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Process Industrial

Instrumentation and Control


Trainer
Aatif Khalid Alvi
Instrumentation Engineer
alviaatif@hotmail.com
Ph#+92-3225131504
http://pk.linkedin.com/in/aatifalvi

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi (03225131504)

CONTROL VALVES

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Contents

1. Introduction
2. Types
3. Components
4. Accessories
5. Maintenance

Training Given by:> Aatif


Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valve Definition

ISA DEFINITION
A POWER OPERATED DEVICE THAT MODULATES THE FLUID FLOW
RATE IN A PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM.
A VARIABLE ORIFICE.

MAJOR
VALVE

COMPONENT

BODY

ACTUATOR

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valves
- Final Control Element in the loop
Control Valve engineering includes its
proper sizing, type of the body
selection, Actuator sizing, mode of
operation

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valve History


The first Control Valve was invented to control the steam
pressure to steam engine
Fisher holds the flag of introducing the first pressure governor
later proceed to control Valve invention

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

General Categories of Control Valve


There are two basic types of Control Valves , Sliding Stem
(globe) and Rotary (ball, butterfly) which are further divided
into sub categories
The two terminologies used NPS (nominal pipe size) usually
expressed in inches
DN nominal (nominal diameter)

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valve Assembly

ACTUATOR

CONTROL
VALVE

VALVE BODY
ASSEMBLY

BONNET

BODY
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Basic Principle

OPEN
CLOSE

Control Valve
Operation
Outlet Pressure

Inlet Pressure

MINIMUM
CONTROLLED

MAXIMUM

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Manually Temperature Control


Without Instrumentation
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Automatic Temperature Control


With Full Instrumentation
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Main components of Control valve

Control
Valve

Actuator

Valve Body

Accessories

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Alvi(03225131504)

VALVE ACTUATORS

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Control Valve Actuator Functions


Device that moves the control valve closure member .

Functions of actuator

Provide required Travel


Provide required Stroking Time
Provide Adequate Seat Load For Desired

Shutoff Fail Mode

Fail-Open

Fail-Closed

Lock-In-Last-Position
Training Given by:> Aatif
Alvi(03225131504)

Main Components of Actuator

Actuator
Power
Chamber

Yoke
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Alvi(03225131504)

Actuator Family

Actuator
Types
Pneumatic

Hydraulic

Electric

Manual

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Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valves Actuator


Family
Actuator Types

Pneumatic

Hydraulic

Diaphragm

Piston

Solenoid Operated

Motor Operated

Single acting
Double acting

Electric

Single Acting

Load Return

Piston
Spring Return
Single acting

Double Acting

Double acting
Rack & Pinion
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Manual

Pneumatic Actuator

Piston

Diaphragm

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Diaphragm Actuators
Direct Action
Reverse Action
Single Acting
Double Acting

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Alvi(03225131504)

Family Of Accessories

Actuator
Accessories

Regulator

Positioner

Limit
Switch

SOV

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Alvi(03225131504)

Relay

Diaphragm Actuator Sliding Stem Typ

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Actuator Action

Direct Action
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Reveres Action

Fail Mode Basis for Selecting an Actuator Action

DTC: Push down to close


DTO: Push down to Open
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Piston Operated Actuator

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Pneumatic Actuator

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Piston Actuators
Sliding Stem
Rotary Shaft
Direct Action
Reverse Action
Single Acting
Double Acting

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Sliding Stem Valves


The most used type is the globe valves
Available from size NPS to 4 and DN 15-DN 100
Pressure ratings are up to class 2500
Best suited for throttling applications for pressure and flow
They are best suited for high temperature, areas with piping
stress, vibrations occur
Body material includes bronze, cast iron, stainless Steel
Applications include water, oil and gas , liquids

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Sliding Stem valves

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Sliding Stem Valves

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Sliding Stem Valves

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Sliding Stem Valves

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Ball Valves
Available ranges up DN 600, NPS 24
Best suited for on-off applications
Pressure rating class up to class 900
Not suited for throttling applications
Prize normally low than globe valves

