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By:

school.edhole.com

An Educational Presentation

Presented By:

Joseph Ash

Jordan Baldwin

Justin Hirt

Andrea Lance

school.edhole.com

(1774-1862)

French Physicist

Worked on analysis of

heat conduction

Unsuccessful at dealing

with the problem of

incorporating external

convection effects in heat

conduction analysis

school.edhole.com

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier

(1768 1830)

Read Biots work

1807 determined how to solve the

problem

Fouriers Law

slab is proportional to the gradient of

temperature difference

school.edhole.com

Ernst Schmidt

German scientist

Pioneer in Engineering

Thermodynamics

Published paper Graphical Difference

Method for Unsteady Heat Conduction

First to measure velocity and

temperature field in free convection

boundary layer and large heat transfer

coefficients

Schmidt Number

Analogy between heat and mass

transfer that causes a dimensionless

quantity

school.edhole.com

Conduction Equation

A first approximation of the equations

that govern the conduction of heat in a

solid rod.

school.edhole.com

ends.

from the warmer section to the cooler one.

The amount of heat is proportional to the

area, A, and to the temperature difference

T2-T1, and is inversely proportional to the

separation distance, d.

school.edhole.com

following:

conductivity and is determined by material properties

school.edhole.com

Assumptions

Perfectly insulated

Temperature, u, depends only on position, x,

and time, t

small compared to the total length.

school.edhole.com

the temperature of the bar is a

physical balance between two rates:

Flux/Flow term

Absorption term

school.edhole.com

Flux

right across the cross sections x=x0 where x0 is

arbitrary can be defined as:

rate from left to right (hot to cold)

school.edhole.com

Flux

from right to left across the cross section x=x0+x

where x is small can be defined as:

school.edhole.com

Flux

of t is found by subtracting the previous two

equations and then multiplying the result by t:

school.edhole.com

Heat Absorption

written in terms of the heat introduced, Q t and

the mass m of the element as:

where

school.edhole.com

= density

Heat Absorption

the actual change in temperature at some

intermediate point, so the above equation can also

be written as:

school.edhole.com

Heat Equation

terms, we find the heat absorption equation to

be:

school.edhole.com

both x and t to both go to 0, we will obtain the

heat conduction or diffusion equation:

where

and has the dimensions of length^2/time and called

the thermal diffusivity

school.edhole.com

Boundary Conditions

specific heat conduction problem, for

example:

temperature value, then the boundary condition

for that end is u = T.

If one end is perfectly insulated, then the

boundary condition stipulates ux = 0.

school.edhole.com

heat is proportional to the temperature at the end of

the bar.

Recall that the rate of flow will be given, from left to right, as

With this said, the rate of heat flow out of the bar from right to

left will be

where h1 is a proportionality constant

if h1=0, then it corresponds to an insulated end

if h1 goes to infinity, then the end is held at 0 temp.

school.edhole.com

boundary condition is as follows:

factor

school.edhole.com

fixed instant usually taken at t = 0, takes the

form:

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

specific heat, or area may change as the axial

position changes. The rate of heat transfer under

such conditions at x=x0 is now:

differential equation in the form:

or

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

also be taken into consideration.

Assume G(x,t,u) is a rate per unit per time.

Source

G(x,t,u) is positive, non-zero, linear, and u does not depend on t

G(x,t,u) must be added to the left side of the heat equation

yielding the following differential equation

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

Similarly,

Sink

G(x,t,u) is positive, non-zero, linear, and u does not

depend on t

G(x,t,u) then under this sink condition takes the

form:

school.edhole.com

Generalizations

in the heat equation yields

heat conduction equation

school.edhole.com

Multi-dimensional space

a function of more than just the axial xdirection. Then the heat conduction equation

can then be written:

2-D:

3-D:

school.edhole.com

Let an aluminum rod of length 20 cm be initially

at the uniform temperature 25C. Suppose that

at time t=0, the end x=0 is cooled to 0C while

the end x=20 is heated to 60C, and both are

thereafter maintained at those temperatures.

