Basic Functions(2)

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Basic Functions(2)

© All Rights Reserved

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Polynomials

Exponential Functions

Trigonometric Functions

lim

x 0

sin x

x

Trigonometric Identities

The Number e

Index

FAQ

Polynomials

Definition

P a0 a1x a2 x 2

an x n

A number x for which P(x)=0 is called a root of the

polynomial P.

Theorem

Index

Polynomials may have no real roots, but a polynomial of

an odd degree has always at least one real root.

FAQ

Graphs of linear polynomials y = ax + b are straight lines. The coefficient

a determines the angle at which the line intersects the x axis.

polynomials:

1. y = 2x+1 (the red line)

3. y = -3x + 3 (the blue line)

Index

FAQ

The behaviour of a polynomial P a0 a1x

Likewise: as x also P x .

Problem

graphs and all roots of a 4th degree

polynomial and of a 5th degree

polynomial. Which is which?

Solution

the 4th degree polynomial because

of its behavior as x grows or gets

smaller.

Index

FAQ

Angles are formed by two half-lines starting

from a common vertex. One of the half-lines

is the starting side of the angle, the other one

is the ending side. In this picture the starting

side of the angle is blue, and the red line is

the ending side.

Angles are measured by drawing a circle

of radius 1 and with center at the vertex

of the angle. The size, in radians, of the

angle in question is the length of the

black arc of this circle as indicated in the

picture.

In the above we have assumed that the angle is

oriented in such a way that when walking along

the black arc from the starting side to the

ending side, then the vertex is on our left.

Index

FAQ

The first picture on the right shows a

positive angle.

gets reversed. This is illustrated in the second

picture.

between -2 and 2. By allowing angles to

rotate more than once around the vertex, one

generalizes the concept of angles to angles

greater than 2 or smaller than - 2.

Index

FAQ

Consider positive angles , as indicated in the pictures.

sin

Definition

by placing the angle at the origin with starting

side on the positive x -axis. The intersection point

of the end side and the circle with radius 1 and with

center at the origin is cos ,sin .

cos cos .

Index

sin

We extend that to the negative angles by

setting

sin sin and

cos

cos

FAQ

sin2 cos2 1

sin

definition.

Definition

tan

sin

cos

cot

cos

sin

cos

Graphs of:

1.

and

2.

Index

FAQ

The size of an angle is measured as the length

of the arc, indicated in the picture, on a circle

of radius 1 with center at the vertex.

line segment in the picture.

Lemma

sin

The above inequality is obvious by the above picture. For negative angles

the inequality is reversed.

Index

FAQ

Trigonometric functions sin and cos are

everywhere continuous, and lim sin 0 and lim cos 1.

0

sin tan .

Hence

sin

sin

Lemma

Index

1

.

cos

lim

sin

sin

FAQ

tan

Examples

Problem 1

Solution

Compute lim

sin 2 x

x 0

Rewrite

sin 2 x

x

sin 2 x

2

.

2x

sin 2x

x 0

Hence

Index

sin 2x

x

2x

1.

sin 2x

2

2.

x 0

2x

FAQ

Examples

Problem 2

Compute lim

x 0

Rewrite

Solution

sin sin x

x

sin sin x

x

sin x

sin sin x

x 0

sin x

1.This follows

Hence

sin sin x

Index

sin x

1.

x 0

FAQ

Trigonometric Identities 1

Defining Identities

1

csc

sin

tan

1

sec

cos

sin

cos

cot

1

cot

tan

cos

sin

Derived Identities

sin sin

cos =cos

sin2 +cos2 =1

sin x y sin x cos y cos x sin y

cos x y cos x cos y sin x sin y

Index

FAQ

Trigonometric Identities 2

Derived Identities (contd)

cos x y cos x cos y sin x sin y

tan x y

tan x tan y

1 tan x tan y

tan x y

tan x tan y

1 tan x tan y

cos 2x 2cos2 x 1

cos 2x 1 2sin2 x

cos x

2

Index

1 cos 2 x

2

sin x

2

1 cos 2 x

2

FAQ

Exponential Functions

Exponential functions are functions of the form

f x ax.

Assuming that a 0, a x is a well defined expression for all x .

functions:

x

1

1) y , the red curve

2

2) y 1x , the black line

x

3

3) y , the blue curve, and

2

x

5

4) y , the green curve.

2

Index

FAQ

The Number e

From the picture it appears obvious that,

as the parameter a grows, also the slope

of the tangent, at x 0, of the graph of the

a=5/2

a=1/2

a=3/2

function a x grows.

a=1

Definition

as the unique number e for which the slope

of the tangent of the graph of e x at x 0

is 1.

e2.718281828

Index

line is the tangent of the

angle at which the

tangent line intersects

the x-axis.

FAQ

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