LEADERSHI P

By

FAYAZ AHMAD
Young Professional Network (YPN-FES) Supported by

Actionaid Peshawar Office
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Contents of The Training
1. HIERARCHIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE

1.1 Steep Hierarchies 1.2 Flat Hierarchies

2. LEADERSHIP – CHARACTERISTICS AND
CHALLENGES MOTIVATION

3. INSTRUMENTS OF LEADERSHIP – 4. CONFLICT RESOLUTION`

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1.Hierarchies and organizational culture
STEEP HIERARCHIES

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HIERARCHIES AND ORG…….CONT….

FLAT HIERARCHIES

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Well Functioning Group Can Answer Our Tasks? 1.What are
2.What is Important to Us? 3.What do we Define as Good and what is Right? 4.What is our Understanding of Success or Failure? 5.What Type of Behaviour is Typical for Us? 6.Who takes which Position? Who decides on What? Who has Power over Whom?
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2. Leadership - Characteristics and Challenges
•Initiative •Questions •Point of View •Conflict Solution •Decisions •Constructive Criticism – Feedback
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ME………TASK ………… TEAM
M E

TEA M

TASK
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Communication Process Cont…
1.1 Leadership Style Observed by Staff Members

• Staff-Centred • Staff-centred leadership raises the

satisfaction of the staff members which impacts e.g. on absences and fluctuation. It is specifically important …

• Possible Measures
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Leadership Style Observed .......Cont.

• Task-centred
Task-centred leadership can have specifically positive impacts on the performance of groups and teams where low or medium skilled workers fulfil clearly structured an non innovative tasks.

• Possible Measures
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Leadership Style Observed .......Cont.

• Facilitating Participation
The focus on participation can have positive effects in small teams where members feel a strong need of independence.

• Possible Measures

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You Can Take a Horse To The Water You Cannot Force it To Drink;
It Will Only Drink If it’s THIRSTY.

BUT

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1. 2.

Authoritarian style of leadership

Different Styles of Leadership

“Just let’s do” style of leadership

3. Cooperation between staff members and leader 4. Situated Style of Leadership
Appropriate behaviour:

For effective leadership the differentiation between “appropriate” and “nonappropriate” behaviour is of importance, as appropriate behaviour of the leader is assumed to cause appropriate behaviour of the staff. Of course the same is true for inappropriate behaviour. 13

You are …
Advocate Animator Arbitrator Coach

Leadership Roleshave to … because you
Mediate in Conflicts. Conflicts Create a Good Atmosphere. Watch over the Rules of the Game. Make Sure that a Goal is Achieved.
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Communicator Engine Expert Integrator
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Take Decisions. Push the Group with Questions. Transfer Knowledge. Integrate Everybody.
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Presenter Strategist Tamer Teacher Trouble Maker

Sell Your Ideas and Decisions. Give the Direction. Control the Group. Deal with Difficult Staff Members. To Provoke.

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3. Instruments of
•Delegation •Motivation •Professional meetings •Agreement on results and evaluation •Gender balance •Feed-back: appreciation, recognition and criticism •Staff policy
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Leadership

MOTIVATION
• Including others in a specific way towards
achieving goals by the motivator • External motivator (good comp. policy, salary new car) • Internal motivator-self motivation (appreciation, an
interesting work, the possibility of self realization) • Motivators Vs De-motivators (Frederic Herzberg)

THE PYRAMID OF NEEDS (MASLOW)
Self Realization
Autonomy Pleasure of work

Personal Needs Eggo-Needs Social Needs

Appreciation, Prestige. Power

Membership, Communication, Love

Security Needs

Precaution, Protection

Psychological Needs

Eating, Drinking, Sleeping

Influencing Factors on The Attitude (Friedric Herzberg)
security status income competence of the senior company policy and administration expansion progress responsibility autonomous work appreciation
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THANK YOU

The “Pyramid of Needs” (Maslow)

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Is the process of

3. Perception Acquiring, Interpreting,

Selecting

and Organizing Sensory information.

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2.1 Visualization Cont….

Big size of chart, therefore easy to read t is used with the objectives: To increase Iremembrance of information To include the observer To minimize speech To give orientation to the audience To emphasize the essential To make information and complex things easier to understand To help the recipient to concentrate on the important points But: Visualization only completes the speech – it doesn’t replace it!
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2.1 Visualization Cont….

Step 3

Step 1

Step 2

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2.1 Visualization.…Cont
3 Steps for preparing visualization

Deciding the Media

Planning Composition

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2.2 Deciding upon the Media
Black-Board

Big size of chart, therefore easy to read For working in small groups of up to 20 persons For presentations of a follow-up of discussions and Processes as well as for explanations

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2.2 Deciding upon the Media…..
Disadvantages

• • •

Limited space Transport and availability Once the black-board is cleaned you can’t refer to the information any longer

When working with the black-board please keep in mind that …

• … Everybody should be able to see the black-board. • … You always stay besides the black-board.
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2.2 Deciding upon the Media…..Cont
Pin-Board

For working in small groups of up to 20 persons For presentations of prepared visualizations as well as for follow-up of discussions and processes

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2.2 Deciding the Media….Cont
Disadvantages

Transport and availability of Pin-Boards Additional Material such as Cards, Wallpaper, etc. needed.

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2.2 Deciding The Media….Cont
Over Head Projector (OHP)

For working with all types of groups needs prepared transparencies Can be prepared by hand or by PowerPoint

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2.2 Deciding the Media….Cont
Flip-Chart
Presentations can be prepared or made in the presence of the participants during the presentation Big size of chart, therefore easy to read Can be kept visible during the seminar and can be used several times

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2.2 Deciding the Media….Cont

Disadvantages

• Flip-chart holder must be available/transported •A Lot of Paper is needed.

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2.2 Deciding the Media….Cont
Multimedia and PC

For all kinds of groups Quick and professional way of visualization Visualization helps to follow-up the different parts of the presentation

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2.2 Deciding the Media….Cont
Disadvantages

• Very often the visualization methods become more important than
the contents, many presenters have difficulties in adapting their presentation to needs and wishes of participants be remembered

• Quick change of slides allows a quantity of information, that cannot

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2.3 Planning the Visualization

• What do I want to visualize? • For what purpose do I need the visualization? • Whom do I want to inform or convince (target group)?

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2.4 Composition of Visualization
2.4.1 Shaping elements: Text
To make a presentation easy to understand you should therefore …

• …Use commonly used words and short sentences (Simplicity) • …Use titles and subtitles, build optical blocks • …Reduce your statements to the essential
written text (Structure) (Precision) (Additional Stimulation)

• …Use colours, give examples, use drawings besides the

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Composition of Visualization….Cont.
2.4.2 Graphics and Symbols
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Marketing Procurement

Production

East W est North

S. No

No

%age 40 60

Total 100 100

1st 2nd 3rd 4th Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr

Village 40 City 60

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Content and Structure
With which content do I reach my objectives?

Content

Target group
What do I present?

Topic

To whom do I present?

Content &&structure Content structure

Presentation:: Presentation

What are my objectives with this presentation?

Objectives

Implementation
How should the presentation take place?

How can I make the content of my presentation clearly understandable?

Structure

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