First Aid at Work Day One

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Who am I and who is MG Training?
• Introduction to your trainer… • MG Training is a provider of a variety of Health and Safety courses throughout the UK – visit www.mgtraining.org.uk for more details.

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Health and Safety
•Toilets •Fire Exits •Assembly Point •Smoking Areas •Food/Drink areas

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SUMMARY OF DAY ONE
Course is 24 hours usually over 4 days HSE Approved Course Written and Practical Assessments on Day Four You Will be Able to Administer Basic First Aid Please Sign the Register Every Morning

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WHAT IS FIRST AID?
Definition of First Aid: The immediate assistance or treatment given to someone injured or suddenly taken ill before the arrival of an ambulance, Doctor or other appropriately qualified person WE ARE NOT DOCTORS!!

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WHAT IS FIRST AID?
Aims of First Aid: Preserve Life:
Not just the casualty but you too

Prevent Deterioration:
Learn skills to prevent a situation getting worse

Promote Recovery:
Use correct techniques to promote recovery Obtain further medically qualified assistance if required

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ACTS AND REGULATIONS
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Requires employers to protect the health, safety and welfare of their employees and non-employees who use their facilities

Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981
Duty upon the employers to provide adequate equipment, facilities and personnel to render FIRST AID to their employees if they are injured or become ill at work

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
Any serious work–related or public accident is reported within 7 days to nearest HSE Office

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FIRST AID KITS
Guidance Cards 20 Adhesive Dressings 6 Medium Sterile Dressings 2 Large Sterile Dressings 2 Extra Sterile Dressings 2 Sterile Eye Pads 6 Triangular Bandages 6 Safety Pins Disposable Gloves Plastic Face Shield Cleansing Wipes

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ASSESSMENT OF FIRST AID NEEDS
Factors affecting provision:

•The remoteness of the site from emergency services •Remote and lone workers •Employees working on shared or multi-occupied sites •Annual leave and other absences of first Aiders
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•The nature and distribution of the workforce

•The organisations history of accidents

•Workplace hazards and risks •The size of the organisation

ACCIDENT DETAILS
• • • • • • • • Name Of Casualty Home Address Name Of Person Writing The Report When The Accident Happened Where The Accident Happened What Happened Treatment Given Method Of Disposal e.g Hospital, Home or Return To Work
Accident Book
A/B06/01

Name Address

Date

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FIRST AIDER
AS A FIRST AIDER YOUR ULTIMATE RESPONSIBILITY IS FOR YOURSELF, FOLLOWED CLOSELY BY THE CASUALTY AND OTHER BYSTANDERS

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TRIAGE OR PRIORITIES Breathing Bleeding Burns Bones
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FIRST AIDER RESPONSIBILITIES
Arriving at the scene
Assess the Situation, Make the area safe, Deal with bystanders, Any other trained personnel, Get History, Send for help, Send for first aid box, Is there anybody with the casualty

Dealing with the Casualties The Clearing Up Process

Put gloves on, Follow ABC, Make diagnosis, Treat injuries, Give care, Act Calmly, Get Help

Make area safe, dispose of dressings, complete reports, contact families, be aware of your feelings, replenish first aid box What are the processes of each stage?

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SUMMONING HELP

L I O N E L

Location Incident Other Services Required Number Of Casualties Extent Of Injuries Repeat Location
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Keep Eye Contact Tell The Truth Be Aware Of Body Language Speak Clearly and Slowly Use Their Name Allow Time For The Casualty To Answer Act In A Calm and Confident Manner

CASUALTY COMMUNICATION
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“SET UP” Stop Environment Traffic
Take a Breath Think Assessment Consider The Limitations Safe Approach Remain Alert

Unknown Hazard

Gas, Electrical, Fire ? Use Barriers

Protect Self and Casualty

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THE “AVPU” SCALE

A

Alert

V

Responds To Voice

P

Responds To Pain

U

Unresponsive

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DR SAB
D R S A B Danger Response HOUT FOR HELP Airway Breathing
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PRIMARY ASSESSMENT
D R S A B Danger Response HOUT Airway Breathing
Is it safe for you to help? Can you remove the danger or move the casualty away from danger? Try to find out the history, Are there too many casualties, can you cope?

