Transmission Lines as Components of Power System

How Electricity is delivered to us?

1-When electricity leaves a power plant 2- its voltage is increased at a “step-up” substation 3- Next, the energy travels along a transmission line to the area where the power is needed 4- Once there, the voltage is decreased or “stepped-down,” at another substation 5- and a distribution power line carries the 6- electricity until it reaches a home or business areas.

The Power System
Basic Components of Power system: Modern Power systems are made up of three distinct system:  Generation System  Transmission System  Distribution System

The Power System
Generation System: The generation system includes the main parts of the power plants such as turbines and generators. Most of the energy resources are combustible, nuclear or hydro. The burning of fossil fuels or the nuclear reaction generates heat that is converted into mechanical motion by the thermal turbines. In hydro systems, the flow of water through the turbine converts the kinetic energy of the water into rotating mechanical energy. These turbines rotate the electromechanical generators that convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy.

The Power System
Transmission System: The generated electricity is transmitted to all customers by a complex network of transmission systems composed mainly of transmission lines, transformers and protective equipments. The transmission lines are the links between power plants and load centers.

The Power System
The transformers ,as you know, are used to increase (step up) or decrease (step down) the voltage. At the power plant, a transmission substation with step-up transformers increase the voltage of the transmission lines to very high values(220kV & 500 kV in Pakistan). This is done to reduce the current through the transmission lines, thus reducing the cross-section of the transmission wires as well as reducing the overall cost of the transmission system.

The Power System
Distribution system: At the load centers, the voltage of the transmission lines is reduced by stepdown transformers to lower values (11kV in Pakistan) for distribution within the city limits. At the customer sites, the voltage is further (400V,230V in Pakistan) reduced for household use.

Basic components of T. Line
A transmission line is composed of conductors, insulators and supporting structures. Conductors: Conductors for high-voltage lines are always bare. Stranded copper conductors, or steelreinforced aluminum conductors (ACSR) are used. ACSR conductors are preferred because they result in a lighter and more economical line. Conductors have to spliced when a line is very long. Special care must be taken so that joints have low resistance and great mechanical strength.

Basic components of T. Line
Insulators serve to support and anchor the conductors and to insulate them from ground. Insulators are usually made of porcelain, but glass and other synthetic insulating materials are also used. From and electrical standpoint, insulators must offer a high resistance to surface leakage currents and must be sufficiently thick to prevent breakdown under the high-voltage stresses they have to withstand.

Power Transmission
Electric power transmission, a process in the delivery of electricity to consumers, is the bulk transfer of electrical power. Typically, power transmission is between the power plant and a substation near a populated area. Electricity distribution is the delivery from the substation to the consumers. Electric power transmission allows distant energy sources (such as hydroelectric power plants) to be connected to consumers in population centers, and may allow exploitation of low-grade fuel resources that would otherwise be too costly to transport to generating facilities.

Transmission Line
An overhead power line is an electric power transmission line suspended by towers or poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are generally the lowest-cost method of transmission for large quantities of electric power. Towers for support of the lines are made of wood, steel (either lattice structures or tubular poles), concrete, aluminum, and occasionally reinforced plastics. The bare wire conductors on the line are generally made of aluminum (either plain or reinforced with steel or sometimes composite materials), though some copper wires are used in medium-voltage distribution and low-voltage connections to customer premises.

Transmission Line
The fundamental purpose of the transmission line is to carry active power (kilowatts) from one point to another. If it also has to carry reactive power, the latter should be kept as small as possible. In addition, a transmission line should posses the following basic characteristics:

Transmission Line
   The voltage should remain as constant as possible the entire length of the line. The line losses must be small so as to attain a high transmission efficiency. The I2R losses must not overheat the conductors.

Transmission Line
AC power transmission is the transmission of electric power by alternating current. Usually transmission lines use three phase AC current. Single phase AC current is sometimes used in a railway electrification system.

Transmission Line
Overhead power lines are often equipped with a ground conductor (shield wire or overhead earth wire). A ground conductor is a conductor that is usually grounded (earthed) at the top of the supporting structure to minimize the likelihood of direct lightning strikes to the phase conductors.

Basic components of T. Line
To increase the leakage path (and hence the leakage the leakage resistance), the insulators are molded with wave-like folds. From mechanical standpoint, they must be strong enough to withstand the dynamic pull and weight of conductors.

The Power System
WAPDA has lines on its system. In 1947, WAPDA had only 1200 KMs Transmission Lines. The total length of transmission lines now stands about 4665 Km. WAPDA's Power Transmission Lines system is interconnected through a National Grid which extends power from Peshawar to Karachi - Quetta and Azad Kashmir linking all important cities of the country

500 KV Transmission Lines : Existing
NO

Cicuit
Tarbela - Faisalabad (1st Circuit) Faisalabad - Multan - Guddu - Karachi Tarbela - Faisalabad (2nd Circuit) Lahore - Multan - Jamshoro Tarbela - Peshawar Tarbela - Lahore (3rd Circuit) 3rd 500 KV Jamshoro - Gud-u-Multan and 2nd Multan - Gatti - Lahore First Hub-Jahmsoro Second 500 KV Line Hub-Jamshoro

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Rout 330 KM 957 KM 327 KM 1075 KM 117 KM 347 KM 630 KM 182 KM 181 KM

220 KV Transmission Lines : Under Execution

NO 10

Circuit

Rout

2nd 220 KV Guddu - Sibbi D/C Sibbi - Quetta S/C 220 Guddu - Sibbi

259 KM 194 KM 272 KM

11 12

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