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Fundamental Class

Rahmat D. Djatmiko erdeje85@gmail.com

08.00 10.00

10.15 12.15

13.15 15.30

Day 1

Introduction

MikroTik Basic

Routing

Day 2

Bridging

Wireless

Network
Management

Day 3

Firewall

QoS

Tunnels

Day 4

Linux Basic

DNS Server

Web Server

Day 5

DHCP Server

Mail Server

Proxy Server

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Training Schedule

2
Day 6

Case Study

At the end of this course, the student will:


Be familiar with RouterOS software and RouterBoard
products
Be able to configure, manage, do basic
troubleshooting of a MikroTik router
Be able to provide basic services to clients

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Course objectives

SMK Telkom Malang as Networking Teacher


SMK Telkom MikroTik Academy as Trainer
Freelance Trainer
Contact :
Email : erdeje85@gmail.com
Mobile/WA : 0811353595
BBM : 527C266F

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About Me

MODULE 1
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erdeje85@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
5

MikroTikls SIA

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Software and Hardwate Vendor


Motto : Routing the World
Location : Riga, Latvia (North Europe)

MikroTik Certified
MikroTik 101

MTCNA

Fundamental Class

MTCWE

Advanced
Wireless

MTCRE

Advanced
Routing

MTCTCE

Advanced Traffic
Control

MTCUME

Advanced User
Management

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TCP/IP and Basic

MTCINE

Advanced
InterNetworking

Introduction
Routing
Bridging
Wireless
Network Management
Firewall
QoS
Tunnels

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MTCNA Outline

Wireless Installation
Wireless Standard
Wireless Tools
Wireless Troubleshooting
Wireless Advanced Settings
802.11n
Wireless Security
WDS and MESH
Wireless Bridging
Nstreme Protocol
Nv2 Protocol

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MTCWE Outline

Static Routing
Point to Point Addressing
VPN
OSPF

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MTCRE Outline

10

Packet Flow Diagram


Firewall filter/nat/mangle
Quality of Service
DNS Client/Cache
DHCP Client/Relay/Server
Web Proxy

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MTCTCE Outline

11

PPP
PPTP/L2TP
PPPoE
PPP Bridging
IPSec
Hotspot
RADIUS

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MTCUME Outline

12

MTCINE Outline

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BGP
MPLS
Traffic Engineering

13

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CHAPTER 1

MIKROTIK ROUTEROS AND


ROUTERBOARD

14

MikroTik RouterOS is the operating system of MikroTik


RouterBOARD hardware.
It has all the necessary features for an ISP or network
administrator such as routing, firewall, bandwidth
management, wireless access point, backhaul link,
hotspot gateway, VPN server and more.
RouterOS also compatible with PC
Based on Linux Kernel

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What is RouterOS?

15

A family of hardware solutions created by MikroTik


to answer the needs of customers around the world.
All operate with RouterOS.
Available from low-end spec up until Cloud-Core
high-end type

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What is RouterBOARD?

16

These products are provided complete with cases


and power adapters.
Ready to use and preconfigured with the most
basic functionality.
All you need to do is to plug it in and connect to the
Internet or a corporate network.

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Integrated Solutions

17

Small motherboard devices that are sold as is. You


must choose the case, power adapter and
interfaces separately. Perfect for assembling your
own systems as they offer the biggest customization
options.

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RouterBOARD (boards only)

18

Enclosures
intended location of use
the RouterBOARD model
the type of connections needed (USB, antennas, etc.).

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Indoor and outdoor casings to house your


RouterBOARD devices. Select based on:

19

Interfaces

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Ethernet modules, fiber SFPs or wireless radio cards


to expand the functionality of RouterBOARD
devices and PCs running RouterOS.
Once again, selection is based on your needs.

20

Accessories

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These devices are made for MikroTik products power adapters, mounts, antennas and PoE
injectors.

21

Can address many needs


Some add-on options
Little to no expansion
Fixed configuration
Simple, yet solid solution for many needs

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Why get an integrated router?