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Rotary Valves
Rotary valves further classified as
Eccentric Plug Valves
Butterfly valves
Eccentric valves have the combine features of sliding stem
valves (globe valves) and rotary valves on-off applications
They are available in sizes DN200, NPS8 and with class 600
and PN100

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Rotary Valves
Butterfly Valves :
Butterfly valves are further divided into swing through, lined
and high performance
Most used design is swing through such valves are used for
throttling applications with shut off capability upto 1%
Pressure ratings class up to to class2500
The body material is made of PTFE ployterafluro ethelyne and
elastomers
Sizes available from DN 50 to DN1800

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

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Single Acting Reverse-Action & Double acting Actuator

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Control Actuator for high Power applications

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Electrical Actuators

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Electrical Actuator

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Heavy Duty SOV

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Motor Operated Actuator

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Motor Operated Valve (MOV)

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Manual Actuators

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Manual Actuator

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Manual Actuators

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Gate Valve with Top Mounted Manual


Actuator

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Side Mounted Manual Actuator

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Control Valve Technology


Gasket & Packing

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Packing

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Contents
1. Packing Box In Bonnet
2. Packing Box Assembly
3. Packing Material
4. Teflon / PTFE
5. Graphite / Graphite cord
6. Asbestos
7. Grafoil
8. Inert Gas as Packing
9. Cutting & making Rings

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

PACKING BOX IN BONNET


VALVE PLUG STEM

BONNET GASKET

PACKING FLANGE
SPIRAL WOUND GASKET

ACTUATOR YOKE LOCKNUT


PACKING
PACKING BOX
BONNET

CAGE GASKET

VALVE PLUG

CAGE
SEAT RING GASKET

SEAT RING

VALVE BODY
Major Components of Typical Sliding-Stem Control Valve Assemblies
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Packing Box Assembly


The purpose of the packing box assembly is to contain an
elastic means for preventing the leakage of a process fluid.
Suitable adjustments should be provided for varying the
compression of the packing material against the surface of
the stem.
The ideal packing material should be elastic and easily de
formable.
In addition, the packing should be as chemically inert as
possible
Should be able to withstand high pressures and high
temperatures.
Selection must be made from a variety of materials to suit the
specific service conditions.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Packing Box Assembly


The assembly consists of a: Packing flange
Packing follower (Bush)
Lantern ring
A number of equally spaced packing
rings.
The lantern ring provides a space for the
insertion of lubricating grease though an
isolating valve.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Packing Material

LOCATION OF SACRIFICIAL ZINC WASHER, IF USED.

Comprehensive Packing Material Arrangements for Globe-Style Valve Bodies


Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Packing Material
Teflon (PTFE) / Teflon Cord
Graphite / Graphite cord
Asbestos (Now a days it is not being used)
Grafoil
Inert Gas as Packing

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Teflon / PTFE
The most popular valve packing
material is Teflon.
Because of its excellent chemical
inertness and its good
lubricating properties.
Teflon can be used in solidmolded or turned form (rings).
Solid rings should be springloaded to provide a minimum
initial pressure against the stem.
It can be used below 250C.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Braided Asbestos
Braided asbestos is still a popular packing material (even
prohibited to use).
It can be made as split rings.
Which can be wrapped around the valve stem.
This type of packing usually used with mica or graphite,
particularly in high temperature service.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Grafoil
A recent addition to the list of available packing materials is
Grafoil.
Grafoil is an all-graphite product that is flexible and has
direction-dependent properties.
It is essentially, chemically inert, except when strong oxidizers are
handled.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Inert Gas as a Packing


Another approach is to pressurize the area between the two packing
with inert gas at a pressure level, slightly higher than the fluid
pressure inside the valve.
In this case, the inert gas might leak into the valve, but no fluid is
allowed to leak by the stem.
This packing arrangement is more reliable.
Very Expensive

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Cutting & making Rings


To make rings
Special Tool or With the help of a Electrician knife
How to cut and paste the rings

Cut Hare

Cut Hare
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Gasket

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Gaskets
Seat Ring Gasket
Upper Cage
Body Gasket
Material
Graphite / Grafoil
Asbestos
Neoprene

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Leakage
Between:
Seat & Plug
Cage & Plug
Packing Material (Glands)
Bonnet
Flanges

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

To Check Valve is Passing


1.

