You are on page 1of 44

Top school in India

By:
school.edhole.com

Appendices 10.A & 10.B:

An Educational Presentation
Presented By:
Joseph Ash
Jordan Baldwin
Justin Hirt
Andrea Lance

school.edhole.com

Jean Baptiste Biot

(1774-1862)

French Physicist
Worked on analysis of
heat conduction
Unsuccessful at dealing
with the problem of
incorporating external
convection effects in heat
conduction analysis

school.edhole.com

History of Heat Conduction

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier
(1768 1830)
1807 determined how to solve the
problem
Fouriers Law

Time rate of heat flow (Q) through a

slab is proportional to the gradient of
temperature difference

school.edhole.com

History of Heat Conduction

Ernst Schmidt
German scientist
Pioneer in Engineering
Thermodynamics
Published paper Graphical Difference
First to measure velocity and
temperature field in free convection
boundary layer and large heat transfer
coefficients
Schmidt Number
Analogy between heat and mass
transfer that causes a dimensionless
quantity

school.edhole.com

Derivation of the Heat

Conduction Equation
A first approximation of the equations
that govern the conduction of heat in a
solid rod.

school.edhole.com

ends.

It is proven that heat per unit time will pass

from the warmer section to the cooler one.
The amount of heat is proportional to the
area, A, and to the temperature difference
T2-T1, and is inversely proportional to the
separation distance, d.

school.edhole.com

following:

is a proportionality factor called the thermal

conductivity and is determined by material properties

school.edhole.com

Assumptions

The bar has a length L so x=0 and x=L

Perfectly insulated
Temperature, u, depends only on position, x,
and time, t

Usually valid when the lateral dimensions are

small compared to the total length.

school.edhole.com

The differential equation governing

the temperature of the bar is a
physical balance between two rates:
Flux/Flow term
Absorption term

school.edhole.com

Flux

The instantaneous rate of heat transfer from left to

right across the cross sections x=x0 where x0 is
arbitrary can be defined as:

The negative is needed in order to show a positive

rate from left to right (hot to cold)

school.edhole.com

Flux

Similarly, the instantaneous rate of heat transfer

from right to left across the cross section x=x0+x
where x is small can be defined as:

school.edhole.com

Flux

The amount of heat entering the bar in a time span

of t is found by subtracting the previous two
equations and then multiplying the result by t:

school.edhole.com

Heat Absorption

The average change in temperature, u, can be

written in terms of the heat introduced, Q t and
the mass m of the element as:

where

school.edhole.com

= density

Heat Absorption

The actual temperature change of the bar is simply

the actual change in temperature at some
intermediate point, so the above equation can also
be written as:

This is the heat absorption equation.

school.edhole.com

Heat Equation

Equating the Qt in the flux and absorption

terms, we find the heat absorption equation to
be:

school.edhole.com

If we divide the above equation by xt and allow

both x and t to both go to 0, we will obtain the
heat conduction or diffusion equation:

where
and has the dimensions of length^2/time and called
the thermal diffusivity

school.edhole.com

Boundary Conditions

Certain boundary conditions may apply to the

specific heat conduction problem, for
example:

If one end is maintained at some constant

temperature value, then the boundary condition
for that end is u = T.
If one end is perfectly insulated, then the
boundary condition stipulates ux = 0.

school.edhole.com

Consider the end where x=0 and the rate of flow of

heat is proportional to the temperature at the end of
the bar.

Recall that the rate of flow will be given, from left to right, as

With this said, the rate of heat flow out of the bar from right to
left will be

Therefore, the boundary condition at x=0 is

where h1 is a proportionality constant
if h1=0, then it corresponds to an insulated end
if h1 goes to infinity, then the end is held at 0 temp.

school.edhole.com

Similarly, if heat flow occurs at the end x = L, then the

boundary condition is as follows:

where, again, h2 is a nonzero proportionality

factor

school.edhole.com

Finally, the temperature distribution at one

fixed instant usually taken at t = 0, takes the
form:

occurring throughout the bar

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

Sometimes, the thermal conductivity, density,

specific heat, or area may change as the axial
position changes. The rate of heat transfer under
such conditions at x=x0 is now:

The heat equation then becomes a partial

differential equation in the form:
or

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

Other ways for heat to enter or leave a bar must

also be taken into consideration.
Assume G(x,t,u) is a rate per unit per time.

