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Appendices 10.A & 10.B:


An Educational Presentation
Presented By:
Joseph Ash
Jordan Baldwin
Justin Hirt
Andrea Lance

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History of Heat Conduction

Jean Baptiste Biot


(1774-1862)

French Physicist
Worked on analysis of
heat conduction
Unsuccessful at dealing
with the problem of
incorporating external
convection effects in heat
conduction analysis

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History of Heat Conduction


Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier
(1768 1830)
Read Biots work
1807 determined how to solve the
problem
Fouriers Law

Time rate of heat flow (Q) through a


slab is proportional to the gradient of
temperature difference

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History of Heat Conduction


Ernst Schmidt
German scientist
Pioneer in Engineering
Thermodynamics
Published paper Graphical Difference
Method for Unsteady Heat Conduction
First to measure velocity and
temperature field in free convection
boundary layer and large heat transfer
coefficients
Schmidt Number
Analogy between heat and mass
transfer that causes a dimensionless
quantity

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Derivation of the Heat


Conduction Equation
A first approximation of the equations
that govern the conduction of heat in a
solid rod.

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Consider the following:

A uniform rod is insulated on both lateral


ends.

Heat can now only flow in the axial direction.

It is proven that heat per unit time will pass


from the warmer section to the cooler one.
The amount of heat is proportional to the
area, A, and to the temperature difference
T2-T1, and is inversely proportional to the
separation distance, d.

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The final consideration can be expressed as the


following:

is a proportionality factor called the thermal


conductivity and is determined by material properties

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Assumptions

The bar has a length L so x=0 and x=L


Perfectly insulated
Temperature, u, depends only on position, x,
and time, t

Usually valid when the lateral dimensions are


small compared to the total length.

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The differential equation governing


the temperature of the bar is a
physical balance between two rates:
Flux/Flow term
Absorption term

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Flux

The instantaneous rate of heat transfer from left to


right across the cross sections x=x0 where x0 is
arbitrary can be defined as:

The negative is needed in order to show a positive


rate from left to right (hot to cold)

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Flux

Similarly, the instantaneous rate of heat transfer


from right to left across the cross section x=x0+x
where x is small can be defined as:

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Flux

The amount of heat entering the bar in a time span


of t is found by subtracting the previous two
equations and then multiplying the result by t:

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Heat Absorption

The average change in temperature, u, can be


written in terms of the heat introduced, Q t and
the mass m of the element as:

where

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s = specific heat of the material


= density

Heat Absorption

The actual temperature change of the bar is simply


the actual change in temperature at some
intermediate point, so the above equation can also
be written as:

This is the heat absorption equation.

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Heat Equation

Equating the Qt in the flux and absorption


terms, we find the heat absorption equation to
be:

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If we divide the above equation by xt and allow


both x and t to both go to 0, we will obtain the
heat conduction or diffusion equation:

where
and has the dimensions of length^2/time and called
the thermal diffusivity

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Boundary Conditions

Certain boundary conditions may apply to the


specific heat conduction problem, for
example:

If one end is maintained at some constant


temperature value, then the boundary condition
for that end is u = T.
If one end is perfectly insulated, then the
boundary condition stipulates ux = 0.

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Generalized Boundary Conditions

Consider the end where x=0 and the rate of flow of


heat is proportional to the temperature at the end of
the bar.

Recall that the rate of flow will be given, from left to right, as

With this said, the rate of heat flow out of the bar from right to
left will be

Therefore, the boundary condition at x=0 is


where h1 is a proportionality constant
if h1=0, then it corresponds to an insulated end
if h1 goes to infinity, then the end is held at 0 temp.

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Generalized Boundary Conditions

Similarly, if heat flow occurs at the end x = L, then the


boundary condition is as follows:

where, again, h2 is a nonzero proportionality


factor

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Initial Boundary Condition

Finally, the temperature distribution at one


fixed instant usually taken at t = 0, takes the
form:

occurring throughout the bar

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Generalizations

Sometimes, the thermal conductivity, density,


specific heat, or area may change as the axial
position changes. The rate of heat transfer under
such conditions at x=x0 is now:

The heat equation then becomes a partial


differential equation in the form:
or

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Generalizations

Other ways for heat to enter or leave a bar must


also be taken into consideration.
Assume G(x,t,u) is a rate per unit per time.

