# DIGITAL TRANSMISSION

RATES
BY
SEEMA ANSARI

Seema Ansari

1

• According to the sampling theorem. the bitrate depends on the rate at which the analog signal is sampled and the coding scheme. an analog signal can be accurately transmitted if sampled at a rate of atleast twice the highest frequency contained in that signal.DIGITAL TRANSMISSION RATES OF THE TELEPHONE SYSTEM : • When Analog signals are transmitted digitally. ADC-2011 Seema Ansari 2 .

DIGITAL TRANSMISSION RATES  For this reason the standard 4-Khz telephone channel is sampled 8000 times (2x4k=8k) a second.  The coding procedure uses 8 bits to describe the amplitude of each sample so that a total of  ( 8000x8=64kbps) 64 kbps are transmitted for a single telephone message. ADC-2011 Seema Ansari 3 .

ADC-2011 Seema Ansari 4 . • The hierarchy for the Asynchronous Digital telephone Network used in the United States is shown in the Table on the next slide. • For example the basic block is the T1 (Transmission at level-1) system. their designation. of Voice Channels. • Shown are the information rates. and the no. It carries 24 Voice messages.The hierarchy for the Asynchronous Digital telephone Network • By using Multiplexing / De-Multiplexing several messages can be transmitted at a higher bitrate.

053 Mbps 274. of Voice Transmission Signaling Channels Designation Designation 1 24 48 (2T1) 96 (4 T1 ) 672 (7T2) 1344 (2T3) 4032 (6T3) 6048 (9 T3) ADC-2011 8064 (12T3) T1 DS-1 T1 C DS-1 C T2 DS-2 T3 DS-3 T3 C DS-3C T4 DS-4 ----Seema Ansari ----- Datarate 64kbps 1.544 Mbps 3.312 Mbps 44.175 Mbps 405 Mbps 5 565 Mbps .ASYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL TELEPHONE HIERARCHY No.152Mbps 6.736 Mbps 91.

 The T2 level is formed by combining 4T1 so that 4(24)=96 messages can be carried. ADC-2011 Seema Ansari 6 . 1. the designation DS-1 (Digital Signal at level-1) is appropriate.  Fiber capabilities are so great that systems with even greater capacities can be constructed.2.  Multigigabit line rates (tens of thousands of Voice channels) can be achieved using fibers.  For example Systems have been designed with individual fiber line rates of 1.7.ASYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL TELEPHONE HIERARCHY  When the digital signaling is used. and 2.3Gbps.

This allows the receiver to recognize when the second packet of information is being sent. • The start and stop bits must be of opposite polarity. ADC-2011 Seema Ansari 7 . • This method of transmission is used when data is sent irregularly as opposed to in a solid stream. FOR EXAMPLE: • ASCII character would actually be transmitted using 10 bits e.: A "0100 0001" would become "1 0100 0001 0". In the previous example the start and stop bits are in bold.Asynchronous transmission • Asynchronous transmission uses start and stop bits to signify the beginning bit. • The extra one (or zero depending on parity bit) at the start and end of the transmission tells the receiver first that a character is coming and secondly that the character has ended.g.

Ways to get around this problem include re-synchronization of the clocks and use of check digits to ensure the byte is correctly interpreted and received ADC-2011 Seema Ansari 8 . Due to there being no start and stop bits the data transfer rate is quicker although more errors will occur.Synchronous transmission • • • Synchronous transmission uses no start and stop bits but instead synchronizes transmission speeds at both the receiving and sending end of the transmission using clock signal(s) built into each component. so some bytes could become corrupted (by losing bits). and the receiving device would have the wrong time that had been agreed in the protocol for sending/receiving data. A continual stream of data is then sent between the two nodes. as the clocks will eventually get out of sync.