Down stream isolating valve

2.

Body Temperature

3.

Valve Opening Reduces 50% 35%

4.

Abnormal Sound

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Valve Leakage

Valve Leakage can be between

Seat and Plug

Cage and Plug

Packing Material

Bonnet

Flanges

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Checks of Valve Passing

Downstream Isolating Valve

Body Temperature

Valve Opening Changes

Abnormal Sound

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Detail of Reverse Acting Actuator Stem Seals

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Gaskets
Flat Sheet Gaskets- Flat sheet gaskets are used as sonnet
gaskets and as seat ring gaskets.
Spiral-Round Gaskets -The role of a spiral wound gasket is
to flex, while maintaining a pressure tight seal, in order to
compensate for slight expansion and contraction of the
overall cage and seat ring height that results from thermal
expansion and contraction Because the spiral wound gasket
acts as a spring, it transmits the force that is required to
maintain a tight pressure seal over moderate temperature
changes.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Gasket Locations

Primary Gasket Locations


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Construction and Visual Features of Gasket


Types
High-Temperature Spiral Wound Gasket (Standard)
Graphite Filler
(Flush With
Form)

Inconel Form

Flat Sheet Gasket

GraphiteLow Temperature Spiral Wound Gasket (Obsolete)


316 Stainless Steel Form

Composition Filler
(Protrudes Slightly)

Wire Screen

Green Stripe Indicates Composition (Low Temperature) Gask

Construction and Visual Features of Gasket Types


Training Given by:> Aatif
Alvi(03225131504)

Packing Options
Packing Options
The purpose of packing is to create a tight seal between the packing
bore and the valve stem to prevent fluid leakage to atmosphere.
Selection criteria for packing; includes:
Low friction so that the actuator can stroke the valve.
Compatibility of packing components with the process fluid.
Compatibility of packing parts with the set vice temperature.
Spring-Loaded PTFE Packing Arrangements
Spring-loaded PTFE packing arrangements are very common. A spring
loaded PTFE arrangement is shown on the following page.
Components - The packing box ring sits at the bottom of the
packing bore and provides a replaceable seat for the spring. The
spring transmits force to the packing rings through a washer. Male
and female adapters forth flat surfaces on the top and bottom ends of
the packing ring stack so that the packing mates squarely with other
components. The packing follower compresses (loads) the spring and
packing rings as the packing eland nuts are tightened.
Packing Rings - Because the packing rings are "V" shaped, the
spring load forces the edges of the rims-against the stem and the
packing boa bore to form a seal.
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Packing Options
Pressure Assist - The concave surfaces of the packing rings always
face high pressure; therefore, process pressure also pushes the edges
of the rings against the valve stein and the packing box bore. The
orientation of the packing tings results - in a pressure-assisted seal.
Stem Requirements - Because nicks and burrs in the stem would
damage the packing rings as the valve is stroked, the valve stem must
be extremely smooth. Upper and lower wipers help to keep particles
from the process and the atmosphere from entering the packing bore.
Features- Spring-loaded PTFE packing arrangements. are popular
because;
They have low friction.
They are chemically compatible with a broad range of fluids.
They provide a tight seal.
They have -a long cycle life.
They provide constant loading (because of the spring) and therefore
require minimal maintenance
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

