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CONTACTLESS LIQUID LEVEL

CONTROLLER

Block Diagram
Flow Chart
Hardware Requirements
Schematic Diagram
Working
Applications

BLOCK DIAGRAM
LCD
(16 X 2)
ULTRASONIC
SENSOR

AT89S52
(Microcontroller)

ASM CProgram

LAMP/(MOTOR)

FLOW CHART

No

POWER SUPPLY BLOCK


MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52/AT89C51)
ULTRASONIC MODULE
IRFZ44 MOSFET
BC547 TRANSISTOR
IN4007 DIODE
RELAY
LCD(16X2)
PUSH BUTTONS
RESISTORS
CAPACITORS

POWER SUPPLY
230 V AC
50 Hz

Bridge rectifier

5v Regulator

5V
DC
12V step down
transformer

Filter(470f)

Microcontroller

Microcontroller

is a small computer on a
single integrated circuit containing a processor core,
memory, and . programmable input/output peripherals.

CPU

RAM ROM

A single chip
I/O
Port

Serial
Timer COM
Port

Microcontroller

MICRO CONTROLLER

8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP)


Flash Memory.

4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range.


Crystal Frequency 11.0592MHz.
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM.
32 Programmable I/O Lines.
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters.
Eight Interrupt Sources.
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel.

AT89S52

Ultrasonic

sensors

(also

known

as

transceivers) work on a principle similar to radar


or sonar which evaluate attributes of a target by

interpreting the echoes from radio or sound


waves respectively.

Ultrasonic

sensors generate high frequency

sound waves and evaluate the echo which is


received back by the sensor.

Ultrasonic sensors use electricalmechanical energy transformation.


The ultrasonic waves are used to measure the distance from the
sensor to the target object.
Properties of ultrasonic waves:
Longitudinal mechanical waves.
Travel as a succession of compressions and rarefactions.
Any sound wave above 20KHz is called ultrasound.

When ultrasonic waves are incident on an object, diffused reflection of the energy
takes place over a wide solid angle which might be as high as 180 degrees.

Thus some fraction of the incident energy is reflected back to the transducer in the
form of echoes and is detected.
TRANSMITTER

CONTROL
CIRCUIT

RECEIVER

SURFACE

The distance to the object (L) can then be calculated through the
speed of ultrasonic waves (v) in the medium by the relation

L =

Vtcos
2

V = Velocity of wave.
t = Time taken by the wave to reach back to the sensor.

= angle between the horizontal and the path taken as


shown in the figure.

PROPERTIES:

Ultrasonic

generators use piezoelectric materials such as zinc or

lead zirconium tratarate or quartz crystal.

The

material thickness decides the resonant frequency when

mounted and excited by electrodes attached on either side of it.

The

medical scanners used for abdomen or heart ultrasound are

designed at 2.5 MHz . In this circuit, a 40 kHz transducer is used for


object detection in the air medium.

FEATURES

Ensures the stable detection of a variety of objects regardless


of the colour, transparency, or material (metallic or nonmetallic) of the objects.

Use for motion or distance sensing.


Frequency: 40kHz 1.0kHz ,
Aluminum case.
Capacitance: 2000Pf 20% .

BC547 (NPN Transistor)


The

BC547 transistor is an NPN

Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.

It

is

switching

used

in

general-purpose

and

amplification

BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA


NPN general-purpose transistors.

Whenever base is high, then current starts flowing through base and emitter
and after that only current will pass from collector to emitter.

The MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect


Transistor) is a Voltage controlled device.
This means that a voltage at the gate control the current flow from
the drain to the source.
There are three terminals: Gate - connected to the input device.
Drain - connected to the positive, since electrons drain away to
the positive. Source - the source of the electrons

High power devices like motors and light bulbs give a large
current output for a very tiny current input.
A MOSFET can act as the interface between an integrated circuit
that can give only a tiny current, and the motor that takes a big
current.
In complimentary pairs they are used in hi-fi power amplifiers.

They produce less distortion as they are more linear than bipolar
transistors.