Find the temperature distribution in

the rod at any time t

school.edhole.com

Find the temperature distribution, u(x,t)

2uxx=ut,

0<x<20, t<0

u(0,t)=0 u(20,t)=60, t<0

u(x,0)=25,

0<x<20

From the initial equation we find that:

L=20, T1=0, T2=60, f(x)=25

We look up the Thermal Diffusivity of aluminum2=0.86

school.edhole.com

Using Equations 16 and 17 found on page 614, we

find that

u x, t T2 T1

x

T1 cn e

L

n 1

n 2 2 2t

L2

nx

sin

where

2 L

x

nx

c n f x T2 T1 T1 sin

dx

0

L

L

L

school.edhole.com

Evaluating cn, we find that

2 L

x

nx

cn

25 60 0 0 sin

dx

0

20

20 20

107n cosn 12 sin n 5n

cn

70 cosn 50

cn

n

school.edhole.com

Now we can solve for u(x,t)

u x, t 60 0

x

70 cosn 50

0

e

20

n

n 1

70 cosn 50

u x, t 3 x

e

n

n 1

school.edhole.com

0.86 n 2 t

400

n 2 2 0.86 2 t

20 2

nx

sin

20

nx

sin

20

school.edhole.com

Applicable for:

One space dimension, transverse vibrations on elastic string

Endpoints at x = 0 and x = L along the x-axis

school.edhole.com

school.edhole.com

Equation Derivation

Since there is no acceleration in the horizontal direction

T ( x x, t ) cos( ) T ( x, t ) cos 0

However the vertical components must satisfy

where

weight is neglected

V ( x x, t ) V ( x, t )

u tt ( x , t )

x

school.edhole.com

Derivation continued

Letting x 0, the equation becomes

V x ( x, t ) u tt ( x , t )

To express this in terms of only terms of u we note that

V ( x, t ) H (t ) tan H (t )u x ( x, t )

The resulting equation in terms of u is

( Hu x ) x u tt

and since H(t) is not dependant on x the resulting equation is

Hu xx u tt

school.edhole.com

Derivation Continued

For small motions of the string, it is approximated that

H T cos T

using the substitution that

a2 T /

the wave equation takes its customary form of

a 2 u xx u tt

school.edhole.com

The telegraph equation

u tt cu t ku a 2 u xx F ( x, t )

where

cut arises from a viscous damping force

ku arises from an elastic restoring force

F(x,t) arises from an external force

wave equation are due to the consideration of internal elastic

forces. This equation also governs flow of voltage or current in a

transmission line, where the coefficients are related to the electrical

parameters in the line.

school.edhole.com

For a vibrating system with more than on significant space

coordinate it may be necessary to consider the wave equation in

more than one dimension.

For two dimensions the wave equation becomes

a 2 (u xx u yy ) utt

For three dimensions the wave equation becomes

a 2 (u xx u yy u zz ) utt

school.edhole.com

Consider an elastic string of length L whose ends

are held fixed. The string is set in motion from

its equilibrium position with an initial velocity

g(x). Let L=10 and a=1. Find the string

displacement for any time t.

4x

L ,

g x 1,

4L x

,

L

school.edhole.com

L

4

L

3L

x

4

4

3L

xL

4

0 x

From equations 35 and 36 on page 631, we find

that

nx nat

u x, t k n sin

sin

L L

n 1

where

na

2 L

nx

k n g x sin

dx

L

L 0

L

school.edhole.com

Solving for kn, we find:

L

3L

L 4L x

na

2 4 4 x nx

nx

nx

4 sin

k n sin

dx

dx

sin

dx

3L

L

0

L

L L L

L

L

L

4

4

2 4L

3n

n

kn

sin

sin

na n 2

4

4

kn

8L

an

3n

sin

4

school.edhole.com

sin

sin n

Now we can solve for u(x,t)

8 L 3n

n nx nat

u x, t

sin

sin

sin

sin

3

4

4 L L

n 1 a n

8 L 1 3n

n nx nat

u x, t 3 3 sin

sin

sin

sin

n 1 n 4

4 L L

1

u x, t 3 3

n 1 n

80

school.edhole.com

3n

sin

4

sin

nx nt

sin

sin

10

10

THE END

school.edhole.com

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