PTFE V-Ring Packing


Packing Flange Nut
Upper Wiper (Felt Washer)
Packing Flange
Packing Follower

Female Adapter
Packing Rings
Male Adapter

Spring
Packing Box
Ring

Lower Wiper
Single PTFE V-Ring Packing
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Jam-style
packing are
arrangements
Jam-style PTFEPTFE
packing arrangements
also common. A jam-style
PTFE packing arrangement is' shown on the following page
Upper Wiper (Felt Washer)

Female Adapter
Packing Rings
Male Adapter
Lantern Ring

Jam-Style PTFE-Packing

Lower Wiper
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Jam Style Graphite Packing


Arrangements
Jam Style Graphite Packing Arrangements
High-Temperature Applications - Graphite packing an
arrangements are commonly specified in applications where high
temperatures (temperatures above 450 degrees F) disallow the
use of PTFE materials, or in applications inhere it is necessary to
limit leakage through the packing bore in the event of a firs.
Graphite Packing Rings - A typical graphite packing arrangement
includes die formed ribbon rings and braided filament rings.
Graphite Packing Issues - Although graphite is well suited to
high temperature applications, graphite has several negative
characteristics, including the following:
Friction - Graphite is a high-friction material, and high friction can
cause jerky valve stem movement. If over tightened; graphite
packing may totally seize the valve stem.
Consolidation - Graphite tends to consolidate (compress) over time;
therefore, frequent packing adjustments are required. Sufficient
loading must be maintained in order to maintain a good seal.
Corrosive When Wet - Graphite tends to corrode. To prevent valve
and packing damage, sacrificial zinc washers are often included in
the packing arrangement.
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Jam-Style Graphite Packing

Braided Filament Rings

Sacrificial Zinc Washers


Die Formed Ribbon Rings

Braided Filament Rings

Jam-Style Graphite Packing

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

High-Seal Graphite Packing, Live Loaded


High-Seal Graphite Packing, Live Loaded
Live-Loaded Packing With Load Scale - For extremely
high temperature and high pressure applications, a graphite
packing arrangement that does not include PTFE packing
washers may be specified. The graphite packing
arrangement that is illustrated opposite is rated to 1200
degrees F. However, the stern friction is extremely high and
packing loads must be carefully managed to prevent stem
seizure. An adjustable Belleville spring arrangement allows
precise adjustment of the packing loading.
As the Belleville springs are compressed (by tightening the
packing flange nuts), The load scale moves down relative to
the position of a fixed indicator disk. The position of the
indicator disk relative to the load scale provides a visual
indication of the amount of loading force that is applied to
the packing by the packing follower.
Adjustable Belleville Spring Operation - During
installation, the; Belleville springs are compressed until the
indicator disk aligns with the maximum (MAX) compression
line on the load scale. As the packing consolidates over
time, the
indicator disk moves toward the minimum (MIN)
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)
compression line on the load scale., When the indicator disk

Hi -Seal Graphite Packing


Packing Flange Nuts

Belleville Spring
Load Scale

Maximum Compression Line


Minimum Compression Line

Indicator Disk

Packing Follower

Packing Ring (Composite)


Guide
Bushing
(Carbon)

Packing Ring (Die


Formed Graphite
Ribbon).
Packing Ring (Composite)

Guide Bushing
(Carbon)

Hi -Seal Graphite Packing, Live Loaded

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Low-Leak Packing; Fisher Enviro-Seal