Source

G(x,t,u) is added to the bar


G(x,t,u) is positive, non-zero, linear, and u does not depend on t
G(x,t,u) must be added to the left side of the heat equation
yielding the following differential equation

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Generalizations

Similarly,

Sink

G(x,t,u) is subtracted from the bar


G(x,t,u) is positive, non-zero, linear, and u does not
depend on t
G(x,t,u) then under this sink condition takes the
form:

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Generalizations

Putting the source and sink equations together


in the heat equation yields

which is commonly called the generalized


heat conduction equation

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Multi-dimensional space

Now consider a bar in which the temperature is


a function of more than just the axial xdirection. Then the heat conduction equation
can then be written:

2-D:

3-D:

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Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9


Let an aluminum rod of length 20 cm be initially
at the uniform temperature 25C. Suppose that
at time t=0, the end x=0 is cooled to 0C while
the end x=20 is heated to 60C, and both are
thereafter maintained at those temperatures.
Find the temperature distribution in
the rod at any time t

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Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9


Find the temperature distribution, u(x,t)

2uxx=ut,

0<x<20, t<0
u(0,t)=0 u(20,t)=60, t<0
u(x,0)=25,
0<x<20
From the initial equation we find that:
L=20, T1=0, T2=60, f(x)=25
We look up the Thermal Diffusivity of aluminum2=0.86

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Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9


Using Equations 16 and 17 found on page 614, we
find that
u x, t T2 T1

x
T1 cn e
L
n 1

n 2 2 2t
L2

nx
sin

where
2 L
x
nx
c n f x T2 T1 T1 sin
dx
0
L
L
L

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Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9


Evaluating cn, we find that
2 L
x
nx
cn
25 60 0 0 sin
dx

0
20
20 20
107n cosn 12 sin n 5n
cn

70 cosn 50
cn
n

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Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9


Now we can solve for u(x,t)
u x, t 60 0

x
70 cosn 50
0
e
20
n

n 1

70 cosn 50
u x, t 3 x
e
n

n 1

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0.86 n 2 t
400

n 2 2 0.86 2 t
20 2

nx
sin

20

nx
sin

20

Example 1: Section 10.6, Problem 9

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Derivation of the Wave Equation

Applicable for:
One space dimension, transverse vibrations on elastic string
Endpoints at x = 0 and x = L along the x-axis

Set in motion at t = 0 and then left undisturbed

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Schematic of String in Tension

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Equation Derivation
Since there is no acceleration in the horizontal direction

T ( x x, t ) cos( ) T ( x, t ) cos 0
However the vertical components must satisfy

T ( x x, t ) sin( ) T ( x, t ) sin xutt ( x , t )


where

is the coordinate to the center of mass and the


weight is neglected

Replacing T with V the and rearranging the equation becomes

V ( x x, t ) V ( x, t )
u tt ( x , t )
x

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Derivation continued
Letting x 0, the equation becomes

V x ( x, t ) u tt ( x , t )
To express this in terms of only terms of u we note that

V ( x, t ) H (t ) tan H (t )u x ( x, t )
The resulting equation in terms of u is

( Hu x ) x u tt
and since H(t) is not dependant on x the resulting equation is

Hu xx u tt
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Derivation Continued
For small motions of the string, it is approximated that

H T cos T
using the substitution that

a2 T /
the wave equation takes its customary form of

a 2 u xx u tt

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Wave Equation Generalizations


The telegraph equation

u tt cu t ku a 2 u xx F ( x, t )
where

c and k are nonnegative constants


cut arises from a viscous damping force
ku arises from an elastic restoring force
F(x,t) arises from an external force

The differences between this telegraph equation and the customary


wave equation are due to the consideration of internal elastic
forces. This equation also governs flow of voltage or current in a
transmission line, where the coefficients are related to the electrical
parameters in the line.

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Wave Equations in Additional Dimensions


For a vibrating system with more than on significant space
coordinate it may be necessary to consider the wave equation in
more than one dimension.
For two dimensions the wave equation becomes

a 2 (u xx u yy ) utt
For three dimensions the wave equation becomes

a 2 (u xx u yy u zz ) utt

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Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6


Consider an elastic string of length L whose ends
are held fixed. The string is set in motion from
its equilibrium position with an initial velocity
g(x). Let L=10 and a=1. Find the string
displacement for any time t.
4x
L ,

g x 1,
4L x

,
L

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L
4
L
3L
x
4
4
3L
xL
4

0 x

Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6


From equations 35 and 36 on page 631, we find
that
nx nat
u x, t k n sin
sin

L L
n 1

where
na
2 L
nx
k n g x sin
dx

L
L 0
L

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Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6


Solving for kn, we find:
L
3L
L 4L x
na
2 4 4 x nx
nx
nx
4 sin
k n sin
dx

dx

sin

dx
3L
L

0
L
L L L
L
L
L
4
4

2 4L
3n
n

kn
sin

sin

na n 2
4

4
kn

8L

an

3n
sin
4

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sin

sin n

Example 2: Section 10.7, Problem 6


Now we can solve for u(x,t)
8 L 3n
n nx nat

u x, t
sin
sin
sin
sin

3
4
4 L L
n 1 a n
8 L 1 3n
n nx nat

u x, t 3 3 sin
sin
sin
sin

n 1 n 4
4 L L

1
u x, t 3 3
n 1 n
80

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3n
sin
4

sin

nx nt
sin
sin

10
10

THE END

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