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PREPARED BY:

EDUARD GANDUL JR., RM, RN, EMT-B


And
MICHAEL KIM PARAISO., EMT-B

What are Earthquakes?


An earthquake is the result of a sudden
release of energy in the Earth's crust that
creates seismic waves
Earthquakes are recorded with a
seismometer, also known as a seismograph

Interesting Facts About Earthquake


The Sept
strongest
earthquakes
that hit a
The
20, recorded
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registered
the
Since
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Philippine
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magnitude
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onthere
the have
Richter
scale,
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with
a magnitude
of
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and
21, 1897,
in occurred
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location
thethe
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a magnitude
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Interesting Facts About Earthquake


The Largest Recoded Earthquake in the world
was a Magnitude 9.5 in Chile on May 22, 1960

Interesting Facts About Earthquake


Worlds deadliest recoded earthquake occurred
in1556 in Central China, killing an estimated 830,000
people in 1976 another deadly earthquake struck
Tangshan, China where more than 250,00 people were
killed.

Tidal wave vs Tsunami


Although both are sea waves the two has two
different and unrelated phenomena
Tidal Wave is a shallow water wave caused by the
gravitational interaction between the sun, moon, and earth.
Tsunami is a sea wave caused by an underwater earthquake
or landslide (usually triggered by an earthquake) displacing
the ocean water

Epicenter of an earthquake is the


location directly above the
hypocenter on the surface of the
earth
Hypocenter of an earthquake is
the location beneath the earths
surface where the rupture of the
fault begins

It is estimated that there are 500,000 detectable earthquakes in the

world each year. 100,000 of those can be felt, 100 of them cause
damage.

Magnitude & Intensity


Magnitude is a measured value of the earthquake
size. The Magnitude is the same no matter where you
are, or how strong or weak the shaking was in various
location
Intensity is a measure of the shaking created b the
earthquake, and this value does vary with location

Kinds of Shaking
1. Lateral
2. Vertical

Baguio Earthquake, 1990

How to Conduct
an Earthquake Drill ?

Why do we need to Conduct an


Earthquake Drill ?
Earthquake is a natural phenomenon and cannot be
prevented. It can strike quickly without warning.
Earthquake can damage lives and properties.
No available technology that give an
accurate earthquake prediction.
TO MITIGATE EARTHQUAKE DISASTER.

How to Conduct an Earthquake Drill

OBJECTIVES

To ensure the safety of everybody during and after a damaging


earthquake.

To help the building administrators and their disaster action


groups to design a specific response plan for earthquakes.

To train the building occupants on proper action and response


during earthquakes.

To test various elements of the response plan designed by the


Disaster Management Committee (DMC).

Stages in Conducting Earthquake Drill


Stage 1
Planning/
Organizing
Stage 2
Developing an
Evacuation Plan
Stage 3

Orientation prior to
Earthquake drill
Stage 4
Actual Conduct of
Earthquake Drill

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill


A.

Form a Disaster Management Committee (DMC) composed


of several teams with specific task and designate an over-all
coordinator.
Overall
Coordinator

Fire Safety
Team

First Aid or
Medical Team

Evacuation
Team

Communication
Team

Site Security
Team

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill


Members of the Disaster Management Committee (DMC)
should evaluate the building.

Have the following information available yearly:

Total number of building occupants


Total number of occupants at each room
Total number of occupants at each floor
Total number of occupants at each building
Identify occupants with special needs (sick, old, disabled) and their
location

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill


Members of the Disaster Management Committee (DMC)
should evaluate the building.

Acquire the most recent grounds layout or vicinity plan/map.

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill


Members of the DMC should conduct building watching
exercise and identify safe and unsafe spots inside the
building. This is necessary for stressing the dos and donts.

B.

Observe hazardous areas/practices within the building premises and


dangerous conditions that may exist which people have not noticed
before. This should be plotted on the layout.
Examples: * Any hanging, unstable objects or structure
* Condition of power lines and utility poles
* Narrow alleys between buildings
* Corridors are too narrow
* Are there blockages along the corridors and exit points?
* Do exit point remain open during working hours?
* Doors that swing in instead of swing out.