Low-Leak Packing; Fisher Enviro-Seal
Low Leakage Packing - In North America, the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) has set' forth strict guidelines for the maximum allowable
leakage of specific pollutants to the atmosphere. For many fluids and
applications, the maximum allowable leakage from gasketed joints and
stem packing is 500 ppm (parts per million). This low leakage
requirement has led to the development of several new packing
designs.
Enviro-Seal PTEE and graphite based, low leakage packingarrangements are- suitable for use in ANSI Class 125 through ANSI Class
600 valve bodies, Note the following general design features that
improve stem sealing.
Fewer Packing Rings - Low leakage packing arrangements include
fewer packing rings than standard pickings. The inclusion of fewer
packing rings results in a higher stress on each ring (more force in
terms of psi). The higher stress results in tighter sealing.
Reduced Stem/Packing Contact Area - This results in less stem and
packing wear, and unproved packing life.
Live-Loading - The packing is live-loaded through the use of externally
located Belleville springs. Live loading places a constant load on the
packing. Live-loaded packings require less maintenance than jam style
pickings.
Guiding-Massive guiding prevents lateral stem movement that can
result in packing damage,
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

PTFE
Enviro-Seal
Packing
PTFE
Enviro-Seal Packing
Preventing Extrusion- PTFE cold flows easily and it does
not have good memory; i.e. after PTFE becomes deformed, it
does not return to its original shape. When PTFE is used as a
packing ring material; a major concern is the extrusion of the
packing rings and the resulting loss of sealing integrity. Refer
to the figure below and note the anti-extrusion rings and antiextrusion washers that prevent packing ring extrusion.
Minimal Number of Rings - Because only a few packing
rings are included in the arrangement, there is extra space in
the packing bore Lantern rings are included to fill the empty
space.
Pressure/Temperature Ratings - The packing arrangement
that is shown opposite is designed' to meet the 500 ppm
leakage requirement at temperatures up to 450 degrees F
and at pressures up to 750 psig.
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Enviro-Seal PTFE
Lubricate

O-Ring
Belleville Spring
Pack Assembly

Lantern Rings
AntiExtrusion
Washers

Anti-Extrusion Ring

Packing Ring

Anti-Extrusion Ring

Training GivenPTFE
by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)
Enviro-Seal

Graphite Enviro-Seal Packing


High Temperature Capability - When low stem leakage is required at
higher temperatures and pressures, graphite packing rings are included in the
packing arrangement.
Graphite and Composite Rings - The packing arrangement includes
graphite rings and composite rings. The major role of the composite rings is to
transmit the loading force to the graphite rings. The graphite rings perform
the primary sealing function.
Packing Washers - To create a tight seal, PTFE packing washers are included
between the packing rings. PTFE is typically limited to 400 to 450 degrees F to
prevent extrusion. In this application, however, extrusion of the PTFE actually
helps produce and maintain a tight seal. The racking arrangement that is
shown is designed to meet the 500 ppm leakage requirement at a maximum
temperature of 600 degrees F.
Guiding: Carbon Bushings - Graphite packing is not as resilient as PTFE
packing and any lateral movement of the stem will enlarge the packing' bore,
leading to leakage. To prevent packing damage and subsequent leakage,
carbon guide bushings are located above and below the packing rings to
provide stem guiding. The guide bushings are made of a non-metallic material
to prevent scratching; the stem.
Expanded Ratings- The ENVIRO-SEAL Graphite arrangement may also be
utilized in higher pressures up to 1500 psi and still maintain the 500 ppm EPA
leakage criteria.
Friction - Enviro Seal performance at elevated pressures and temperatures is
achieved at the expense of stem friction. Increased stern friction levels call
Training
Given by:> Aatif
require larger
actuators
andAlvi(03225131504)
mandate the use of positioners.

Graphite Enviro-Seal Packing

Enviro-Seal Graphite

O-Ring

Guide Bushing
Packing Ring (Composite)
Packing Washers

Guide Bushing

Packing Ring (Die


Formed Graphite
Ribbon).
Packing Ring (Composite)

Guide Bushing

Enviro-Seal Graphite
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

TRIM

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Valve Trim
Those parts of valve which comes in direct contact of fluid.
Trim Comprises of:
Plug
Seat Ring
Stem
Cage

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Trim
Material of trim depends on:
Process fluid & type, pressure, temp
Function of trim
Throttling
Flow characteristics
Shut-Off class