RELAY
A relay is an electromagnetically operated switch.
It is an electrical switch that uses an electromagnet to move the switch from the off to on
position instead of a person moving the switch.
It is used to enable a low current circuit to control a high current circuit.
CONFIGURATION
Relays (and switches) come in different
configurations. The most common are:
1. Single Pole Single Throw (SPST)
2. Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT)
3. Double Pole Single Throw (DPST)
4. Double Pole Double Throw(DPDT)

Description

Single Pole Single Throw (SPST) is the simplest with only two contacts.
Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) has three contacts.
The contacts are usually labelled
Common (COM)
Normally Open (NO)
Normally Closed (NC)

The Normally Closed contact will be connected to the Common contact when no
power is applied to the coil. The Normally Open contact will be open (i.e. not
connected) when no power is applied to the coil.
When the coil is energized the Common is connected to the Normally Open contact
and the Normally Closed contact is left floating.
DPST (double pole single throw) and DPDT (double pole double throw) relays are
relays which have two switches - i.e. they can control two different things at the
same time.

WORKING:
A normal relay has two circuits.
The control (Green) circuit energizes an electromagnetic coil.
Energized magnetic coil attracts the armature, pulling it down and closing the contacts
of the high current switch of the power circuit (Red).
Externally, the control circuit is connected to a low current switch at one end and ground
at the other end.
The power circuit is connected to a power source at the one end and the load at the
other end.
Closing the control circuit switch energizes the magnetic coil which, in turn, closes the
relay contacts, completing the circuit to the load.

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)

Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16x2


and 20x2 displays.

This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per


line by 2 lines, respectively.

The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the


controller chip which receives data from an external source (and
communicates directly with the LCD.

LCD BACKGROUND

If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11 data lines.
Control lines = 3.
Data bus lines = 8 ((D D ) = (Pin 7- pin 14))
0

Control Lines

EN

RS

RW

EN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data)

RS=Register Select

RS = LOW ( 0 ) Data is treated as command.


RS = HIGH ( 1 ) Data being sent is text data .

R/W=Read/Write

(When RW is low (0), the data

written to the LCD)

R/W = LOW ( 0 ) data is written to the LCD.


R/W = HIGH ( 1 ) data is read to the LCD.

The ultrasonic module attached to the board will check liquid level
from reflecting ultrasonic waves.

If the water falls below certain level, the sensor will sense it from the
reflecting waves and gives the information to the microcontroller.

The controller will switch on a lamp, indicating a pump, to start filing


the water tank.

If the water rises beyond a certain level the controller will switch off the
lamp, indicating motor off.
A relay is used to switch on and off the lamp.
The relay is turned on or off by a switching mechanism consisting of a
mosfet and a transistor.
+12V

TO
RELAY

R5
Q2

OFF

FROM
MICRO CONTROLLER

Q1

I/P = 0
I/P = 1

ON

OFF
ON

R4

A zero logic from the MC maintains Q1(transistor) in off state such that R4
provides a voltage level to turn on the relay.

A high logic from the controller switches on Q1 that provides zero voltage
level at R4 to turn the device fully "OFF.

INPUT = 0 (From microcontroller)


Q1= Off, Q2 = On.
Relay = On.
INPUT = 1 (From microcontroller)
Q1= On, Q2 = Off.
Relay = Off

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAMMING
Embedded

LANGUAGES:

C , ALP (Assembly Language)

COMPILERS:
Keil 4.0/0.0uv

DUMPING

SOFT WARE:

Using Micro controller flash Software we are dumping our HEX Code into
Micro Controller .

APPLICATIONS
Automotives

Liquid level
controller

Industries

Household

Liquid level controllers have got really high demand in various


aspects of life.
These controllers can be used in automotives to indicate the
level of fuel.
Further they are also used in industries where direct
implementation of sensor into the process tank is not possible.

Moreover they can also be used in household applications like


the control of over head tank, they may be required for devices
such as automated coffee machines, water dispensers, juice
squeezers, water evaporators, steamers, fridges and freezer,
boilers, heating systems, dishwashers, washing machines and a
number of other appliances.

CONCLUSION
This project is best suitable for all industrial and
household purposes where liquid level control is of
prime importance.

FUTURE SCOPE
This project can be extended to be used in
nuclear power plants, Dams and Industries
where automatic control of liquid level is
necessary.

The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems by

Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi , Pearson


Education.

ATMEL 89S52 Data Sheets.

www.atmel.com
www.beyondlogic.org
www.wikipedia.org

www.howstuffworks.com
www.alldatasheets.com