Signs of consciousness, gently shake the shoulders, TALK to the casualty ALL THE TIME

You never know who will here you, so make it loud

Open the airway, check for any obstructions, ALWAYS consider the possibility of a spinal injury

Rise and fall of the chest, listen for sound of breathing, feel for breath on your cheek

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B – BREATHING

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SECONDARY ASSESSMENT
Once you are sure the patient is breathing effectively, you can then start the secondary survey

Top to Toe (remember triage)
Look for bleeding, bruising, swelling, deformity, spinal injury, fractures, medi-alert bracelets, needle marks, pockets. DO NOT MOVE if you suspect a spinal injury, check the neck area. GLOVES Recovery Position Keep warm (treat for shock)

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RECOVERY POSITION

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BREATHING

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BREATHING AND CIRCULATION

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BREATHING AND CIRCULATION
What does the heart do?

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BREATHING AND CIRCULATION

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New Resuscitation for 2006

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DISORDERS OF RESPIRATION
Hypoxia
What is hypoxia?
Hypoxia is a term describing low levels of oxygen in the blood

What can cause hypoxia?

•Insufficient oxygen in inspired air •Airway obstruction •Conditions affecting the chest wall •Impaired lung function •Damage to brain or nerves •Impaired oxygen uptake by the tissues

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EXERCISE
What can cause low levels of oxygen in the blood? Condition
Insufficient Oxygen in inspired air Airway obstruction Conditions affecting the chest wall Impaired lung function Damage to Brain or Nerves Impaired O2 uptake by the tissues

Causes
Fume Inhalation Choking, Drowning Crushing, Broken Ribs Asthma, Hyperventilation, punctured lung Trauma, poison Fume Inhalation, Bleeding

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B – BREATHING

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DISORDERS OF RESPIRATION Choking Drowning Fume Inhalation Asthma Hyperventilation
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CHOKING
What is Choking?
Choking is either a full or partial blockage of the airway

What are Some of the Causes of Choking?

•Food •Toys •Pen Tops •General Objects.
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CHOKING

Blueness (Cyanosis), Usually clutching the throat, difficulty or unable to breath

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CHOKING ADULT

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CHOKING CHILD & BABY

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DROWNING
What is Drowning?
When a persons face is immersed in liquid

What different types are there?
Wet / Dry / Secondary

What are the recognition features?
Possibly face down in liquid Coughing & spluttering Blueness of the face and lips. www.mgtraining.org.uk

DROWNING
WHAT IS THE TREATMENT?

•Check for danger (don’t put yourself at risk) •Either remove from water or lift head above water •Check ABC and act accordingly •Beware of water in the lungs and call 999 if unsure •Beware of the onset of hypothermia.

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FUME, GAS & SMOKE INHALATION
When treating anyone for the above condition we must ensure our own safety and make sure we have identified all casualties as it is possible to have to deal with more than one

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TYPES OF GASSES, FUMES & RECOGNITION
Smoke – possible spasm of air passages, swelling & burning Carbon monoxide – Headaches, confusion, nausea, breathing
difficulties, cherry red colour

CO2 – breathlessness, headaches, dizziness, rapid unconsciousness Solvents – headaches, vomiting, possible unconsciousness, can
stop the heart

Lighter Fuels – can possibly stop the heart.

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TREATMENT?

•Call 999 [ambulance, fire etc] •Remove casualty from danger, ensuring
not to endanger yourself

•Check ABC •Treat any burns found
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ASTHMA
WHAT IS ASTHMA? This is a condition where the air passages go into spasm and the lining of the airway becomes inflamed and starts to swell. There can also be a secretion of thick sticky mucus which further reduces the air passages.
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ASTHMA

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ASTHMA
What are the Cause of Asthma? •Animal fur or dust •Nervous Tension •Exercise •Colds and viral infections •Smoking •Pollen •Work •Weather •Food
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• • • • •

RECOGNITION FEATURES?
Difficulty in breathing with wheezy phases Distress & anxiety Unable to talk Can become exhausted May have blueness of lips and skin

TREATMENT?

 Remain calm & position the casualty comfortably  Assist them to take their own inhaler  If the condition does not ease within 3 minutes,  
get them to take the same inhaler again If the attack is still present after 5 minutes call 999 If the symptoms disappear recommend they see their GP www.mgtraining.org.uk

HYPERVENTILATION This is a condition which is a lack of carbon dioxide caused by excessive or over breathing, which will eventually lead to unconsciousness and possibly death.

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WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?

• • • • • • •    

Anxiety Panic Underwater Swimming

RECOGNITION FEATURES?
Flushed skin Panicky / Anxious Shallow Breathing Can become weak

TREATMENT?
Sit casualty down in a comfortable position Calm them down Get them to breath into a paper bag or their cupped hands If in doubt call 999.

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HYPERVENTILATION

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BEFORE YOU GO…

Workbook paper!!