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Flow
Characteristics
Flow
Characteristics
Definition Relationship between
the flow coefficient and valve travel
as the valve travels from 0 to 100
percent open.
Purpose of characterizing:
To provide uniform control loop
stability over the expected range of
operating conditions.
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% of Rated Flow Coefficient

100
Valve Characteristic

0
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% of Rated Travel

100

Plug - Linear

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Plug - Equal Percentage

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Plug - Quick Opening

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Contoured Plug

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Characteristics of Different Plugs


Valve Opening

30 %

70 %

100 %

90

100

Cv
Quick Opening

62

Linear

30

70

100

Equal %

33

100

V-Port

30

100

Training Given by:> Aatif


Alvi(03225131504)

Cage
A bit less hard material
But according to the requirement of process
Guides the Plug
Reduces the noise (10 to 15 db)
Flow characteristic
Slotted Cage

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Sealing Gasket / Back up Ring

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Cage Opening
Guided Valves Cage
Quick

Quick Opening cages provide maximum Cv at


minimal travel.
Visual Features
Square-edge window bottoms

% of Rated Cv

Applications
100
Relief
On-Off
Dump
Hi-gain
linear at low lifts

% of Rated Travel

100
Quick Opening Cage

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Linear
Linear Cage
cages produce a percentage of maximum control
valve Cv that is directly proportional to valve stem position;
e.g., 60% travel = 60% maximum rated Cv.
Visual Features
Pear-shaped windows
Applications
Constant pressure drop applications
% of Rated Cv

100

Linear Cage
0

100

Training Given
by:>
Aatif Alvi(03225131504)
% of
Rated
Travel

Equal
Percentage Cage
Equal Percentage - Equal increments of change in stem
position produce an equal percentage change from the
existing Cv,
Visual Features
Alternately offset pear-shaped windows

% of Rated Cv

Applications
Many pressure and flow where
P decreases
as flow rate increases
100

Equal Percentage Cage

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

100

LINEAR
EQUAL PERCENTAGE

QUICK OPENING

Training Given by:> Aatif


Flow Characterized Cages for Globe-Style
Valve Bodies
Alvi(03225131504)

Flow Capacity

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Cvs at Different Points of (Valve Travel)


Control Valve = Variable Restriction - The control valve
can be viewed as a variable restriction that is used to
modulate flow.
Valve Cv, versus Travel - In most instances, minimum
flow is achieved at no less than 10 percent travel, This
keeps the plug from throttling on the seat and help to
prevent instability problems. The maximum required flow
rate should
occur at
no is
more
than approximately
90
A Control
Valve
a Variable
Restriction
percent travel. That Provides Variable Cvs

Cvs at Different Points of (Valve Travel)


Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Influences
in Equation Form
Flow equation

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Considering
Specific
Considering Specific
Gravity Gravity
Basic equation that utilizes the term C v is normalized for water at
60 degrees F The SG for water at 60 degrees F is 1.

Consideration for Fluid Specific Gravity


The base equation is normalized for water at 60 degrees F. To size
valves for other fluids, the term G is included

where:
Q =Flow Rate, gpm
CV =Valve Flow Coefficient
P= P2- P1
G= Fluid Specific Gravity
Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Fluid Pressure and Fluid Vapor Pressure


Fluid Pressure and Fluid Vapor Pressure

Vapor Pressure - pressure at which the fluid will change from a


liquid to a vapor (given a specific temperature).

