Copper is a non-ferrous base metal and its average

concentration in the earth’s crust is about 50ppm.
Copper occurs naturally in all plants and animals, as
it is an essential element for all known living

 Symbol
 Atomic number
 Atomic weight
 Density at 293 K
 Melting point
 Boiling point
 Specific heat capacity at

293 K
 Electrical conductivity
 Electrical conductivity
at 298 K
 Electrical resistivity

8960 kg m-3
1083 C
386 J/kg
100 %
5.98 x10^7 Ohm-1m-1
1.673x10^-8 Ohm m

Main properties of copper
Transfer electricity and heat.
High resistance to corrosion
Malleable and easy of use in machines during the

fabrication process

connectors and circuit for computers Computer chips . Electron tubes in TVs and monitors Audio and video amplification Microwave ovens Cables.What is copper used for? Electrical About 25% of all copper produced is used in electrical applications.

.Construction Wire Pumbling pipes and fittings Electrical oulets Switches and locks 200 kg of copper metal in an average house.

lighting. Decorative purposes . Cooking pans. clocks.Consumers and general products Household products Most silver – plated cutlery has a cooper-zinc-nickel alloy base.

brakes and wiring in motor vehicles. A modern car contains up to 28kg of copper .Transportation Commonly used for radiators.


.Grades Copper combines with a number of elements and more than 150 copper minerals have been identified but only a small number of these are of economic relevance.

Hydrothermal deposits are most significant on a global scale.Geo sources Copper deposits are found worldwide in a variety of geological environments. . although magmatic and supergene deposits are locally important in the UK.



World production According with the USGS in 2013 the world production of copper was 17 900 000 tonnes and 16 900 000 tonnes in 2012. .


UK PRODUCTION There are no copper mines active in Britain. accounting for nearly ten percent of total production. . Returns for the whole of the nineteenth century show Britain to be the world’s fourth largest copper producer.

The decline of British copper mining was mainly the result of falling metal prices and competition from overseas (Chile. Australia and USA) .

In 2005 the UK consumed 165 400 tonnes of refined copper. .

World Mineral production 2008 .2012 .Source: British Geological Survey.


 and at some earlier time production will  reach a maximum.FUTURE Peak copper is a hypothetical point in time at which  the maximum global copper production rate is  reached. at some  point in the future new production from within the earth  will diminish.  . Since copper is a finite resource.

the UK has some areas with an eventually considerable copper production but unlikely to be extracted now due the high cost.Alternative technology Secondary production: recycling Use of substitutes: Different materials can be used as a substitute of copper such as aluminium and plastic for water pipe and plumbing fixtures. However. .




CaF2). which.1 per cent calcium and 48. when pure.What is it ? Fluorspar is the commercial name for the mineral fluorite (calcium fluoride.9 per cent fluorine. . consists of 51.

Brithis geological survey .

What is it used for? Hydrofluoric acid Flurocarbon chemicals Metallurgical use Glass and ceramic industries Manufacture of electrical components (silicon based) Processing of uranium for nuclear fuel Petrochemical production .

celestite as well as sulphides. . and phosphates. Commercially extracted fluorspar often contains numerous attached and intergrown minerals such as calcite. barytes.Mineralogy Fluorspar rarely occurs as pure CaF2 in nature and commonly contains inclusions of gases and fluids. quartz. often petroleum and water. such as pyrite and marcasite.

Most commonly fluorspar is deposited by hydrothermal5 solutions sourced from igneous intrusions or deep diagenetic6 processes. .Geo sources Fluorspar is found in a wide range of geological environments on every continent.


. sulphur. SiO2. and lead. CaCO3. Pb). quartz. These grades are based on fluorspar content (CaF2) and the amount of impurities (such as calcite. arsenic. As. S.Grades Commercial fluorspar is graded according to quality and specification.

The grades are as follows: Acid grade or ‘acidspar’ (minimum 97% CaF2. 10–12 ppm As. 0. up to 3% SiO2).5% CaCO3. 0. . up to 1. ceramic grade (80–96% CaF2.03– 0. Metallurgical grade or ‘metspar’ (minimum 80% CaF2. 100–550 ppm Pb). 0.5% Pb).3% S. 1.0% SiO2.1% S. maximum 15% SiO2.

.World production According with the USGS in 2012 the global production of Fluorspar was 6 850 000 tonnes. China is the main producer of this mineral with 4 200 000 tonnes in 2012 followed by Mexico with 1 200 000 tonnes.

World production .

which is all imported.UK PRODUCTION 36 801 tonnes of acid-grade fluorspar were produced in the UK in 2008. the Southern Pennine Orefield and the Northern Pennine Orefield. There is no production of metallurgical fluorspar (metspar) in the UK. In the United Kingdom fluorspar-barytes-lead mineralisation occurs mainly in two areas. .

UK CONSUMPTION Consumption in 2009 .

Reserves Global reserves in 2012 were about 240 000 000 tonnes. . with South Africa leading the list.

com/2012/06/22/fluorspar-investing/#sthash. http://www.dpuf . Globally.miningfeeds. China is the main consumer of fluorspar. the annual consumption of fluorspar is approximately 5.FUTURE Fluorspar is essentially consumed in use and recycling or reuse is not usually feasible.A1BffIqO.6 million tonnes.

manganese ore. Byproduct fluorosilicic acid has been used as a substitute in aluminum fluoride production and also has the potential to be used as a substitute in HF production. .Aluminum smelting dross. iron oxides. and titanium dioxide have been used as substitutes for fluorspar fluxes. calcium chloride. silica sand.  Byproduct fluorosilicic acid has been used as a substitute in aluminum fluoride production and also has the potential to be used as a substitute in HF production. borax.

A total of 1 215 000 tonnes of ore are accessible by open-pit working at Tearsall. .Current permitted reserves of fluorspar available to the sole operator. before its closure in December 2010 (Industrial Minerals 2010c) principally reside in a small number of planning permissions for open-pit and underground extraction. Peak Pasture and High Rake. Glebe Mines.

About three million tonnes of fluorspar ore are accessible from underground mines at Milldam and Watersaw West. .


uk/downloads/start. details for Fluorspar BGShttps://www. BGS Mineral year book Fluorspar 2009 USGS Mineral year book Copper 2013 http:// www. Centre for sustainable mineral oruman Minerals Centre for sutainable mineral Minerals UK.cfm?id=1410 .Sources Mineral Planning factsheet Fluorspar. details for Copper