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SUMMARY OF DAY TWO
Everyone OK with Resus? Today we will cover: Circulation Disorders Disorders of Consciousness Wounds and Bleeding Incident Management CPR for baby and child Bites and Stings Please sign the register
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But First….

Recap paper!!!

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DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION
THERE ARE VARIOUS DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION WHICH WE AS FIRST AIDERS CAN HAVE AN IMPACT ON. WE WILL BE LOOKING AT THE FOLLOWING;

•Anaphylactic Shock •Angina •Heart Attack
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•Shock •Fainting

SHOCK Shock is an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the vital organs of the body, thus causing these organs not to function properly

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SHOCK
What are Some of the Causes? •Some heart conditions •Severe Bleeding •Loss of Bodily Fluids •Bad News / Fright What are the Recognition Features •Pale, cold clammy skin, rapid weak pulse •Nausea •Thirst •Weakness •Cyanosis •Shallow Breathing www.mgtraining.org.uk

TREATMENT OF SHOCK
 Treat the Cause of    
Shock Lie the Casualty Down and Raise the Legs if Possible Keep Them Warm Contact 999 if Needed Do Not Give Anything to Eat or Drink

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DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION

Fainting Anaphylactic Shock Angina Heart Attack
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FAINTING

This is a condition caused by a temporary reduction in the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain

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FAINTING
What Can Cause a Faint? •Fear •Bad News •Hot Atmosphere •Standing For a Long
Period of Time •Tiredness •Hunger

•Pale Face, Possibly Sweating •Possibly Yawning •Slow Pulse •Brief Unconsciousness www.mgtraining.org.uk

Recognition Features

TREATMENT
   
Lie Them Down Loosen Any Tight Clothing Raise Their Legs if Possible Once They Have Returned to Normal They can Sit up and Sip Cold Water Get Them Into a Supply of Fresh Air www.mgtraining.org.uk

 Reassure Them and Try to

ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

This is a condition where there is a severe allergic reaction within the body which causes the blood vessels to dilate and can cause the air passages to constrict
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WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CAUSES?
•Bee Stings •Nuts •Medicine •Seafood

•Dairy Products •Wheat

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RECOGNITION FEATURES? • • • • • •    
Blotchy Red Skin Swelling Around The Face And Neck Possible Difficulty in Breathing [Wheezy] Tight Chest Rapid Pulse Anxiety.

TREATMENT?
999 Straight Away Reassure Them and Position Them Comfortably Ask if They Have Their Medication, If They Have Assist Them To Administer It [DO NOT GIVE IT] Be Prepared to Resuscitate.

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ANGINA
This is a condition which is brought about by a narrowing of the arteries which supply the heart with blood

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WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CAUSES? •Poor Diet •Diabetes •Smoking •Hereditary •Stress. RECOGNITION FEATURES? •Chest Pain, Spreading to the Arms, Jaw, Back and Stomach •Pain or Tingling in the Hand •Shortness of Breath •Signs and Symptoms of Shock. www.mgtraining.org.uk

TREATMENT ?

 Reassure the Casualty and Make Them as    

Comfortable as Possible If They Have Their Medication Assist Them To Take It [DO NOT GIVE IT] IF The Pain Subsides Allow Them to Carry on If the Pain Continues For 15 Mins Call 999 Be Prepared to Resuscitate.

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ANGINA

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HEART ATTACK
This is where one of the coronary arteries becomes blocked, causing possible damage due to part of the heart being starved of oxygen

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HEART ATTACK
What are Some of The Causes?
• Blockage of the Arteries • Bad Diet • Smoking • Hereditary

Recognition Features
• Severe Chest Pain, Radiating Down Arm • Shortness of Breath • Pale Skin, Possible Cyanosis • Irregular Weak Pulse • Signs and Symptoms of Shock • Possible Sense of Impending Doom • could have been Complaining of Indigestion

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TREATMENT
 Put casualty in

Comfortable position  Calm them down and reassure  Keep them warm  Call 999  Be Prepared to Resuscitate.
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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
What is it? A network of impulses that control the functions of the body Made up primarily of the brain and the spinal cord The spine protects the spinal cord which is the message sender

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DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
F I S H S H A P E D fainting injury to brain or spinal cord shock heart attack stroke head injury asphyxia poisoning epilepsy diabetic

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DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Concussion Skull Fractures and Compression Stroke Epilepsy Diabetes
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CONCUSSION
This is a condition when there has been a blow to the head severe enough to shake the brain

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• • • • • • •     

Brief or Partial Loss of Consciousness Signs and Symptoms of Shock Dizziness Loss of Memory Feeling Sick Headache Shallow Breathing