Pvc< Pv - If the vena contracta pressure (P vc) falls below the vapor
pressure (Pv) of the fluid, then fluid vaporization will occur. This sets
the stage for choked flow.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Fluid Pressure and Fluid Vapor Pressure

Fluid Vaporization That Occurs When Pc< Pv


Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Post-Guided
Post-Guided Valves
Valves - For post-guided valves, flow

characteristics are determined by the contours of the valve


plug, as shown below

Characterized Valve Plug


Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Selection Guidelines
Process

Application

Guideline

Pressure

Liquid Process

Equal Percent

Gas, Small Volume

Equal Percent

Gas Large Volume Max dP < 5X Min dP

Linear

Gas, Large Volume Max dP > 5X Min dP

Equal Percent

Most

Equal Percent

Load Changes

Equal Percent

Set-point Changes

Linear

Max dP < 5X Min dP

Linear

Max dP > 5X Min dP

Equal Percent

Temperature
Flow

Liquid Level

Back Flow
Pressure
Constant dP Selection Guidelines
Characteristic

Linear

Training Given by:> Aatif


Alvi(03225131504)

Cavitations & Flashing

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Flashing / Cavitations
Flashing
Flashing starts where cavitations end
Just like a sand blasting
Flashing liquid contains vapours
Vapours acts like a sand and liquid acts like a carrier
Cavitations
Two stage phenomenon
1st stage Formation of vapours
2nd stage Collapse or implosion of the cavitations back to the liquid
Cavitation in a globe valve.mp4
Result Cavitations Damage of trim material of valves.

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Flashing

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Cavitations

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Positioner

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Positioner Types

Positioner

Pneumatic
For Single
Acting

For Double
Acting

Electro-Hydraulic

ElectroPneumatic
For Single
acting

For Double
acting

Training Given by:> Aatif


Alvi(03225131504)

Digital Valve Controller


(Positioner)
LOOP CONNECTIONS TERMINAL BOX
1/2-INCH NPT CONDUIT
CONNECTIONS (BOTH SIDES)
OUTPUT A CONNECTION

SUPPLY CONNECTION

OUTPUT B CONNECTION

VALVE-MOUNTED
INSTRUMENT DVC6020
Digital Valve Controller

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Type DVC6010 Digital Valve


Controller Mounted on Type 585C
Piston Actuator

Valve Controller Mounting

TYPE DVC6010 DIGITAL


VALVE CONTROLLER
MOUNTED ON A SLIDING
STEM CONTROL VALVE /
ACTUATOR

TYPE DVC6020 DIGITAL


VALVE CONTROLLER
MOUNTED ON A ROTARY
CONTROL VALVE /
ACTUATOR

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

TYPE DVC6005 BASE UNIT


AND DVC6025 FEEDBACK
UNIT MOUNTED ON A
ROTARY CONTROL VALVE /
ACTUATOR

3582 Series Pneumatic Positioner

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Positioner

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valve Performance


Studies show that 80% control loops are not of optimal
performance and not proper sized control valves is the main
contributor
Some of the important design specifications for control valves
include:
Dead Band
Actuator- Positioner Design
Valve response time
Valve type and sizeing

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valve performance


Dead band in control valve is the prime objective in valve
tuning parameters
As most of the valves are used for regulating purpose, so even
1% dead band of the set point is not even acceptable
Actuator & positioner design should be closely monitored as it
plays important role in valve performance , usually actuator
and positioner are targeted to be of high gain so that the
losses of instrument air is minimum

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Control Valve Performance


Valve Response Time : It is important that the valve react to
the set point quickly to make the control loop performance
improved
Valve sizing: is the important factor, we do not get the optimal
valve output if the valve is oversized or undersized

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Valve Selection
General selection criteria
Pressure ratings: valves are available for pressure ratings for
classes 150,300,600, upto 2500
High temperatures require Valve packing selection
For high temperature PTFE-V rings are used

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Material Selection
In most of the cases the piping material is best choice for
valve bodies
But this is not always the case as pressure drop at the valve
input is higher there fore the valve seat is of special
consideration
Carbon steel bodies and bonnets are the most widely used and
because of the low cost the most chose one
Alloy steel bodies&bonnets:When high temperature and high
pressure are involved

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)

Material Selection
Stainless Steel : The most used the material selection is
stainless steel CF8M

Training Given by:> Aatif Alvi(03225131504)