Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT

)
from the Praxis II Series
Test Preparation Session Created by Dr. Diane Kern Assistant Professor, University of Rhode Island, School of Education

What we’ll do and why
 Prepare

for PLT…time well spent!  RI Teacher Certification  Exit from Rhode Island Teacher Education programs  Become familiar with exam  Reduce stress, raise confidence, save time  Self-diagnose areas to study further

The PLT Exam Basics
       

K-6 OR 5-9 OR 7-12…at this time in RI you’ll want to either take the K-6 or the 7-12 Two hour exam Test Dates & RI Test Centers Registration & Cost Test Takers with Disabilities Primary Language Not English Your Scores & Score Reports Most URI programs have an additional content exam (or more). See you advisor for the specific name(s) of your area’s content exam and materials to use for studying.

Case Histories
4

Detailed teaching situations, a.k.a.“constructed response”  Each followed with 3 short-answer questions  Scored on a scale of 0-2.

Multiple-Choice Questions
 Discrete,

stand alone multiple choice questions (not about constructed response questions, in other words!)  24 multiple-choice questions are included in two sections of 12 questions each

Categories on Score Report
Categories that will appear on your score report &  Approximate Percentage of Total Score I.  Students as Learners (multiple­choice questions)  11% II. Instruction and Assessment (multiple­choice questions)  11% III.Teacher Professionalism (multiple­choice questions)  11% IV.Students as Learners (short­answer questions)  11% V.Instruction and Assessment (short­answer questions)  22% VI.Communication Techniques (short­answer questions)  11% VII.Teacher Professionalism (short­answer questions)  11%

Four categories
 Students

as Learners  Instruction and Assessment  Teacher Professionalism  Communication Techniques

URI coursework connections
 EDC

102/502 or 503 Intro to American Ed  EDC 312 or 512 Psychology of Learning  EDC 402 Educating Students with Special Needs  EDC 415 or HDF 310 Adolescent Development and Classroom Management  EDC 448 Literacy Practices…  And several other aspects of any EDC prefix course

Students as Learners
 Strategies

to maintain discipline  Strategies to encourage desirable & discourage undesirable student behavior  Making learning goals clear to students  Making content comprehensible to students  Encouraging students to extend their thinking  Meeting the needs of diverse learners

Instruction and Assessment
 Monitoring

students’ understanding of content & adjusting learning activities  Current research on teaching for thinking and understanding  Using instructional time wisely  Relevant aspects of students’ background knowledge & experiences  Articulating clear goal for lessons  Creating or selecting teaching methods & evaluation strategies

Teacher Professionalism
 Reflecting

on the extent learning goals are met  Demonstrating sense of efficacy  Building professional relationships with colleagues, parents, & paraprofessionals  Current trends in and research findings in education  Communicating with parents/guardians about student learning (includes legal rights of teacher and students)

Communication Techniques
 Dynamics

of interpersonal relationships  Appropriate teacher responses to individual and cultural diversity  Nonverbal communication skills  Questioning techniques  Creating classroom environments that promote fairness  Classroom and school expectations, rules  Appropriate motivational strategies

Sample Test Items
 K-6

Case History  7-12 Case History  Multiple Choice items

General Test-Taking Strategies
#1 Issue!!! Plan how you will use your time for the test  Get a good night’s rest  Eat a healthy breakfast  Bring your proof of registration papers, 2 forms of identification and extra pencils with erasers  Arrive to the test early & take a moment to relax and reduce your anxiety  Listen attentively to test proctor  Keep a steady pace & don’t let more difficult questions affect your attitude & steal your valuable time

Test-Taking Tips, continued…
 Rely

on your knowledge and don’t watch for patterns  Change only answers when you’re certain  When you’ve completed your test use remaining time wisely—proofread, review your difficult questions, check that you’ve answered all questions.

Test Preparation Resources
Educational Testing Service Website http://www.ets.org  Test Preparation Resources ETS CliffsTestPrep Kaplan Barron’s  On-line Resources Dr. Lee’s from Harding University’s PLT site http://www.harding.edu/USER/dlee/WWW/pltprep.htm  Other supports Your academic advisor URI Counseling Center, particularly for Test Anxiety 874-2288

Final tips

Additional fees for: phone test score results, additional score reports, scoring verification request, diagnostic information

URI does NOT get your results from ETS. It is your

responsibility to keep your original in a safe place, make one copy of ALL four pages (even if they’re not filled in) to give to the Office of Teacher Education 701 Chafee and another copy to give to your methods instructor

Don’t wait until you only have one chance to pass.
Start your studying now, register with plenty of time for two or more retakes so you do not have to delay your student teaching year.

The PLT is not a reflection of how well you will teach; it’s a teacher certification requirement that you CAN
reach! Your URI advisors are here to help you.