22

RB951G-2HnD
Good for home or small office
5 Gig ports
Built-in Wi-Fi (2,4GHz)
License level 4

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Integrated router, examples

23

SXT Sixpack
(1 OmniTIK U-5HnD with
5 SXT-5HPnD)
Good for WISP or
company with branch
offices
5 100Mbps ports
(OmniTik)
5GHz 802.11a/n radios
Can cover 5Km
between central and
satellite sites

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Integrated router, examples

24

CCR1036-12G-4S
Cloud Router
Flagship model
Good for ISPs or company
networks
1U rack mount
12 Gig ports
Serial console, USB and
color touch screen
Default 4G RAM, but can
use any size of SO-DIMM
RAM

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Integrated router, examples

25

Can address a greater variety of needs


Many add-on options / Lots of expansion
Customizable configuration
Can be integrated into client equipment or cabinet
More complete solution for particular needs

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Why build your own router?

26

Flexible CPE
RB411UAHR
1 100Mbps port
1 2,4GHz radio (b/g)
Level 4 license
Add power supply or PoE
module
Add 3rd party enclosure
Add 3rd party 3G mini PCI-E
modem

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Custom router, examples

27

Powerful Hotspot
RB493G
9 gig ports
Level 5 license
Add power supply or
PoE module
Add R2SHPn (2,4GHz
radio card)
Add R5SHPn (5GHz
radio card)
Add 3rd party enclosure
Add microSD card

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Custom router, examples

28

RouterBOARD Architecture
RouterBOARD build with different architecture

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Different architectre means different characteristic in


processing and addressing memory

29

RouterBOARD Extended Code

U equipped with USB port


A Advanced, usually comes with higher license llevel
H High Performance / High Power
R equipped with embedded wireless card
G equipped with Gigabit Ethernet interface
P equipped with PoE port
n MIMO card
D Dual Chain
S equipped with SFP port
L lite (can be lower license level or lower spec)

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Additional features that come with some type

30

RouterBOARD Name Code


Three Digits Code
Number of miniPCI slot

RBABCX

Additional Features

Number of Ethernet port


RouterBOARD Series

1Wireless Interface

RB751U-2HnD
5 Ethernet port

With USB and 2GHz


card, High Power, MIMO
and Dual Chain

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RouterBOARD Series

31

RouterBOARD Name Code


Four Digits Code
Additional Features

RBAACCX-X
Interface Information
RouterBOARD 2000 Series

With USB, Advanced license


level, and SFP port

RB2011UAS-2HnD
11 Interfaces (one of them is SFP)

Additional 2GHz card, High


power, MIMO and Dual Chain

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RouterBOARD Series

32

RouterBOARD Name Code


Some new routers, use abother formats

NAME-X
SXT-5HnD
SEXTANT
Groove-2
OmniTik

Interface Information

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RouterBOARD Series

33

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LABORATORY 1

ROUTEROS & ROUTERBOARD

34

[LAB 1] Basic Installation of RouterOS

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First download new RouterOS from


http://www.mikrotik.com/download
Then write ISO image file to CD or USB and put in
CD-ROM Drive and turn on

35

After select paclage and then press i for start


installation
Answer "n" to first question and "y" to second
After installation remove cd and press Enter
After rebooting type admin as login and no
password

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[LAB 1] Basic Installation of RouterOS

36

[LAB 1] Check Your RouterBOARD

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Check RouterBOARD Name Code at the bottom of


your router and tell the code!

37

[LAB 1] RouterBOARD Catalog

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At least twice a year, MikroTik will release Product


Catalog
Open the catalog Q3/Q4

38

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CHAPTER 2

FIRST TIME ACCESSING THE ROUTER

39

If installed in a PC

Serial Console

With serial console cable

Telnet and SSH


WinBox

O
Used program called winbox.exe

O
O

FTP
API

O
O

Socket programming

Web(HTTP)

MAC-WinBox

Layer 2 connection

MAC-Telnet

Layer 2 connection

Additional
Device

Custom

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Keyboard/Monitor

Need IP

Condition

GUI

Access Via

Text Based

Router Access Method

40

Accessing Command Line Interface (CLI) via Telnet,


ssh, serial cable or even keyboard and monitor if
router has VGA card.
Accessing Web based GUI (Webfig)
Using WinBox configuration utility
Every router is factory pre-configured with IP address
192.168.88.1/24 on ether1 port.
Default username is admin with empty password.

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Router Access Method

41

Command Line Interface (CLI) allows configuration


of the router's settings using text commands.
Since there is a lot of available commands, they are
split into groups organized in a way of hierarchical
menu levels.
There are several ways how to access CLI:

winbox terminal
telnet
ssh
serial cable etc.

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Accessing CLI

42

If your device has a Serial port, you can use a


console cable.
Plug one end of the serial cable into the console
port of the RouterBOARD and the other end in your
PC.
You can also use a USB-Serial adapter.

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Serial Cable

43

Serial Cable

115200bit/s, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, flow


control=none by default.

If parameters are set correctly you should be able


to see login prompt. Now you can access router by
entering username and password:

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Run a terminal program (HyperTerminal, or Putty on


Windows) with the following parameters for All
RouterBOARD models except 230:

44

SSH and Telnet


Standard IP tools to access router
Telnet communications are in clear text

SSH communications are encrypted


Secured!!
Many Open Source (free) tools available such as PuTTY
(http://www.putty.org/)

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Available on most Operating Systems


Unsecured!!

45

If you have router with default configuration, then IP


address of the router can be used to connect to the
Web interface.
Connect to router with Ethernet cable
Launch browser
Type in the IP address
If asked for, log in. Username is admin and
password is blank

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Webfig

46

Webfig

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You will see :

47
http://wiki.mikrotik.com/wiki/Manual:Webfig

WinBox is MikroTiks proprietary interface to access


RouterOS routers.
It can be downloaded from MikroTiks website or
from the router.
It is used to access the router through IP (OSI layer
3) or MAC (OSI layer 2).

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WinBox and MAC-Winbox

48

If still in the browser, scroll down and click logout


You will see:
Click on Winbox
Save winbox.exe

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WinBox and MAC-Winbox

49

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Winbox - Login

Saved router informaation

Network Discovery, will show any


router that connected with your
PC/laptop through layer 2
connection

50

Winbox - Interface

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If parameters are set correctly you should be able


to see :

51

LABOLATORY 2

ACCESS METHOD
52

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[LAB2] CLI-Direct Access

Configure your TCP/IP using CLI

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Access your RouterOS (PC Router) via keyboard


and monitor
Login with admin user and blank password

53

[LAB2] CLI-Telnet/SSH

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Telnet and SSH method use TCP/IP connectivity


Application telnet/ssh in client is needed (ex : putty)

54

[LAB2] Webfig

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Access your RouterOS (PC Router) via Internet


Browser
Write your routers IP at URL

55

[LAB2] Winbox

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Download Winbox from your webfigs homepage


Write your routers IP address or click ... button for
discovery connection
Click Connect button

56

CHAPTER 3

INITIAL CONFIGURATION
57

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You may or may not have a basic configuration


when freshly installed
You may choose not to take the default basic
configuration
Check the following web page to find out how your
device will behave:
http://wiki.mikrotik.com/wiki/Manual:Default_Configurations

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Basic or blank configuration?

58

Default Basic Configuration

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When connecting for the first time with WinBox, click


on OK
The router now has the default basic configuration.

59

Blank Configuration
Can be used in situations when the default basic
configuration is not required.

The minimal steps to setup a basic access to the


Internet (if your router does not have a default basic
configuration)

LAN IP addresses, Default gateway and DNS server


WAN IP address
NAT rule (masquerade)
SNTP client and time zone

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No need for firewall rules


No need for NATing

60

Configuration Reset
For some reason, we need to reset the configuration

Configuration reset can be done using several


method
Hard-reset, reset the configuration physically
Soft-reset, reset the configuration through
winbox/terminal/web

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When we totally forgot the username and password


When the confguration is too complex so its much
easier to reset to repair them

61

LABORATORY 3

BASIC CONFIGURATION
62

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Most RouterBOARD devices are fitted with a reset


button.
unplug the device power, hold the button, apply
power and wait until the USER LED starts flashing.
Now release the button to clear configuration.