TREATMENT
Call 999 if Needed If Not Necessary Advise to See Their GP Keep Them Comfortable With Their Head, Neck and Torso in Line If No Spinal is Suspected Raise Their Head and Shoulders Monitor Casualty Constantly

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SKULL FRACTURE & CEREBRAL COMPRESSION

This is where via a direct blow the skull has broken, this can either lead to a build up of fluid or part of the broken bone putting pressure on the brain

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SKULL FRACTURE

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COMPRESSION

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• • • • • • • •

RECOGNITION FEATURES
History of a blow to the head Hot flushed face Slow strong pulse Noisy slow breathing Unequal pupils in severe cases Intense headache Watery fluid possibly coming out of the ear & nose Confusion and Possible change in personality

TREATMENT  Call for an ambulance  Place in a comfortable position, if no spinal injury suspected,   
head and shoulders raised If fluid coming from the ear place a sterile dressing over it and keep a sample for hospital If unconscious check ABC and place in the recovery position Be prepared to resuscitate

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STROKE
This is a condition where the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly and seriously impaired by a blood clot or a ruptured artery

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•Sudden or gradual loss of consciousness •Signs of paralysis or loss of power •Dribbling •Slurred speech

RECOGNITION FEATURES •Sudden severe headache •Confused and emotional state

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TREATMENT     
Lay casualty down and raise head and shoulders Reassure casualty Support any paralyzed limb Do not give anything to eat or drink If unconscious check ABC and place in recovery position

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EPILEPSY
This is a condition where there is an abnormal amount of electrical activity in the brain, causing the muscles of the body going into spasm which the person cannot control

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TYPES OF EPILEPSY
Petit Mal Grand Mal Minor Epilepsy Major Epilepsy

RECOGNITION OF PETIT MAL •Repetitive twitching movements •Strange behaviour, lip smacking, plucking at clothing •Possibly followed by a major seizure
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MINOR EPILEPSY

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TREATMENT OF PETIT MAL

 If possible sit them down  Remove any sources of danger  Talk to and reassure the casualty until
they fully recover

 Advise the casualty of what has
happened, if this is the first time advise them to see their GP
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RECOGNITION FEATURES OF GRAND MAL
•Suddenly fall into unconsciousness, often letting
out a cry •Become rigid, arching their back •Breathing could cease •Signs of cyanosis •Convulsive movements begin •Frothing at the mouth •Possible loss of bladder control
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•There could be a warning period [AURA]

MAJOR EPILEPSY

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TREATMENT
• If possible support or eases the casualties • • • •    
fall Make space around them Ask bystanders to move away Protect the casualties head Record how long the fit lasts Dial 999 If Unconscious for longer than 10 minutes Convulsing for longer than 5 minutes Repeated convulsions First convulsion
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DIABETES
This is a condition brought about by the bodies inability to regulate its own blood sugar levels

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TYPES OF DIABETES
(TYPE 1) HYPERGLYCAEMIA not enough insulin secreted resulting in high blood sugar levels (IDD Insulin Dependant Diabetes) (TYPE 2) HYPOGLYCAEMIA too much insulin secreted resulting in low blood sugar levels (NIDD Non-Insulin Dependant Diabetes)
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• • • • • •

RECOGNITION FEATURES
Pale, cold skin with profuse sweating Deteriorating levels of consciousness Can be aggressive Confusion Weakness and palpitations Look for evidence such as bracelet, necklace, warning card

TREATMENT OF HYPOGLYCAEMIA  Make the casualty as comfortable as   
possible Give something sugary [sugary not sweet] If they start to improve give more sugar until full recovered Advise them to eat a meal a soon as possible

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TYPES OF WOUND
P – uncture C – ontusion G – unshot A – brasion I – ncision L – aceration = Nail = Blunt blow / Bruise = = = = Bullet Scrape / Graze Neat cut Rough tear

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TYPES OF BLEEDING
We have 8 – 12 pints in our bodies!! ARTERIAL Bright Red blood, spurting in time with heart VENOUS Same volume as arterial but blood will ooze CAPILLARY Blood loss is usually slight and is easily controlled

Always use GLOVES
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ARTERIAL BLEED
Close your eyes if you’re squeamish!!

