Presented by GROUp no

GROUP MEMBERS
NEETHA RAO PRAVEEN JACOB GURU DARSHAN ARLEEN CHANDRASHEKAR ABHIJEET POONJA

OVERVIEW
• Meaning and role of technology • Role of IT in POM • Classification • Tools used in Design Technology • Issues deliberated in the use of automation • Managing technological change • Technology change

Meaning of technology
• Technology: Know how, physical things and procedures used to produce parts and services. • Advanced Technology: Application of the latest scientific or engineering discoveries to the design of production and operations processes.

Role of IT in POM
Influence on Production organizations: • the organization of production, • the capital investment in plant and equipments, building etc., • the scale or volume of production operations, • the influence of labor relations in production operations.

Influence on production strategy • Mgmt vitally concerned with the technology of the production process. • it must design a highly sophisticated production control system for batch production, or a materials management system for high capacity assembly line operations.

Classification
Technology can be classified as: • Manual technology • Mechanised technology • Automated technology • Current technology • Appropriate technology • State-of-the-Art technology • Advanvced technology • Obsolete technology • Capital-intensive technology • Labour-intensive technology

CHOICE OF TECHNOLOGY

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Internal Factors
availability of funds for investment, product life cycle and technology-life cycle position, present plant capacity and technology adopted (i.e., current technology).


External Factors
government policies and regulations, availability of resources such as raw materials, energy, skilled labour etc., required for using the new technology, market scenario (market demand, customer requirement of product quality etc.)

Technology Life Cycle
• • • • Innovation Syndication Diffusion Substitution

Primary Areas
• • • • • • • • • Product technology Process technology Information technology Design technology Production or Manufacturing Technology Technology in Services Virtual Reality Technology Disruptive Technology Advanced or High-tech Production Technology

Computer Aided Design (CAD)
• It is an electronic system using computers for designing new parts or products or modifying existing ones, replacing the traditional drafting work done, by a draftsman on a drafting board.

Advantages of CAD
• • • • • Saves time and money Determine costs and test variables Low cost of design Eliminates manual drafting completely Faster development

Two extensions of CAD technology
• Design for manufacture and assembly (DFMA) • 3-D object modeling

Computer Aided Design and Manufacture (CAD/CAM)
• Computer-aided-manufacture (CAM) refers to the use of computer software to direct and control manufacturing equipment

Advantages of CAD/CAM systems
• • • • • • Product quality Shorter design time Production cost reduction New range possibilities Minimum involvement of direct workers Higher quality and productivity.

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Cad
CAM

GEOMETRIC MODELLING

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NC/CNC MACHINES

ANALYSIS

ROBOTICS

KINEMATICS

DATABASE

GEOMETRIC MODELLING

AUTOMATED DRAFTING

FACTORY MANAGEMENT

•NC- Numerical Control •CNC- Computer Numerical Control

CNC- Computer Numerical Control

Standard for the Exchange of Product Data (STEP)
STEP provides a format allowing the electronic transmittal of three dimensional data to be exchanged internationally, allowing geographically dispersed manufacturers to integrate design, manufacture and support processes

Virtual Reality Technology
Virtual reality is a visual form of communication in which images substitute for the real thing, but still allow the user to respond interactively

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
• Numerical control and computer numerical control • Automated process controls • Vision systems • Robots • Automated identification systems (AIS) • Automated guided vehicles (AGV) • Automated flow lines

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

BY GURU DARSHAN

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a configuration of a group of production machines (or work stations) connected by automated material handling and transferring machines and integrated by computer system which can give instructions to produce hundreds of different parts in whatever order specified.

Advantages
• • • • • Improved capital utilization Lower direct labour cost Reduced inventory Consistent quality Improved productivity

Disadvantages
• High initial capital investment • Limited ability to adopt to product changes • Substantial preplanning, tooling & fixture requirements • Standardization of part designs needed to reduce numbers of tools required • Requires long planning & development cycle to install the FM’s

Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
• Computer integrated Manufacturing is a system which acts as a bridge or umbrella to integrate product design and engineering, process planning and manufacturing using complex computer systems. It integrates CAD, CAM, FMs, inventory control, warehousing and shipping

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
• ERP systems comprise latest comprehensive software packages to automate a number of business processes. These softwares integrate most of the business functions in an organization ERF systems have automated manufacturing processes, organized account books, streamlined corporate departments such as human resources and facilitate business process reengineering.

AUTOMATION ISSUES

BY Arleen

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High tech, mid tech or low tech production Building manufacturing flexibility Justifying investments in automation Deciding among Automation Alternatives

• Managing technological change

Advantages: • Increased output and higher productivity. • Improved and uniform quality. • Reduced costs. • Fewer accidents. • Better production control. • Dangerous and unpleasant tasks can be performed by robots.

Disadvantages: • Heavy capital investment. • Displacement of labour. • Loss of suggestions from employees. • Design specifications for raw materials can not be relaxed. • Cost of shut down of automated plant due to shortage of materials is quite high. • Dehumanization.

• MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY

• Technology and the manager

• Components of information technology
– – – – Hardware Software Databases Telecommunication

CONTD

BY….. CHANDRASHEKAR

Technology and the manager

What should a manager know about technology? one view is that the manager merely need to understand what a technology can do, including its cost and performance . effective manager must also understand how the technology works and what goes on in the technology.

Role of technology in improving business performance

• Technology is probably the most important force driving the increase in global competition. Companies that invest in and apply technology tend to have stronger financial position than the companies don’t. example : IBM and SUN Microsystem, inc, believe that JAVA technology holds the key to new business opportunities.

Components Of Information Technology

• Information technlogies is mainly made up of four sub- technologies. • Hardware • Software • Database • Telecommunications.

Hardware
• A computer and the devices connected to it are called hardware

Software
• The computer programs written to make the hard ware work and to carryout different application tasks are called software.

Database
A data base is a collection of interrelated data or information stored on a data storage device such as computer hard drive, a floppy disc or a tape. A data base can be firms inventory records or customer demand information.

Telecommunications
• Fibre optics, telephones , modem, fax machine etc. make electronic networks possible. Such networks an d the use of compatible software, allow computer users at one location to communicate directly with computer users at another location.

Creating and applying technology

• Applying technology is ongoing challenge for organizations. there are various ways this can be done. One way for a firm to acquire new technology is the firm’s own research and development efforts which create new knowledge of materials and processes and then apply them to create and introduce new products and production processes.

The various stages of R&D projects include 1.Basic research stage 2.Applied research 3.Development stage

Basic research:

• Involves work that explores the potential of narrowly defined technological possibilities to generate knowledge and technlological advances. Applied research stage: involves work geared towards solving the practical problem and is results are more likely to lead to actual improvements is product, processes, and services.

Development Involves tae activities that run a specified set of technologies into consideration ease of production and marketability.

Technology as a competitive advantage A new technology should create some kind of competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is created by increasing the value of product to a customer or reducing the costs of bringing the products to the market.

Managing technological change.
some of the suggestions to production managers to production managers on how to manage changes in production technology Have a master plan of automation Recognise the risks in going for automation Do not try to automate everything at once. People are the key to the successful impementation of automation projects.

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• DECIDING ON AUTOMATION ALTERNATIVES

BY ABHIJEETH POONJA

(1)Economic factors (2) Effect on market share (3) Effect on product quality (4)Effect on manufacturing flexibility (5) Effect on labour relations (6) The amount of time required for implementation (7) Effect of automation implementation on ongoing production (8) Amount of capital investment required

• MANAGING TECHNOLOGY IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT