor or the Z-factor.

Vactual

Z=

Videal

Vactual

⇒ Videal =

Z

For a certain quantity of gas, we write

P1V1 P2V2

=

V1T1 Z 2T2

Where: Z1 = Gas deviation factor at condition 1

Z2 = Gas deviation factor at condition 2

Density of Real Gas

M

PV = Z RT

M

PM

⇒P=

ZRT

At standard conditions (P = 14.73psia, T = 520R)

2.7 Py g

⇒P=

ZT

THE THEOREM OF CORRESPONDING STATES

T

Reduced Temperature Tr =

Tc

Reduced Pressure P

Pr =

Pc

Reduced Volume V

Vr =

Where: Vc

T = actual temperature

P = actual pressure

V = critical temperature

Tc = critical temperature

Pc = critical pressure

Vc = critical volume

DETERMINATION OF Z - FACTOR

Using Standing and Kate Correlation

If Gas composition is given

- Pseudo critical pressure: Ppc = ∑yiPci

- Pseudo critical temperature: Tpc = ∑yiTci

If Gas composition is not given but gas gravity is given:

Ppc = 709.604 – 58.718yg

Tpc = 170.491 + 307.344 yg

For a gaseous mixture

T

Tp r =

Tpc

P

Pp r =

Ppc

The interception of pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo reduced

temperature on standing and Katz chart gives the z factor

GAS FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR (Bg)

Where: V = volume at reservoir condition

Vsc = volume at standard condition

V

Bg =

Vsc

ZnRT Psc

Bg = x

P Z sc nRTsc

= (

ZT Psc vol

Z scTsc P Std .Vol

)

At standard conditions: Psc = 14.7psia and Tsc =5200R, Zsc = 1

ZT 3

⇒ Bg = 0.0283 ft / scf

P

VISCOSITY OF NATURAL GAS

This is defined as a measure of resistance to flow exerted by the gas. The unit of viscosity is the centipaise.

There are two ways of estimating viscosity

Laboratory method

Correlations

By Lab Method

If analysis of the gas mixture is known and the viscosities of the components are known, then

µ

=

∑ ( µ

2iy i Mi )

∑(y )

2

i Mi

By Correlations

µ

2 = f ( M , T ) and µ = f ( Pr Tr )

µ

1

(a) Compute AMW of the gas ∑yiMi

µ

(b) Determine the g iof the gas mixture at 1 atmosphere using chart. If the pressure of

the mixture is above 1 atm then

3. Calculate pseudo critical temperature/pressure

4. Calculate reduced temperature/pressure

5. Determine the viscosity ratio (µ g/ µ gi ) from chart

6. Calculate µ g

7. If the gas contains non-HC components, then the should be corrected using chart.

ESTIMATION OF GAS RESERVES

Three methods are available

1.Volumetric Method

2.Material Balance Method

3.Pressure Decline Method

Volumetric Method

This is applied in a new field for rough estimates. No production history is

required. We need only geological data like porosity, water saturation etc.

43560 Ahφ (1 − S wi )

G

Bgi

Where: A = Area of the reservoir (Acres)

h = Formation thickness (ft)

φ = Porosity

Swi = Water Saturation

Bgi = Initial gas formation vol factor

G = Gas initial in plae

Gas produced at any given condition (Gp) is

1 1

G p =43560 Ah φ(1 −S wi ) −

B gi B g

Recovery Factor

Gp Bgi

Eg = = 1−

G Bg

This is used for reservoir that has produced long enough.

There are two cases:

- Without water production/influx

- With water production/influx

G ( Bg − Bgi )

Gp =

Bg

G ( Bg − Bgi ) We − W p Bw

Gp = +

Bg Bg

PRESSURE DECLINE METHOD

P PbTG p Pi

=− +

Z Z bTbVi Z i

COMPRESSION OF NATURAL GAS

Add energy to the gas

TYPES

- Reciprocating Compressors

- Rotary Blowers

- Centrifugal Compressors

- Ejectors

gas industry

COMPONENTS

- Piston

- Cylinder

- Suction/Discharge Valves

- Connecting Rod

- Impeller

- Shaft

- Diffuser

- Volute

COMPRESSION CYCLE

- Ideal Cycle

- Actual Cycle

MULTISTAGE COMPRESSOR ARRANGEMENT

Ps Pd

1 2 3

Compressor Ratio r = Pd

Ps

For design purposes r<6

For practical purposes r ≤ 4

- Optimum Number of stages is given by

1

r = d

P n

Ps

Where:

Pd = discharge pressure (psia)

Ps = suction pressure (psia)

n = No of stages required

COMPRSSOR DESIGN

This involves

1. The determination of compressor capacity

2. The determination of power requirements

πd LSEv

2

q=

4

Where

q = Flow capacity (scfd)

d = Piston diameter (ft)

L = Stroke length (ft)

S = Compressor speed (rpm)

Ev = Volumetric efficiency

The volumetric efficiency is calculated from

Z1 1k

Ev = 1 − A − C r − 1

Z 2

Z2 = gas derivation factor at discharge condition

K = Cp/Cv = Isentropic exponent

DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSOR HORSEPOWER

Theoretical HP is determined by 3 ways

- Analytical method

- Mollier diagram

- Quickie estimate

ANALYTICAL METHOD:

3.027 Pb K Z s ( K − 1)

W= T1 (r) − 1

Tb K −1 K

Where:

W = Power required HP/MNscf

Pb = Pressure at standard condition (psia)

Tb = Temperature standard condition (oR)

T1 = Suction Temperature (oR)

Z2 = Gas deviation factor at suction condition

Mollier Diagram

W = 0.0432 ∆ H

where

W = Power required (HP/MNSIFD)

∆ H = Enthalpy change (BTU/Ib-mol)

Quickie Charts

Used for making quick estimates. They give higher values than other

methods. Should not replace accurate methods.

(Copy charts on Page 140).

VPb T1

bHp = 14.4 T ( bHp / MMcfd )

b

OR

qPb T1

bHp = ( bHp / MMcfd )

(10) Tb

4

Where

V = Inlet capacity of compressor (mmcfd)

q = Inlet capacity of compressor (cfm)

Pb = Standard pressure (Psia)

Tb = Standard temperature (oR)

T1 = Inlet temperature of compressor (oR)

(bHp/MMcfd) = Factor determined from chart

bHp = Power requirement (HP)

GAS METERING

To determine volumetric flow rates

To determine pressure loss for a particular flow rate

EQUIPMENT USED

Orifice meter

Turbine meter

Pilot tube

Critical flow prover

ORIFICE METERING

Means of measuring the PD caused by a change in velocity of the gas as it

passes through a restriction placed in the pipe.

Gas flow rate in scf/hr is given as

qsc =C hwp f

C = Orifice constants

hw = differential press across the orifice (inches H2O)

pf = flowing pressure (Psia)

* *

C = Fb Fpb Ftb Fg Ftf Fr Fpv Fm Y

Basic Orifice Factor (Fb): Dependends on the location of the differential taps and the

internal pipe diameter and orifice diameter value is obtained from table.

Pressure Base Factor (Fpb ): for pressure correction if the pressure base used is not

14.73psia.

Fpb = 14.73

Pb

Temperature Base Factor (Ftb ): for temperature correction if the base temperature is

not 520R.

Tb

Ttb =

520

Specific Gravity Factor (Fg): For SG correlation if the gas SG is other than 1.00

−0.5

Fg = Y g

Flowing Temperature Factor (Ftf ): For flowing temperature correction

if the flowing temperature of gas is other than 600F

0.5

=520

Tf

Ftf

coefficient with Reynolds number. Value obtained from chart

Supercompressibility factor (Fpv ): It corrects the variation from the ideal

gas law:

Fpv = 1( Ζ) 0.5

pressure changes across the orifice. The change is usually small and

therefore ignored

Manometer Factor (Fm): For correction when mercury-type manometer

is used. It accounts for different heads of gas above the two legs of the

manometer. Usually small value and therefore insignificant.

Turbine Meter

A velocity responsive meter that is connected in the pipeline such that

the entire gas stream passes through the meter.

A propeller in the meter turns at a velocity which is proportional to the

velocity of the fluid flowing through it

A secondary element to sense and totalize the revolutions of the

propeller is connected.

Flow in Wells

Several methods are available for calculating static and flowing pressure

drop in gas wells. The most widely used method is that of cullender and

smith.