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TREATMENT FOR WOUNDS AND BLEEDING
        
Put gloves on Expose and examine the wound Raise and support injured limbs If ok apply direct pressure Use up to two dressings and change if blood coming through Once the bleeding stops bandage firmly Support injured area if necessary Treat for shock Dial 999 if necessary USE GLOVES www.mgtraining.org.uk

EXTERNAL BLEEDING

R - est
Place them in an appropriate position for the location of their injury

E - levate
Elevate the wound, Ensure it is above the level of the heart, Gravity will reduce the blood flow

D – irect Pressure
Apply direct or indirect pressure to stem the flow of blood

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R E D

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Penetrating Chest Wound Abdominal Wound Nose Bleeds Amputations

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PENETRATING CHEST WOUND
This is a condition where something has penetrated the skin and the chest cavity, including the ribs at the back. Because of where the lungs are situated this can include them as well

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RECOGNITION

• • • • •        

Signs of shock Coughing up frothy red blood Crackling feeling around the site of wound Blood bubbling out of/around wound Sound of air being sucked into chest as casualty breaths in

TREATMENT
Main aim is to stop air entering chest cavity Ensure ambulance is on its way Expose the wound and cover initially Assist casualty into comfy position usually [w] Incline casualty to injured side Cover wound with sterile dressing, then plastic Seal the plastic on three sides with tape Monitor constantly and be ready to resuscitate

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ABDOMINAL WOUND
This type of wound is classified as anything from the diaphragm down to the hips. This has the potential to be dangerous because of the amount of vital organs in that area.

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RECOGNITION

• Possibly see something protruding from the wound [usually the
intestines]

• Signs and symptoms of shock • Complaining of pain in that area • Bystanders may be able to give you a history of what happened
TREATMENT

   

Main aim is to reduce the risk of infection Lay casualty down, supporting there knees If nothing protruding cover with a sterile dressing and secure in place If something is protruding cover it with a plastic bag/cling film if this isn't available use a damp sterile dressing

 Drape a dressing over the top  Call for an ambulance  Treat for shock

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NOSEBLEEDS
Generally these are more of a nuisance, however if the casualty looses a lot of blood they can be dangerous

TREATMENT  Sit the casualty down leaning slightly forward  Assist them to pinch there nose for approximately 10 minutes  Repeat this if required, if the bleed lasts longer than 30
minutes send them to hospital

 Once under control advise them not to sniff, cough or blow
their nose for a couple of hours

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AMPUTATION
Amputation is where part of the body has been partly or completely severed from the body

TREATMENT          
Treat any general bleeding Treat for shock, with plenty of reassurance Place severed section into a clean plastic bag or cling film Wrap this in fabric or gauze Place this in/on ice Ensure casualties details are on the bag Hand this over personally to emergency services DO NOT wash the amputated part DO NOT allow direct contact with ice DO NOT allow raw surfaces to come into contact with cotton wool

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INDIRECT PRESSURE
If direct pressure is not effective or possible you must apply indirect pressure Apply for a

maximum of 10 minutes at a time

The two arteries where we can effectively apply direct pressure, are:

•BRACHIAL •FEMORAL
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INTERNAL BLEEDING
Bleeding from inside the body is just as important as external bleeding. Unfortunately as First Aiders it is out of our scope to stop it, we can however reduce its effect until medical help arrives

RECOGNITION •Signs and symptoms of shock •Could vomit blood •Could cough up blood •Could bleed from the ear or nose •Marble patterning around the affected area •Area will be hard to touch www.mgtraining.org.uk

INTERNAL BLEEDING TREATMENT

 Treat the casualty for shock  Call an ambulance  If possible retain a sample of
blood/fluid  Be prepared to resuscitate

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EFFECTS OF BLOOD LOSS
Blood Loss 10% 20%
May feel dizzy when stood up Pale

30%
Restless, Anxious Cyanosis Rapid, Hard to detect Rapid

40%

Consciousness

Normal

Unresponsive

Skin

Normal

Blue/Cold

Pulse

Normal

Slightly raised

Undetectable

Breathing

Normal

Slightly Raised

Air Hunger

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BLEEDING FROM ORIFICIES
Bleeding from: Ear Appearance Bright Red/Clots Blood which appears watered down Bright Red/Clots Nose Blood which appears watered down Bright red and frothy Vomited or coffee brown colour Fresh Blood Bright Red Fresh Blood Dark brown Blood Possible causes Perforated ear drum/fractured skull Fractured skull (leaking cerebral fluid) Nose Bleed Fractured skull (leaking cerebral fluid) Bleeding in the lungs Bleeding in stomach Menstruation Bleeding from lower bowel Large intestines/bowel

Mouth Vagina Anus Anus

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CRUSH INJURY
IF LESS THAN 15 MINUTES

•Remove object, control bleeding, Monitor ABC, Call 999
IF MORE THAN 15 MINUTES

•DO NOT move the casualty, Call 999, monitor ABC’s

CRUSH SYNDROME
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Incident Management Scenarios

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Junior and Baby CPR

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Bites and Stings

Bee Stings Wasp Stings Dog Bites

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Before you go…

Workbook paper!!