Source

G(x,t,u) is added to the bar

G(x,t,u) is positive, non-zero, linear, and u does not depend on t
G(x,t,u) must be added to the left side of the heat equation
yielding the following differential equation

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

Similarly,

Sink

G(x,t,u) is subtracted from the bar

G(x,t,u) is positive, non-zero, linear, and u does not
depend on t
G(x,t,u) then under this sink condition takes the
form:

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

Putting the source and sink equations together

in the heat equation yields

which is commonly called the generalized

heat conduction equation

school.edhole.com

Multi-dimensional space

Now consider a bar in which the temperature is

a function of more than just the axial xdirection. Then the heat conduction equation
can then be written:

2-D:

3-D:

school.edhole.com

Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9

Let an aluminum rod of length 20 cm be initially
at the uniform temperature 25C. Suppose that
at time t=0, the end x=0 is cooled to 0C while
the end x=20 is heated to 60C, and both are
thereafter maintained at those temperatures.
Find the temperature distribution in
the rod at any time t

school.edhole.com

Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9

Find the temperature distribution, u(x,t)

2uxx=ut,

0<x<20, t<0
u(0,t)=0 u(20,t)=60, t<0
u(x,0)=25,
0<x<20
From the initial equation we find that:
L=20, T1=0, T2=60, f(x)=25
We look up the Thermal Diffusivity of aluminum2=0.86

school.edhole.com

Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9

Using Equations 16 and 17 found on page 614, we
find that
u x, t T2 T1

x
T1 cn e
L
n 1

n 2 2 2t
L2

nx
sin

where
2 L
x
nx
c n f x T2 T1 T1 sin
dx
0
L
L
L

school.edhole.com

Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9

Evaluating cn, we find that
2 L
x
nx
cn
25 60 0 0 sin
dx

0
20
20 20
107n cosn 12 sin n 5n
cn

70 cosn 50
cn
n

school.edhole.com

Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9

Now we can solve for u(x,t)
u x, t 60 0

x
70 cosn 50
0
e
20
n

n 1

70 cosn 50
u x, t 3 x
e
n

n 1

school.edhole.com

0.86 n 2 t
400

n 2 2 0.86 2 t
20 2

nx
sin

20

nx
sin

20

Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9

school.edhole.com

Derivation of the Wave Equation

Applicable for:
One space dimension, transverse vibrations on elastic string
Endpoints at x = 0 and x = L along the x-axis

Set in motion at t = 0 and then left undisturbed

school.edhole.com

Schematic of String in Tension

school.edhole.com

Equation Derivation
Since there is no acceleration in the horizontal direction

T ( x x, t ) cos( ) T ( x, t ) cos 0
However the vertical components must satisfy

where

is the coordinate to the center of mass and the

weight is neglected

Replacing T with V the and rearranging the equation becomes

V ( x x, t ) V ( x, t )
u tt ( x , t )
x

school.edhole.com

Derivation continued
Letting x 0, the equation becomes

V x ( x, t ) u tt ( x , t )
To express this in terms of only terms of u we note that

V ( x, t ) H (t ) tan H (t )u x ( x, t )
The resulting equation in terms of u is

( Hu x ) x u tt
and since H(t) is not dependant on x the resulting equation is

Hu xx u tt
school.edhole.com

Derivation Continued
For small motions of the string, it is approximated that

H T cos T
using the substitution that

a2 T /
the wave equation takes its customary form of

a 2 u xx u tt

school.edhole.com

Wave Equation Generalizations

The telegraph equation

u tt cu t ku a 2 u xx F ( x, t )
where

c and k are nonnegative constants

cut arises from a viscous damping force
ku arises from an elastic restoring force
F(x,t) arises from an external force

The differences between this telegraph equation and the customary

wave equation are due to the consideration of internal elastic
forces. This equation also governs flow of voltage or current in a
transmission line, where the coefficients are related to the electrical
parameters in the line.

school.edhole.com

For a vibrating system with more than on significant space
coordinate it may be necessary to consider the wave equation in
more than one dimension.
For two dimensions the wave equation becomes

a 2 (u xx u yy ) utt
For three dimensions the wave equation becomes

a 2 (u xx u yy u zz ) utt

school.edhole.com

Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6

Consider an elastic string of length L whose ends
are held fixed. The string is set in motion from
its equilibrium position with an initial velocity
g(x). Let L=10 and a=1. Find the string
displacement for any time t.
4x
L ,

g x 1,
4L x

,
L

school.edhole.com

L
4
L
3L
x
4
4
3L
xL
4

0 x

Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6

From equations 35 and 36 on page 631, we find
that
nx nat
u x, t k n sin
sin

L L
n 1

where
na
2 L
nx
k n g x sin
dx

L
L 0
L

school.edhole.com

Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6

Solving for kn, we find:
L
3L
L 4L x
na
2 4 4 x nx
nx
nx
4 sin
k n sin
dx

dx

sin

dx
3L
L

0
L
L L L
L
L
L
4
4

2 4L
3n
n

kn
sin

sin

na n 2
4

4
kn

8L

an

3n
sin
4

school.edhole.com

sin

sin n

Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6

Now we can solve for u(x,t)
8 L 3n
n nx nat

u x, t
sin
sin
sin
sin

3
4
4 L L
n 1 a n
8 L 1 3n
n nx nat

u x, t 3 3 sin
sin
sin
sin

n 1 n 4
4 L L

1
u x, t 3 3
n 1 n
80

school.edhole.com

3n
sin
4

sin

nx nt
sin
sin

10
10

THE END

school.edhole.com