The pressure gradient equation applicable to any fluid at any pipe

inclination angle is give as

dp g fρv 2 ρvdv

= ρSinθ + + ............(1)

dL g c 2 g c d g c dL

OR

dp dρ dρ dρ

= + + ............(2)

dL dL el dL f dL acc

Static Bottom – Hole Pressure

For a vertical (θ = 900, Sin θ = 1), shut in (v = 0) gas well, equation 1 becomes

dp gρ g

=

dh gc

PM

ρg =

ZRT

dρ gMdh

⇒ = .................(3)

ρ g c RZT

ρws dρ gM H

∫ρ ts

=

ρ g c RZ T ∫0

dh

In oilfield unit

( 0.01875 y g H )

ρws = ρts exp

( ZT )

Where

yg = Gas gravity

Z = Gas compressibility factor

Cullender and Smith Method

From equation (3), we can write

ρws TZ M H MH

∫ρ ts ρ

dρ =

R ∫0

dh =

R

= 0.01875 y g H

ρws TZ ρws

∫ρ ts ρ

dρ = ∫ Idρ = 0.01875 y g H

ρts

2 ∫ Idρ = ( ρ MS − ρ ts )( I MS − I ts ) + ( ρ ws − ρ ms )( I ws + I ms )

Where

ρ ms = Pressure at mid point of well (H/s)

Ims = I evaluated at ρ ms ,T

Its = I evaluated at ρ ts , Ts

Iws = I evaluated at ρ ws , Tf

0.01875 y g H

ρ ms = ρ ts +

I ms + I ts

0.01875 y g H

ρ ws = ρ ms +

I ms + I ss

FLOWING BOTTOM HOLE PRESURE

25 y g q 2T Z f ( MD ) ( exp( S ) − 1)

ρ wf = ρ tf exp( S ) +

2

Sd 5

Where

Pwf = Flowing bottom – hole pressure (psia)

S = 0.0375yg (TVD)/TZ

MD = Measure depth (ft)

TVD = True vertical depth (ft)

T = 0R

q = MMScfd

d = inches

f = F(NRR, E /d) (Jain or Colebrook equation)

FLOW IN PIPELINES

ρ ρ 0.5

C

T b

2

− 2

q =

1 2

D 2.5

Pb y g fT Z L

ρ T d L q C

Psia 0

R in Mi scfd 77.54

Psia 0

R in ft scfd 56.38

Psia 0

R in ft MMscfd 5.638 x 10-3

Kpa 0

K M m M3/d 1.149 x 106

Where

f = friction factor

D = Diameter of pipeline (inches)

L = Length of Pipeline (miles)

Evaluation of friction factor

0.032

Weymouth = 1

D 3

Panhandle A = f

0.085 / N Re0.147

Panhandle B =

0.015

N Re 0.183

Pipeline flow equation without f becomes

a3 a4

a2

ρ − ρ

2 2

Tb 1

q = a1 E

ρ

1

T ZL

21

[d ]

a5

b

yg

a1 a2 a3 a4 a5

Panhandle A: 435.87 1.0788 0.5394 0.4604 2.618

Panhandle B: 737.00 1.0200 0.5100 0.4900 2.530

q = ft3/day

T = 0

R

ρ = psia

L = miles

d = inches

Pipeline in Series

∆ρ T =∆ ρ 1 +∆ ρ 2 +∆ ρ 3

N

Li

Le = d 5.333

∑d i −1

5.333

i

Pipeline in Parallel

qT = q1 + q2 + q3

N N 2.5

di

qT = C ∑ 0.5 = C 1 ∑ di a 5

i −1 f i i −1

WELL PERFORMANCE

Two – phase flow problem in flowing wells can be handled by

1. Fluid gravity adjustment

2. Correlations – Hagedorn & Brown

Gravity Adjustment

- Adjusting gas gravity to a mixture gravity to account for the added density

due to the liquid.

- The mixture gravity is given by

y g + 4591 y L R

ym =

1 +1123 / R

Where ym = adjusted fluid gravity

yg = dry gas gravity

yL = liquid specific gravity

R = Producing gas liquid ratio (Scf/STB)

Hagedorn and Brown Method:

Ignoring acceleration component

dp g fρ f Vm2

= ρ mCosφ +

dh g c 2gcd

ρ m = ρ LHL + ρ g (1 – HL)

ρ L= Liquid density

ρ g = gas density

HL = Liquid holdup (fraction of pipe occupies by liquid)

φ = angle of well segment from vertical

Vm = VSL + Vsg

VSL = Superficial liquid velocity = qL/Aρ

A ρ = area of flowing string π d2/4

d = flow string ID

ρ f = ρ n2/ ρ m

ρ n = ρ Lλ + ρ (1- λ )

