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CAMBRIDGE YEAR 6

SCIENCE
CHAPTER 1: INTERDEPENDENCE AND
ADAPTATION

1.1 HEALTHY PLANTS

Seeds do not need light to germinate. It


has its own food store as an energy
source.
Plants need light to grow because light
is needed to carry out photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis is the process where
green plants make sugars from carbon
dioxide and water using light energy.

1.1 HEALTHY PLANTS

The leaves are the site of photosynthesis


because it contains the green pigment,
chlorophyll that absorbs light energy.
Oxygen is produced from photosynthesis
is used by animals for respiration.

1.1 HEALTHY PLANTS

Germination of a seed

1.1 HEALTHY PLANTS

Photosynthesis

1.1 HEALTHY PLANTS

The sugar produced from photosynthesis


is stored as starch.
The sugar produced by green plants is
used to make new leaves, roots, stems,
flowers and seeds.

1.1 HEALTHY PLANTS

Plants absorb all the minerals required


from the soil. But some soils dont
contain enough essential minerals.
Gardeners help plants to grow better with
fertilisers.

1.2 FEEDING PLANTS

Farmer Yousef has a problem with his


tomato plants. Some are not growing as
well as others.
Yousef needs your help. What can you
do? Scientists test or trial their ideas first.

1.2 FEEDING PLANTS

How to test ideas for better plant growth


Remedy

Amount plant grew in one week (cm)

No change (control)

Tomato fertiliser

15

Houseplant fertiliser

12

New soil

10

New soil and tomato fertiliser

14

New soil and houseplant fertiliser

12

1.3 IDENTIFYING LIVING THINGS

We use keys to identify living things.


Keys ask simple questions. The
answers lead to the next question.

1.3 IDENTIFYING LIVING THINGS

Has it got legs?

Yes

Has it got 6 legs?

Yes

INSECT

No

No

Has it got a shell?

Yes

SPIDER

SNAIL

No

WORM

1.3 IDENTIFYING LIVING THINGS

A food chain shows the food relationship


in a habitat.
Every food chain starts with a green
plant (producer). The producer produces
its own food by photosynthesis.
Animals are called consumers because
they consume either plants or other
animals.

1.3 IDENTIFYING LIVING THINGS

The food that the plant produces passes


up the food chain as energy from one
animal to the next.
The animal at the end of the food chain
is called the top predator.

1.3 IDENTIFYING LIVING THINGS

Producer

Primary
consumer

-Green plants

-Herbivores that
feeds on plants

Secondary
consumer
-An animal which
feeds on the
primary consumer

Tertiary consumer

-An animal which


feeds on the
secondary
consumer

1.4 FOOD CHAINS

Plankton are tiny plants that float in the


sea. It uses the light energy to make
food. This energy is what the animals
need from their food.
Plankton

Fish

Penguin

Seal

1.4 FOOD CHAINS

When one animal eats another, the


energy moves up the food chain. Each
arrow shows the flow of energy. It points
to the animal doing the eating.

1.5 PLANT PRODUCER

Green plants are producers. They are the


starting point of nearly every food chain.
Green plants use light energy to combine
water and carbon dioxide to make sugars.
The sugars are the source of energy and
is also needed to manufacture new
materials for growth.

1.5 PLANT PRODUCER

We produce carbon dioxide and cannot


live without oxygen. Plants need
carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and
produce oxygen from photosynthesis.
So plants and humans need each other!
Plants too need oxygen for respiration
but it produces far more oxygen than
they used.

1.5 PLANT PRODUCER

Video on photosynthesis:

1.6 LIFE IN THE SOIL

Wet soil is called mud.


Not all soil are mud. Sandy soil is found
in the desert. It is yellow coloured and dry.
Soil rich in nutrients is found by rivers.
This type of soil is a mud.
The Indian Grey Mongoose lives in
burrows that it digs in the soil using its
long claws. They live in sandy places,
like desert.

1.6 LIFE IN THE SOIL

Video on Indian Grey Mongoose:

1.6 LIFE IN THE SOIL

Earthworms live in moist soil so they


can move through it.
Earthworm eat rotting vegetation and
soil. They help aerate the soil as they
move through it and supply it with
nutrients as they pass their waste.

1.6 LIFE IN THE SOIL

Video on earthworms:

1.6 LIFE IN THE SOIL

When animals and plants die, their


bodies decay. This provides nutrients to
the soil.
Some places in the world have very poor
soil. Plants will germinate and flower
next to a dead animal to get the nutrients
it provides.

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Plant adapts to survive. They can grow


anywhere. Some have adapted to grow in
very cold places like the Arctic. Some live
in very hot, humid places such as tropical
rainforests.

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Adaptation of plants in rainforests


In a rainforest there are plants at
different heights.
The plants near the ground dont get
much sunlight. Some of them feed on
other plants (parasites). Rafflesia is an
example of a parasitic plant.

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Rafflesia, a parasitic plant

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

The tallest trees are called emergent


plants. They get lots of sunlight. Other
plants climb them to obtain sunlight. An
example of a climbing plant is a money
plant.
The seeds of the strangler figs
germinate in cracks of a mature tree,
where the tiny seedlings can get light.

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Money plant, a climbing plant

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Strangler fig growing around a forest tree

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Adaptations of plants in the Arctic


Spruce trees leaves are needles that
have thick, waxy covering layer. This
reduces water loss in winter, when the
roots cannot take up water from the
frozen soil.

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Spruce tree in the winter

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Adaptations of animals in their habitats


Animals have coats of fur or feathers
that match their surroundings.
A prey bird or chameleon will use this to
hide from its predator. It makes them
harder to find (camouflage).

1.7 ADAPTING TO A HABITAT

Video on chameleon:

1.8 BEING RESPONSIBLE

Orchids are beautiful flowers. They grow


in a variety of places.
Some orchids are very rare. The
Dancing Girl orchid is one of these. It is
found in the Himalayas. Scientists are
working to save it from extinction.
The rainforests in Madagascar has many
rare orchids. They are becoming
extinct due to deforestation and
hunting of the flowers.

1.8 BEING RESPONSIBLE

Dancing Girl orchid

1.9 WHAT A LOAD OF RUBBISH

Reduce
-Use less materials that
will become rubbish
- Example:
(i)Use smaller packaging
for foods
(ii)Buy a single large
drinks container rather
than lots of smaller ones

Reuse
-Use again materials
instead of throwing away
-Example:
(i)Use a container to fill up
water instead of buying a
new one
(ii)Use boxes for storage
instead of throwing them
away

Ways to
reduce
rubbish

Recycle
-Process materials
such as paper,
plastic and cans into
new materials