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SUMMARY OF DAY THREE

• • • • • • •

Please Sign The Register Burns and Scalds Bones, Joints and Muscle Injuries Poisoning Incident Management Foreign Bodies Effect of Heat and Cold Resus Recap
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But first….

Recap paper!!!

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HOW ARE BURNS CAUSED?
DRY HEAT BURNS Direct contact with dry heat or friction, Flames, Hot Objects SCALDS Steam, Hot Liquid CHEMICAL BURNS Acid, Chlorine, Bleach RADIATION BURNS Not just Plutonium!! Sun Burn, Sun Beds COLD INJURY Frostbite, Freezing Metal, Liquid Gas ELECTRICAL BURNS Mains Power

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TYPES OF BURN
SUPERFICIAL Only the outermost layer of skin is effected Redness swelling & tenderness If larger than 5% take/send to hospital

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PARTIAL THICKNESS
Rawness and blisters 1% must be seen by a doctor 9% will cause shock and must go to hospital

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FULL THICKNESS
All layers are burned and there may possibly be some nerve, fat tissue and muscle damage Requires urgent hospital treatment

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HOW BURNS ARE CLASSIFIED

THE PALM OF YOUR OWN HAND IS ROUGHLY 1% OF YOUR OWN BODY

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TREATMENT OF BURNS

 Our main aim is to protect from    

infection Flood the area with cold water for at least 10 mins Gently remove watches and jewellery if possible Cover with a sterile dressing Elevate if possible & treat for shock
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TREATMENT DO NOT’S

X X X X

Break blisters Apply adhesive dressings Apply lotions, ointments or fats Remove anything sticking to the burn

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TREATMENT OF BURNS

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BURNS TO THE FACE AND NECK
These can be very dangerous especially if the airway is affected. Our main aim here is to get medical help as soon as possible

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TREATMENT

 Dial for an ambulance stating burns

to the airway  Loosen any tight clothing, get casualty into a supply of fresh air if possible  Administer oxygen if you have been trained to do so
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CHEMICAL BURNS

The effect of a chemical burn can be a lot slower than normal burns, the first aider should be aware of this and the chemicals available in their workplace
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TREATMENT
 Ensure your safety whilst you treat the    
casualty [wear PPE] Flood the affected area for at least 20 mins Remove contaminated clothing whilst flooding the area Follow guidelines laid down on the relevant COSHH sheets Take or send the casualty to hospital with a copy of the COSHH sheet
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ELECTRICAL BURNS
Electricity is very dangerous not least because we cannot see it, but also because it can very easily stop the heart. There are two types of electricity we are likely to come into contact with, these are: Alternating Current [AC] Direct Current [DC]
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TYPES OF ELECTRICITY
Alternating Current This is the electricity which generally comes from a plug socket at home or work, once you turn the socket off the electricity stops Direct Current This is like the electricity stored in a battery or on railway lines, it is a constant source of power until it is turned off from its source

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• • •

May be an electrical cable/appliance nearby Casualty will have an entry burn usually on the hand [but not always] Casualty will also have an exit burn, which will be where the casualty was earthed
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TREATMENT

 Ensure your safety  Switch off the power supply if it is
safe to do so  Check ABC and act accordingly  Call for an ambulance  Treat any burns found, remember entry and exit
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BURNS TO THE EYE

These can be caused by either chemicals or a naked flame the treatment for both is very similar

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TREATMENT
  
Run the eye under cold water for at least 10 mins [20 mins with chemicals] Be prepared to use a gentle but firm approach as the eye may close tight Cover the eye with an eye pad, and arrange for the casualty to go to hospital

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BRIGHT LIGHT INJURY

Because our eyes are susceptible to bright light we can get this condition from the sun, a welders flash or even a sun bed.