λ =V /V

The fraction factor is calculated Jain equation as

1 ∈ 21.25

= 1.14 − 2 Log +

f d N RE

0.9

ρ nVm d

N Re m =

µm

Where

µ ( 1− H L )

µ µ HL

m = L g

µ

L = Liquid viscosity

µ

g = gas viscosity

To determine HL, we need to calculate

0.25

N LV = 1.938VSL ρ L

σ

0.25

N gV = 1.938Vsg ρ L

σ

0.5

N d = 120.872d ρ L

σ

0.25

1.0

µ

N L = 0.15726 3

ρ Lσ

L

Where VSL, VSg = ft/Sec

ρ L = Ib/ft3

σ = dynes / cm

d = ft

µ L = centipoise

Then

1. Calculate NL

2. Find CNL from figure 4.7

3. Calculate XH

N LV (CNL )ρ0.1

XH =

N d N g0v.575 ρa0.1

Where ρ a = 14.7psia

5. Calculate Xψ

N gr N L0.38

Xψ =

N d2.14

6. Find ψ from figure 4.9

7. Calculate HL = ψ H L

ψ

FIELD HANDLING OF NATURAL GAS

A typical well stream is a high velocity, turbulent and constantly

expanding mixture of gases, hydrocarbon liquids, water vapour,

free water, solids and other contaminants. Field processing of

NG consists of four basic processes.

2. Processing the gas to remove condensable and recoverable

hydrocabon vapoours

3. Processing the gas to remove condensable water vapour to avoid

hydrate formation.

4. Processing the gas to remove other undesirable components

such as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide

SEPARATORS

Separation of well stream gas from free liquids/solids is

accomplished in a separator

FUNCTIONS OF SEPARATORS

1. Causes of primary – phase separation of the liquid hydrocarbons

from these that are mostly gas.

2. Refine the primary separation by removing most of the entrained

liquid mist from the gas.

3. Further refine the separation by removing the entrained gas from

the liquid.

4. Discharge the separated gas and liquid from vessel and ensure

that no re-entrainment of one into the other.

TYPES

1. Vertical

2. Horizontal

3. Horizontal Double Barrel

Each has specific advantages and selection is based on which one will

accomplish the desired results at the lowest cost.

- Maximum Allowable of H2S is sales Gas is

(0.25gm per 100ft3 or 4ppm/100ft3)

Hydrogen sulphide and carbon Dioxide are removed by Absorption process:

Chemicals used are:

MEA

DEA

Sulfinol

Molecular sieve

Iron Sponge

GAS DEHYDRATION

Maximum allowable is 7Ib of H20/Mcf of gas

Processes involved

1. Absorption

2. Adorption

LIQUID HYDROCABON RECOVERY

Products extracted from the gas in liquid recovery may include:

Ethane

Propane

Isobutane

Normal butane

Natural Gasoline

HYDROGEN SULPHIDE TREATMENT

Clans process

Two stages involved

Thermal step: H2S is partially oxidized in a furnance to S02

Catalytic step: H2S reacts over V205 catalyst with S02

1 H 2 S + 1 02 →1 S 02 + 1 H 2 0

3 2 3 3

1 H 2 S + 1 S 0 2 →S + 2 H 2 0

3 3 3

H 2 S + 1 0 2 →S + H 2 0

2

GAS CONDENSATE SYSTEMS

Gas at initial reservoir conditions but condenses to form same liquid at

some point in its path to the separator.

They include both wet gas and retrograde condensate reservoirs.

- Wet gas – Fluid initially exists as a gas in the reservior and remains in the

gaseous phase as pressure declines at reservoir temperature. However, in

being produced to the surface, the temperature drops, causing

condensation in the piping system and separator.

- Retrograde gas – fluid exists as a gas at initial reservoir conditions. As

reservoir pressure declines at reservour temperature, the dew point line is

crossed and liquid forms in the reservoir, piping system and separator.

PHASE BEHAVIOUR

The phase behaviour of a fluid can be described by determining its response to

pressure and temperature changes.

- Liquid: molecules are very close together

- Gas: molecules are widely separated

- Confining forces: Pressure and molecular attraction

- Dispersing forces: Kinetic energy (temperature) and molecular repulsion.