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[LAB3] Hard-reset - Button

Reset Button
63

[LAB3] Hard-reset - Jumper

Close the jumper


with a metal
screwdriver, and
boot the board
until the
configuration is
cleared.

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All RouterBOARD current models are also fitted with


a reset jumper hole.
Some devices might need opening of the
enclosure.

64

[LAB3] Soft-reset

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If you still can access the RouterOS, you can


execute a soft-reset command using

65

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[LAB3] Topology

66

[LAB3] Laptops Settings

Your routers IP

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Your laptops IP

67

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[LAB3] LAN Configuration

68

Activate wlan interface through interface menu


select wlan interface and click check button
Open wlan configuration through double click wlan
interface
Open tab wireless and select station mode

3
2

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[LAB3] WAN Configuration

5
69

[LAB3] Default Route

3
1

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Open Route List through menu IP Routes


Click + button to create new default route

70

[LAB3] DNS Resolver

1
2

3
4

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Set DNS server through DNS Settings (menu IP DNS)


Check Allow Remote Requests

71

1
2
5
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[LAB3] NAT Configuration


4

6
72

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CHAPTER 4

VERSION AND
UPGRADE/DOWNGRADE

73

MikroTik features depend on the current version


installed on the device.
Current version can be viewed both in the status
bar of Winbox or in the package installed in the
Router OS.
Installed packages also show what kind of features
available in the Router
Package can be a combined package or individual
package

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MikroTik Version

74

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MikroTik Version
Mikrotik Version

75

RouterOS Package
More information:

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http://wiki.mikrotik.com/wiki/Manual:System/Packages

76

Working with packages


Individual package installed can be :

A package should be removed if its totally unused and


we need to free-up some disk space

All above process is not executed directly, but will


be scheduled to be executed when the router
reboot

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Enabled
Disabled
Uninstall

77

Upgrade is needed when we want to get the latest


features or bug repair
Downgrade is needed when we figured out that
current version has some bug in a specific feature
For upgrading, you need to aware about the
license-limitation (upgradable to)

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Upgrade and Downgrade

78

Before you upgrade


Know what architecture (mipsbe, ppc, x86, mipsle,
tile) you are upgrading.

Know what files you require:


NPK : Base RouterOS image with standard packages
(Always)
ZIP : Additional packages (based on needs)
Changelog : Indicates what has changed and special
indications (Always)

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If in doubt, Winbox indicates the architecture in top left


corner!

79

How to upgrade
Get the package files from MikroTiks website

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Downloads page

80

How to upgrade
Three ways

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Download file(s) and copy over to router.


Check for updates (System -> Packages)
Auto Upgrade (System -> Auto Upgrade)

81

Downloading the files


Copy file(s) to the router via Files window.
Examples are:

Reboot
Validate state of router

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routeros-mipsbe-5.25.npk
ntp-5.25-mipsbe.npk

82

Sending new-package to the Router

Drag and drop


FTP

Since this process using FTP connection, IP validity is


very important (winbox has to be able to open the
Router through IP, not only mac-address)

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Package to-be-installed must upload to the router in


File section
There are saveral way to upload the package

83

Checking for updates


Through the menu System -> Packages
Click on Check for Updates then Download &
Upgrade
Reboots automatically
Validate packages and state of router

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(with /system packages)

84

Copy required files by all routers to an internal router


(source).
Configure all routers to point to source router
Display available packages
Select and download packages
Reboot and validate router

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Auto upgrading

85

LABORATORY 4

UPGRADE OR DOWNGRADE
86

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[LAB4] Enable/Disable Package

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Open Package List through menu System


Package
Enabling/disabling package Reboot Router

87

[LAB4] Uninstall Package

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Open Package List through menu System


Package
Select package and clik Uninstall button

88

[LAB4] After Uninstall

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Look at your free HDD Space through System Resource

89

[LAB4] Upgrade Version

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Drad and drop file new-package into router via


Winbox and then reboot the router

90

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[LAB4] Check For Update

91

CHAPTER 5

LICENSE
92

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License

E.g. : harddisk, NAND, USB, Compact Flash


If the storage media is formatted with non-mikrotik
partition, then the license will be invalid