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RECOGNITION

• Feeling of pain or grit in the eye • Red, watery eyes which are
sensitive to light

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TREATMENT

 Constantly reassure the casualty  Leave any contact lenses in place  Cover the eyes using a sterile eye

pad  Arrange for them to go to hospital

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MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL CONDITIONS
This section we are going to look at the conditions which can effect the muscles of the body or the skeleton, these will include: Fractures Spinal Injuries Strains & Sprains

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FRACTURES A bone is referred to as fracture when it is chipped, broken, split, hairline fractured. Any of the bones in our body have the potential to fracture

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TYPES OF FRACTURES
This is a clean break in the bone The skin has been broken by the bone. This injury has a high risk of infection Complications have arisen I.e Trapped blood vessel, impinging on an organ (lung/brain) Common in children, Their bones have split rather than snapped

Closed Fractures Open Fractures

Complicated Fractures Greenstick Fractures

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GENERAL CAUSES OF FRACTURES
• Direct Force – this can be caused by a fall, or a
blow from a fist or object

• Indirect Force – this can be caused away from

the point of impact, such as when you put your hand out as you fall and break your collarbone

• Muscular Contraction – this can happen such as
when a player goes to kick a ball and misses, resulting in a fractured kneecap

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• • • • • • • •
Pain at the site and tender to touch Swelling Discoloration Lack of movement Abnormal looking compared to other side Signs and symptoms of shock You may hear bones grating together A crack may have been heard as it happened
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RECOGNITION FEATURES

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GENERAL TREATMENT
 Check ABC and act accordingly  Position the casualty as comfortably as    
possible Pad the area to stop any unnecessary movement Sling the area if possible Treat as best possible for shock Arrange for transportation to hospital

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GENERAL TREATMENT

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FRACTURED COLARBONE
Recognition Features

• Pain and tenderness at the site • Casualties head may be slightly

inclined to the injured side • Casualty may be supporting their own elbow on the injured side

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TREATMENT
 Position the casualty comfortably  Support their elbow in a sling if possible  Secure their arm to their side using a
broad fold bandage

 Treat them for shock  Arrange for transportation to hospital
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APPLYING SLINGS

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FRACTURED PELVIS Recognition Features

• Unable to walk or even stand • Severe pain and tenderness in the • •
area Desire to urinate Signs and symptoms of shock
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TREATMENT

 Assist the casualty to lie down
on their back  Send or call for an ambulance  Bend their knees if possible, if not bandage their feet together to help relieve the pain  Treat them for shock
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SIMPLE RIB FRACTURE Recognition Features

• History of a blow to the area • Severe pain especially when • •

breathing in Movement of the arm on the injured side causes pain Possible discoloration
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TREATMENT

 Sit the casualty down in a

comfortable position  Ask if they have coughed up any blood  Secure the arm on the injured side with a broad fold bandage  Arrange for transportation to hospital
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FLAIL CHEST This is where there have been multiple rib fractures and the chest cage has become ineffective

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COMPLICATED RIB FRACTURE & FLAIL CHEST Recognition Features

• • • • • • •

History of a blow to the area Severe pain especially when breathing in Breathing could be shallow May have coughed up blood Movement of the arm on the injured side causes pain Possible discoloration An open wound may be visible, making a sucking noise www.mgtraining.org.uk

TREATMENT
     
Treat any open chest wound Put the casualty into the “W” position Incline them to the injured side Support arm on the injured side with a sling if possible Call 999 Treat for shock

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DISLOCATION
This is a condition where the head of a bone has become displaced at the joint

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• Severe pain at the site • Abnormal to look at compared with
other side • Possible bruising • Possible swelling • Tender to touch

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TREATMENT

 Make the casualty as comfortable as    

possible Pad the hollow between the injured arm and the chest if possible Apply a support sling if possible Arrange for transportation to hospital Gently apply ice pack if possible

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SPINAL INJURIES
The spine is made up of thirty three irregular shaped bones known as vertebrae, these are divided into five sections, they are as follows:

•Cervical •Thoracic •Lumber •Sacrum •Coccyx

7 12 5 5 4

Their job is to protect the spinal cord from being damaged
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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• • • • • • •
If Just The Vertebrae Are Damaged Pain in the neck or at the level of the injury Step or twist in normal curvature of the spine Tenderness to touch If Spinal Cord Is Damaged As Well Loss of control of one or more limbs Burning or tingling sensation Disorientation or bewilderment Difficulty in breathing
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TREATMENT
 Stabilise the head, neck and shoulders in      
neutral alignment To open airway use jaw thrust method If airway still not open, extend airway very slowly until airway achieved Check ABC and act accordingly If breathing maintain in neutral alignment until help arrives Call 999 Remain calm and confident at all times
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BREATHING DIFFICULTIES AND ACTION FOR VOMIT
• • • • • •
Support the casualties head as before Straighten the legs of the casualty Space helpers evenly on either side of casualty On leaders command pull casualty on to their side ensuring neutral alignment all the way Once on their side maintain neutral alignment If the casualty is to be put onto their back again, this should happen slowly again ensuring neutral alignment www.mgtraining.org.uk