- The magnitudes of the confining and dispersing forces dictate whether the

fluid is a liquid or a gas.

For multicomponent system

The difference in molecule size and energy has influence on the phase

change.

- The locus of all the points where the first bubble of gas appears in

liquid as pressure and temperature conditions are changed is called

the bubble point here.

- The locus of all points where the first droplet of liquid appears in a

gas as the conditions are changed is called dew point line.

- The highest pressure at which a gas can exist is called the

cricondenbar.

- The highest temperature at which a liquid can exist is called the

cricondentherm

CALCULATION OF VAPOUR – LIQUID EQUILIBRIA

From the relationship:

yi

Ki = ⇒ yi = K i xi

xi

and

Zin = xiL + yiV

Zi n

⇒xi =

L +K iV

Σ xi=1 and + Σ yi = 1

Hence

Zi n

∑ i ∑L +K V =1

x =

i

and

Zi n

∑ i ∑V + L

y = =1

Ki

Where

n = total No. of moles V in mixture

L = total No. of moles V in liquid

V = total no of moles V in vapour

Zi = mole fraction of component i in mixture

Ki = equilibrium ratio of component

yi = mole fraction of component i in vapour phase

xi = mole fraction of component i in liquid phase

At bubble point

V →0

L →n

Hence Zi n

∑y i = Lim ∑

V →0 L +V

=1

ki

OR

Zi

∑ K =1

i

NOTE

If Σ ZiKi > 1, the assumed pressure is below ρ b

Zi

If ∑ Ki

<1 The assumed pressure is below ρ d

Zi

If ∑ Ki

>1 The assumed pressure is above ρ d

DETERMINATION OF INITIAL OIL & GAS IN PLACE

y0 = Specifi gravity of the tank oil

Mo = Molecular weight of the tank oil

yg = Specific gravity of produced gas

600F

379.4 Scf/mole

Ome the basis of one bbl of tank oil/R Scf of gas

- The mass of total well fluid (Mw) is

Mw = 0.07636RYg + 350Y0

- The total moles of fluid in one bbl of oil and R cubic feet of gas is

nt = 0.002636R + 350 y0/Mo

- The molecular weight of the well fluid Mw

Mw 0.07636 Ry g + 350 y0

Mw = =

nt Y

0.002636 R + 350 0

M0

- The specific gravity of the well fluid is

Mw

yw =

nt

OR

Ry g + 4584 y0

yw =

y

R + 132,800 0

M0

44.29 y0 6084

M0 = =

1.03 − y0 API − 5.9

141.5

y0 =

API + 131.5

395.4

y

N0 = No of mole of oil = 350 0

M0

The fraction of the total gas that is produced on the surface as gas is

ng

fg =

ng + n0

The total initial gas in place per acre – foot of bulk reservoir rock is

16,528,664 ρ φ(1 − S w )

G= ( Mcf / acre − ft )

ZRT

Hence:

f gG

Intial Oil in Place =

R

THERMODYNAMICS CONCEPTS

Natural gas processing involves controlling the mass and energy

transfer within, to or from the fluid/stream under consideration.

The calculations in natural gas processing involve the prediction of

enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of the system.

These functions are determined using

1.PVT data

2.Tables of data

3.Generalized correlations for H and S

4.Figures showing H & S as functions of system PVT

Kinetic Energy

MV 2

EK =

2

Potential Energy

Eρ = Mgh

Internal Energy (U) energy of system by virtue of its state.

Enthalpy (H): H = U + ρ V

Q = MCρ ∆ t

Both enthalpy and entropy can be expressed in terms of other

thermodynamic properties.

dv

dH = C ρ dT + V − T dρ

dT ρ

dT dv

dS = C ρ − dρ

T dT ρ

Where Cρ = Sρ ht at constant pressure

ρ , T = Pressure and Temperature (absolute units)

V = Corresponding volume of the system

The thermodynamic property of a two – phase mixture is found from

the saturated tables as:

t = (1 – x) tg + x tf

tg = thermodyanmical property of saturated vapour

tf = thermodyanmical property of saturated liquid

X = composition of liquid in mixture

Calculation using Charts and Figures

(1) Enthalpy – temperature (H.T)

(2) Enthalpy – pressure (H.P)

(3) Enthalpy – Entropy (H.S) Mollier diagram

(4) Temperature – Endropy (T.S)

- LNG

- GTL

- POWER

- FEEDSTOCK

(Fig required)

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