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RouterOS features also depend on licensing level


that attach to the hardware
License of RouterOS is attached to the storage
device

93

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License Level and The Features

94

LABORATORY 5

UPGRADE LICENSE
95

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[LAB5] Check Your License

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Open License through menu System License


Software ID used for upgrade license

96

[LAB5] Upgrade PC Routers License

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Open License through menu System License


Software ID used for upgrade license

97

CHAPTER 6

MANAGING ROUTEROS
98

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Login Management
GROUP profile of a user, consist of what kind of
priveledge is given to a user
USER login, consist of username and password of a
user

User session (current connected users) is showed at


Active Users tab

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Access to the Router is configured in USER menu


User management is configured by

99

Login Mgm active user

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Current connected users can be viewed in Active


User, incuding the method they are using

100

Login Mgm - Group

Assign some
priveledge to a
group

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Group is bunch of restriction that applied to a user

101

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Login Mgm - User

102

Service Management

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By default, RouterOS provide some services to


access its configuration

103

RouterBOARD doesnt have any CMOS Batery to


save the time, so we must using NTP
Use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to allow the
RouterBOARD to synchronize the time with a valid
server

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Network Time

104

Backup and Restore

Binary backup
Configuration export

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Router configration can be backed-up and saved


to be used in the future
There are two types of backups :

105

Unreadable
Complete system backup
Includes passwords
Assumes that restores will be on same router

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Binary Backup

106

Configuration Export

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Mikrotik allow us to create a configuration script


Can be used to backup only part of configuration
Has to be done through terminal console

107

Archiving backup files


Once generated, copy them to a server

Leaving backup files on the router IS NOT a good


archival strategy
No tape or CD backups are made of routers

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With SFTP (secured approach)


With FTP, if enabled in IP Services
Using drag and drop from Files window

108

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LABORATORY 6

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

109

[LAB6] User Management


Add a group named minimal
Give it the telnet, read, and winbox rights
Explain these rights
Assign it to minimal group
Give it a password

Assign a password to admin


Give it podX, where X is your pod number
Open a new terminal. What happened?

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Add a user and give it your name

110

[LAB6] Service Management


Disable these IP Services :

Change port of SSH from 22 to 222


Try to access your router through Telnet, WWW and
SSH
Explain the result

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Telnet
WWW

111

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[LAB6] Time Management

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Do binary backup
Do configuration backup (export)
Download both of binary anda configuration
backup file to local computer
Open all of file with notepad / wordpad
Explain the different
Restore the bnary backup file
Restore the configuration backup (import)

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[LAB6] Backup/Restore

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CHAPTER 7

NETINSTALL
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Reinstall RouterOS if the original one became


damaged
Reinstall RouterOS if the admin password was lost
Can be found on MikroTiks web site under the
download tab
Installation can be using
CD Instalation
Netinstall

Every RouterBOARD, can only be installed using


netinstall

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Reinstall

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Step-by-step Netinstall
For RBs without a COM port.
Connect computer to Ethernet port 1
Launch Netinstall
Click on Net booting and write a random IP address
in the same subnet as computer

In Packages section, click Browse and select


directory containing valid NPK files

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Give computer a static IP address and mask

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Launch Netinstall

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Allow this program to passed through any firewall

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Configure Netinstall

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Click Net booting Check Boot Server enabled


write a random IP address in the same subnet as
computer

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Change the boot-sequence

Serial Console
Terminal Console
Winbox
Reset-button

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To be able to install a Router, first the router has to


be instructed to boot using Ethernet
There are saveral method to do this

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Changing the boot Sequence via Winbox

1
2

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120

Changing the boot Sequence via Reset Button

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unplug the device power, hold the reset button,


apply power and wait until the ACT LED stop
flashing. Now release the button to clear reboot
from ethernet.

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Netinstall Ready Status

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4
2

3
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Package Selection

123

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Installation Process

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Post Installation

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After doing Neinstall, then the configuration and


files will be totally empty
Get in to the Router through MAC-Winbox, then do
a soft-reset and restore your previous backup

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END OF INTRODUCTION MODULE

NEXT : ROUTING

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