LAND BASED LOG ROLL

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STRAINS
What Causes a Strain? Over stretching or tearing What Do Strains Effect? Tendons Muscles What Do Tendons and Muscles Do? Tendons – attach the muscle to the bone Muscles - span joints and generate movement
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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• • • • • •

Sudden sharp pain Swelling Possible cramp in the area Discoloration Tenderness Possible lack of movement

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SPRAINS
What Causes a Sprain? Wrenching or taking a joint beyond its normal range of movement What Does a Sprain Effect? Ligaments What do Ligaments Do? Ligaments attach bone to bone always over a joint.
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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• • • • •
Pain at the site of injury, normally a joint Possible swelling Possible discoloration Lack of movement Tender to touch

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GENERAL TREATMENT OF STRAINS AND SPRAINS

• R-est the injured area • I-ce should be applied • C-ompress the injury with a bandage • E-levate the injured area if possible
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TREATMENT OF STRAINS AND SPRAINS

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Any substance (liquid, solid or gas) that causes damage when entering the body in sufficient quantity

POISON What Is Poison?

How Can It Enter The Body?

•Inhaled •Injected •Swallowed •Absorbed •Instilled •Food poisoning
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GENERAL RECOGNITION FEATURES

• • • • • • •

Possible vomiting Raised temperature Possible burns Change of facial colour Irregular pulse Possible cyanosis Possible headache
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TREATMENT Inhaled
Ensure your own safety Remove casualty danger if possible Check ABC and act accordingly If resuscitation is necessary ensure you do not inhale their fumes  Keep casualty still

   

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SWALLOWED
        
Check ABC and act accordingly Keep casualty as still as possible If breathing place in recovery position Try and find out what was swallowed If corrosive give sips of cold milk or water Do not encourage vomiting Keep samples of substances if possible Monitor and record responsiveness regularly Be prepared to resuscitate
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ABSORBED

 Ensure your own safety  Wash away any residue on the skin

[20 min]  Arrange for transportation to hospital  If in doubt dial 999  Keep casualty as still as possible

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INJECTED

   

Keep casualty as still as possible Check ABC and act accordingly Apply a cold compress Arrange for transportation to hospital

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FOOD POISONING RECOGNITION

• • • • •

Recurrent vomiting and diarrhoea Possible raised temperature Headache Paleface Possible history of suspect food consumption
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TREATMENT

 Assist the casualty into a

comfortable position  Give sips of water to help replace lost fluids  Arrange for them to see a doctor  If condition worsens drastically call 999
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Incident Management Recap

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Foreign Object Treatments

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EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD The body has its own thermostat Which regulates the normal temperature at around 37oC If it varies just 2oC either way there will be an adverse reaction by the body
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HYPOTHERMIA
This is a condition in which the core body temperature falls below 35oC This can be caused by either a gradual onset over a period of time or very quickly such as falling into freezing water

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

Uncontrollable shivering, which will stop when the core temp drops even further Cold, pale and dry skin Slow shallow breathing Slow weak pulse Strange or unusual behaviour Possible unconsciousness or even death www.mgtraining.org.uk

• • • • •

TREATMENT
• • • • •
Remove or protect from the cause Asses the age, health and fitness of the casualty Warm them up according to the onset Give a warm drink if possible Refer to a doctor or hospital depending on severity www.mgtraining.org.uk

HEAT EXHAUSTION
This is a condition caused by the loss of water and salts from the body through excessive sweating.

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RECOGNITION

• Pale and clammy • • •
skin with a rapid pulse Cramps in the limbs Possible headache Nausea

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TREATMENT
 Assist the casualty to a cool place or cool    
down the environment Give some fluids to drink [one tsp salt per ltr of water] If possible lay them down and raise their legs If recovery is rapid encourage to see their own doctor Be prepared for them to go unconscious

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HEAT EXHAUSTION

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HEAT STROKE
• This condition is caused by a failure
of the thermostat in the brain to regulate the bodies core temperature. • As the body continues to heat up damage can be caused to the brain. • This condition can occur due to prolonged exposure to very hot conditions or illnesses
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RECOGNITION
• • • • •
Hot flushed and dry skin Possible headache, restlessness, dizziness and confusion Strong bounding pulse Body temperature will be above 40 degrees Levels of response will be deteriorating

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TREATMENT
 Assist the casualty to a cool environment     
and remove all outer clothing Telephone their doctor Wrap casualty in a cool wet sheet and keep it wet, create a wind chill factor Keep cooling until under tongue temperature drops to 38 degrees Once cooled replace wet sheet with dry one Be prepared for casualty to go unconscious
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HEAT STROKE

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CPR and Unconscious Casualty Recap

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Before you go…

Workbook paper!!

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