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Chapter 4

The Dawn of the Filipino Nationalism

Unification of the Philippines


under the Spanish Rule

Spanish ruled the Philippines for more than 300 years.

The reduccion plan of Fr. Juan de Plasencia was


implemented.

Filipinos partially transformed into little brown


Spaniards.

Early Resistance to Spanish Rule


The Spanish implementation of taxation, polo y servicio, galleon
trade, indulto de commercio and government monopolies were one of
the cause why Filipinos revolt.

Majority of the uprising were caused by the desire to regain their


lost freedom.

Other revolt were caused by the agrarian unrest.

There were also revolt triggered by the desire to revert their native
religion.

Resistance to Spansh-imposed Institutions

Desire to Regain the Lost Freedom

Desire to Revert the Native Faith

Early revolt against Spanish Rule failed


because of:
Sectional jealousies

Absence of national leaderships

Lack of communication

Policy of divide et impera

Emergence of the Filipino sense of


Nationhood

Opening of the Philippines to the World of


Commerce
It is the consequence of Spain's adaptation of
laissez-faire policy.

Influx of liberal ideas in the mind of the Filipino


intellectuals.

They realized that government was an agreement


between the ruler and the ruled to govern the welfare
of the ruled.

The Rise of Clase Media


As the result of the great economic transformation in the life of the
Filipinos, a middle class (clase media) of Asian and Eurasian
mestizos emerged in the Philippine social pyramid.

Families who prospered during the opening of the country to


foreign commerce and trade, able to send their sons for education in
Europe.

The European-educated Filipinos became disillusioned with


Spain.

Liberal Regime of
Carlos Ma. Dela Torre

Carlos Ma. Dela Torre was appointed


as the governor-general in the Philippines in
1869.
He demonstrated his democratic and
liberal philosophy in governing the country.

Racial Discrimination
Spaniards considered Filipinos as an inferior race and
sarcastically called them Indios.

Fray Miguel de Bustamante's pamphlet Si Tandang


Basyong Macunat.

Racial discrimnation intensified enmity between the


Filipinos and Spaniards.

Secularization Controversy
Secularization of the parishes was the transfer
of the ministries established by the Spanish clergy
to the Filipino seculars.

Fr. Pedro Pelaez, an insulares who rose to the


position of vicar capitular of Manila in 1861,
lead the Filipino seculars in the struggle.

The secularization controversy lead to the


unification of the Filipino clergy.

Cavite Mutiny of 1872


The Cavite Mutiny broke out during the tenure of
Rafael de Izquierdo.

Sgt. La Madrid led the mutiny in the arsenal of


Cavite on the night of January 20, 1872.

Spanish authorities viewed the event as the


overturning of the colonial rule in the Island.

Rizal and the Cavite Mutiny

Rizal was still very young when the mutiny broke


out.
He was already cognizant to the deplorable
conditions of the country.

He first wanted to be a priest but change his


mind after hearing the martyrdom of
GOMBURZA.

Prepared by: Group 2


(muna)
Leader: Ivy Jill Jalimao

Curt Ramirez
Roelyn Joyce Javan
Kris Santos
Kim Madrid

Angelou Lauresta

Adenover Nuestro
Melanie Torio
John Michael Polintan
Joven Liwag