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> What is heat treatment process

> What are it effects

> Why

Toughness

Hardness
Ductility
Machineability

Refine Grain Structure


Residual Stresses
Wear Resistance

> Application
Aircraft Industry
Automobile Manufacturing
Defense Sector

Forging
Foundry
Heavy Machinery
Manufacturing
Powder Metal Industries

Commonly Heat Treated Metals


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Ferrous Metals
Steel
Cast Iron
Alloys
Stainless Steel
Tool Steel
Non-ferrous Metals
Aluminum
Copper
Brass
Titanium

Types of heat treatment processes


Austempering
Martempering
Ausforming

Time-Temperature-Transformation(TTT)Curve
TTT diagram is a plot of temperature versus the logarithm
of time for a steel alloy of definite composition.
It is used to determine when transformations begin and
end for an isothermal heat treatment of a previously
austenitized alloy
TTT diagram indicates when a specific transformation starts and
ends and it also shows what percentage of transformation of
austenite at a particular temperature is achieved.

Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT)Curve

Continuous-cooling-tranformation(CCT)Curve
CCT diagram depends on composition of steel, nature of
cooling, austenite grain size, extent of austenite
homogenising, as well as austenitising temperature and time.
continuous cooling occurs through a series of isothermal
steps and the time spent at each of these steps depends on
the rate of cooling. The difference between successive
isothermal steps can be considered to approach zero.
The transformation at a temperature is not independent to
cooling above it.

CCT diagram depends on composition of steel, nature of


cooling, austenite grain size, extent of austenite
homogenising, as well as austenitising temperature and
time.
continuous cooling occurs through a series of isothermal
steps and the time spent at each of these steps depends on
the rate of cooling. The difference between successive
isothermal steps can be considered to approach zero.
The transformation at a temperature is not independent to
cooling above it.

Continuous-Cooling-Transformation(CCT)Curve

Critical-Cooling-Rate-(CCR)Curve
When cooling curve is tangent to the nose of TTT- curve, it is
called as critical cooling rate. It can be defined as in two
ways:
1) Slowest cooling rate at which unstable austenite can be
converted into martensite.
OR
2) fastest cooling rate at which unstable austenite can be
converted into pearlite.
CCR is a dividing line between martensite and pearlite
transformation.
Factors affecting on CCR:
1) carbon content
2) Austenitic temperature

Critical-Cooling-Rate-(CCR)Curve

> Ausforming

It is a hardening process that produces very high strength


steel.
This process converts metastable austensite to martensite
by quenching, and increase in strength upto 50% without any
loss in ductility. due to this fine structure will also changes.
Strengthening is directly proportional to deformation.
1) Process:
Steel is heated to austenitic region.Temperature is
maintained so that uniform structure from surfece to
core.cooling is done between the temperature Ms And
nose.At this temperature- forging/rolling then cooled at
room teperature.
2) Properties:
Gives better combination of tensile strength of 3000 N/m^2.
3) Application:
Aircraft and automotive craft.

> Ausforming

> Austempering

Austempering is an isothermal heat treatment that, when


applied to ferrous materials, produces a structure that is
stronger and tougher than comparable structures produced
with conventional heat treatments.
Conventional heat treaters heat the parts to "red heat" in a
controlled atmosphere and then quench them in a bath of oil
or water that is near room temperature. (Maybe even as high
as a few hundred degrees Fahrenheit).
This produces a crystalline structure known as Martensite, a
hard, brittle phase. The parts are then tempered in another
furnace at 350F (177C) to 1100F (593C) to decrease the
"brittleness.
During the process of quenching to Martensite, the
Martensite reaction begins immediately.

> Martempering

Quenching from the austenitizing temperature into a hot


fluid medium (hot oil, molten salt, molten metal, or a
fluidized particle bed) at a temperature usually above the
martensite range (Ms point)
Holding in the quenching medium until the temperature
throughout the steel is substantially uniform
Cooling (usually in air) at a moderate rate to prevent large
differences in temperature between the outside and the
center of the section

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