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill


Building Watching Exercise
Shelf near
Entrance
Swing Out Door

Decoration

Narrow Exit
Glass Window

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill


Building Watching Exercise
Electic Post
and wirings
Gates Shade

Flower Pots

STAGE 1

Planning/Organizing an Earthquake Drill


Members of the DMC should conduct building watching
exercise and identify safe and unsafe spots inside the
building. This is necessary for stressing the dos and donts.

Suggest corrections or improvements of current set-up.


Examples: * clean up stuff that blocks the corridors and exit points.
* exit points must remain unlocked during working hours.

Assess the structural integrity of the building/s by a qualified


civil/structural engineer.
The engineer could be tapped from the local city/municipal engineers
office

STAGE 2

Developing the Building Earthquake


Evacuation Plan

STAGE 2

Developing the Building Earthquake


Evacuation Plan

The Building Earthquake Evacuation Plan should have


provisions to utilize all available open spaces nearest the
building that are evaluated as safe from falling debris and
other materials that may cause injuries.

Parking Area

Park

STAGE 2

Developing the Building Earthquake


Evacuation Plan

Determine if there is sufficient open space for all. Areas to


be occupied should be computed assuming 4 evacuees
would occupy a 1 sq m area.
Determine how many persons can occupy an open space.
Assumption 1 : 800 persons
Assumption 2 : 4 persons/m2

(800 persons) (4 persons/m2) = 200 m2


Is the space enough for the total number of evacuees?

STAGE 2

Developing the Building Earthquake


Evacuation Plan

Determine the flow of traffic from each building along the


street using the information on actual number of occupants
per building and their designated evacuation area.
Indicate by arrows, the flow of evacuation coming out of
each room down to their designated evacuation site. This
will be the suggested earthquake evacuation route for the
building occupants.

One way traffic:


Determine the flow
of traffic

STAGE 2

Developing the Building Earthquake


Evacuation Plan
Flow of Traffic and Evacuation Route
Evacuation Site
Use arrows to indicate
the flow of evacuation

One way traffic: persons


shall walk in one direction

Prepare

Earthquake Survival Kits

First Aid Kits

STAGE 3

Orientation Prior to the


Conduct of an Earthquake Drill

STAGE 3

Orientation Prior to the


Conduct of an Earthquake Drill
Prepare the building occupants a week before the scheduled
earthquake drill.

A.

Identify safe spots (e.g. under tables, desks, doors, etc) and danger
zones (e.g. windows and glass, shelves, machinery, cabinets and
furniture that may topple or slide as well as all hanging and heavy
objects).
When dangerous areas have been identified, ask the building
occupants/administrators to correct these and to take action.
Introduce the suggested evacuation route prepared by the DMC.
Also introduce the assigned open area where they should evacuate
after an earthquake.
Assign somebody who will be in charge of making sure that all exit
points are open during the shaking.

STAGE 3

Orientation Prior to the


Conduct of an Earthquake Drill
The main concern during an ongoing shaking is how to
protect oneself.

B.

Give specific instructions on what to do DURING an earthquake.

Duck, Cover and Hold


Take cover under a sturdy table or strongly supported doorway.
Watch out for falling objects.
Keep calm and dont panic.

STAGE 3

Orientation Prior to the


Conduct of an Earthquake Drill
The main concern during an ongoing shaking is how to
protect oneself.

B.

Give specific instructions about what to do AFTER as soon as the


shaking stops:
Be alert
Listen to the Teachers instructions.
Walk out of the building in an orderly manner.

STAGE 3

Orientation Prior to the


Conduct of an Earthquake Drill
The main concern during an ongoing shaking is how to
protect oneself.

B.

While walking along the alleys/streets, be alert and watch out for
falling debris.

DONT Run
DONT Push
DONT Talk
DONT Return
DONT bring your things

STAGE 4

Actual Conduct of an Earthquake Drill

STAGE 4

Actual Conduct of an Earthquake Drill


1.

2.

Prior to the scheduled drill, inform the neighborhood


regarding the conduct of the drill.
Identify and assign observers for each exit points of the
building and evacuation areas. They will give their
comments and observations during the evaluation of the
drill.

STAGE 4

Actual Conduct of an Earthquake Drill


3.

For the Actual Drill.


Assumptions:

1-minute strong shaking signified by 1 minute siren/bell

Person can not stand.

Buildings may have been damaged but no collapse.

Possible falling objects including glass windows

No immediate assistance will be available for at least several hours.

Self-help and sustenance are required.

Possible injuries, fear, panic among building occupants.

STAGE 4

Actual Conduct of an Earthquake Drill


3.

For the Actual Drill.


Give instructions/reiterate the what to dos:

once the siren is heard, do the proper and expected actions.


Participants during this 1-minute siren should perform the
duck, cover and hold
After the 1-minute siren, participants quietly go out of the
building/s and proceed to previously designated open space.
Team leaders should make head count while in the ground.
While the drill is ongoing, observers should take note on how
the participants performed.

STAGE 4

Actual Conduct of an Earthquake Drill


3.

For the Actual Drill.


Give instructions/reiterate the what to dos:
When all the participants have converged at the designated
evacuation area, the assigned observers will give their
comments (if drill was conducted properly, if the evacuation
proceeded smoothly, etc.) and suggestions on how to correct
and improve.

To be effective earthquake drills


must be done regularly.

PHASES OF AN
EARTHQUAKE DRILL

PHASES OF AN
EARTHQUAKE DRILL
Phase 1. Alarm
A pre-arranged signal such as siren/bell should
be known to all.
During the drill, the siren/bell indicates
earthquake/shaking. Students
and teachers will be alerted by this signal.

Phase 1. ALARM

siren / bell rings for 1 minute

ongoing ground shaking or earthquake

Phase 2. RESPONSE
during the shaking

perform DUCK, COVER and HOLD


Remain in that position
until shaking stops

Still BE ALERT, open your eyes


Observers should take note
of how teachers and students performed

Phase 3. EVACUATION
after the shaking

All building occupants evacuate,


following pre-determined routes, to the
EVACUATION AREAS

Phase 4. ASSEMBLY
At the designated evacuation area, the
evacuees must be grouped together.

Phase 5. HEAD COUNT


Team leaders (Teachers) should check
and make sure all evacuees are
accounted for.

Phase 6. EVALUATION
An evaluation of the drill must be conducted to
identify problems encountered during the drill and how
this can be corrected in future earthquake drills.

Thank you!

EARTHQUAKE DRILL

SCENARIO:
A 6.5 Magnitude earthquake struck Legaspi City, while regular class is on going
at_________________ School. A slight shaking of the classroom building is
experienced.
A low, rumbling or roaring sound is heard. The building is creaking and rattling.
Books
are failing from the bookcase. Hanging light fixtures and plants are swaying. The
desks
begin to slide a little too. After a minute a fire broke out.

A. Alarm- One minute bell ringing (Indicates the earth is shaking for one minute)
B. Response- Shut down the general switch at _________________ office. The
teacher will command the class to perform DUCK, COVER AND HOLD (DCH)
and maintain same action/ position until the bell ringing stops. All teachers are
also obliged to perform DCH until the duration of the alarm to guide their pupils
on safety during earthquake.
C. Evacuation- After the alarm, the teachers will command their class to proceed
at the Asembly Point by twos hands over the head with the pupils near the exit to
come out first. Do not bring anything in going out of the classroom. Particular
attention should be given, keeping all doors unlocked, the paths of egress
unblocked, all fire escapes should be free from any obstruction.

D. Assembly- Arrangement of pupils during flag raising ceremony should be


applied on the Asembly Point. Asembly Point area requirement is four person per
square meter. All pupils should perform DCH at the assembly point.
E. Headcount- Maintain same position while teachers are conducting headcount.
Each teacher will submit a piece of paper to the incident commander indicating the
grade, section and actual number of pupils of their respective class. Any member of
the class who is missing during the headcount should be reported immediately to
the incident commander for proper disposition.
F. Evaluation The facilitators will give their comments / suggestions and trace
some flaws, difficulties and other circumstances to prevent repetitions of the same
problem in the succeeding drills.