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Basic Functions

Polynomials
Exponential Functions
Trigonometric Functions

lim

x 0

sin x
x

Trigonometric Identities
The Number e

Index

FAQ

Polynomials
Definition

Polynomial is an expression of the type


P a0 a1x a2 x 2

an x n

where the coefficients a0 , a1, , an are real numbers and an 0.

The polynomial P is of degree n.


A number x for which P(x)=0 is called a root of the
polynomial P.

Theorem

Index

A polynomial of degree n has at most n real roots.


Polynomials may have no real roots, but a polynomial of
an odd degree has always at least one real root.

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

Graphs of Linear Polynomials


Graphs of linear polynomials y = ax + b are straight lines. The coefficient
a determines the angle at which the line intersects the x axis.

Graphs of the linear


polynomials:
1. y = 2x+1 (the red line)

2. y = -3x+2 (the black line)


3. y = -3x + 3 (the blue line)

Index

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

Graphs of Higher Degree Polynomials


The behaviour of a polynomial P a0 a1x

an x n for large positive

or negative values x is determined by the highest degree term "an x n ".

If an 0 and n is odd, then as x also P x .


Likewise: as x also P x .

If an 0 and n is even, then as x , P x .


Problem

The picture on the right shows the


graphs and all roots of a 4th degree
polynomial and of a 5th degree
polynomial. Which is which?

Solution

The blue curve must be the graph of


the 4th degree polynomial because
of its behavior as x grows or gets
smaller.

Index

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

Measuring of Angles (1)


Angles are formed by two half-lines starting
from a common vertex. One of the half-lines
is the starting side of the angle, the other one
is the ending side. In this picture the starting
side of the angle is blue, and the red line is
the ending side.
Angles are measured by drawing a circle
of radius 1 and with center at the vertex
of the angle. The size, in radians, of the
angle in question is the length of the
black arc of this circle as indicated in the
picture.
In the above we have assumed that the angle is
oriented in such a way that when walking along
the black arc from the starting side to the
ending side, then the vertex is on our left.
Index

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

Measuring of Angles (2)


The first picture on the right shows a
positive angle.

The angle becomes negative if the orientation


gets reversed. This is illustrated in the second
picture.

This definition implies that angles are always


between -2 and 2. By allowing angles to
rotate more than once around the vertex, one
generalizes the concept of angles to angles
greater than 2 or smaller than - 2.

Index

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FAQ

Trigonometric Functions (1)


Consider positive angles , as indicated in the pictures.

sin

Definition

The quantities sin and cos are defined


by placing the angle at the origin with starting
side on the positive x -axis. The intersection point
of the end side and the circle with radius 1 and with
center at the origin is cos ,sin .

cos cos .
Index

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

sin

This definition applies for positive angles.


We extend that to the negative angles by
setting
sin sin and

cos

cos
FAQ

Trigonometric Functions (2)


sin2 cos2 1

sin

This basic identity follows directly from the


definition.

Definition

tan

sin

cos

cot

cos
sin

cos

Graphs of:
1.

sin(x), the red curve,


and

2.

cos(x), the blue curve.

Index

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

Trigonometric Functions (3)


The size of an angle is measured as the length
of the arc, indicated in the picture, on a circle
of radius 1 with center at the vertex.

On the other hand, sin() is the length of the red


line segment in the picture.

Lemma

sin

For positive angles , sin .

The above inequality is obvious by the above picture. For negative angles
the inequality is reversed.

Index

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FAQ

Trigonometric Functions (4)


Trigonometric functions sin and cos are
everywhere continuous, and lim sin 0 and lim cos 1.
0

In view of the picture on the right, we have, for positive angles ,


sin tan .

Hence

sin

This implies: lim

sin

Lemma

Index

1
.
cos

lim

sin

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

sin

FAQ

tan

Examples
Problem 1

Solution

Compute lim

sin 2 x

x 0

Rewrite

sin 2 x
x

sin 2 x
2
.
2x

By the previous Lemma, lim

sin 2x

x 0

Hence

Index

sin 2x
x

2x

1.

sin 2x
2
2.

x 0
2x

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

Examples
Problem 2

Compute lim

x 0

Rewrite

Solution

sin sin x
x

sin sin x
x

By the previous Lemma, lim

sin sin x sin x


sin x

sin sin x

x 0

sin x

1.This follows

by substituting sin x . As x 0, also 0.

Hence

sin sin x

Index

sin sin x sin x


sin x

1.
x 0

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

Trigonometric Identities 1
Defining Identities

1
csc
sin
tan

1
sec
cos
sin

cos

cot

1
cot
tan
cos
sin

Derived Identities

sin sin

cos =cos

sin 2 sin cos 2 cos


sin2 +cos2 =1
sin x y sin x cos y cos x sin y
cos x y cos x cos y sin x sin y
Index

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FAQ

Trigonometric Identities 2
Derived Identities (contd)

sin x y sin x cos y cos x sin y


cos x y cos x cos y sin x sin y
tan x y

tan x tan y

1 tan x tan y

tan x y

tan x tan y

1 tan x tan y

cos 2x cos2 x sin2 x

sin 2 x 2sin x cos x

cos 2x 2cos2 x 1

cos 2x 1 2sin2 x

cos x
2

Index

1 cos 2 x
2

sin x
2

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

1 cos 2 x
2

FAQ

Exponential Functions
Exponential functions are functions of the form
f x ax.
Assuming that a 0, a x is a well defined expression for all x .

The picture on the right shows the graphs of the


functions:
x

1
1) y , the red curve
2
2) y 1x , the black line
x

3
3) y , the blue curve, and
2
x

5
4) y , the green curve.
2

Index

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

FAQ

The Number e
From the picture it appears obvious that,
as the parameter a grows, also the slope
of the tangent, at x 0, of the graph of the

a=5/2
a=1/2

a=3/2

function a x grows.

a=1

Definition

The mathematical constant e is defined


as the unique number e for which the slope
of the tangent of the graph of e x at x 0
is 1.
e2.718281828

Index

Mika Seppl: Basic Functions

The slope of a tangent


line is the tangent of the
angle at which the
tangent line intersects
the x-axis.

FAQ