# Chapter 5

Chemical Reactions
and
Quantities
5.5
The Mole

Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. • • • 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 2 .

0 g of carbon.A Mole of Atoms A mole is a collection that contains • • the same number of particles as there are carbon atoms in 12. 1 mole element 1 mole C 1 mole Na 1 mole Au Number of Atoms = 6.02 x 1023 Na atoms = 6. 6.02 x 1023 C atoms = 6.02 x 1023 Au atoms 3 .02 x 1023 atoms of an element (Avogadro’s number).

1 mole CO2 = 6.02 x 1023 K2SO4 formula units 4 .02 x 1023 H2O molecules • of an ionic compound contains Avogadro’s number of formula units.A Mole of a Compound A mole • of a covalent compound has Avogadro’s number of molecules.02 x 1023 CO2 molecules 1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl formula units 1 mole K2SO4 = 6. 1 mole NaCl = 6.

02 x 1023 C atoms 1 mole Al = 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms 1 mole S = 6.Samples of One Mole Quantities 1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 S atoms 1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules 1 mole CCl4 = 6.02 x 1023 CCl4 molecules 5 .

02 x 1023 particles Conversion Factors: 6.02 x 1023 particles 6 .02 x 1023 can be written as an equality and two conversion factors.Avogadro’s Number Avogadro’s number 6. Equality: 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 particles and 1 mole 1 mole 6.

Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 7 . Inc.0 x 1023 Cu atoms Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.50 mole Cu x 6.02 x 1023 Cu atoms 1 mole Cu = 3.Using Avogadro’s Number Avogadro’s number is used to convert moles of a substance to particles.50 mole Cu? 0. How many Cu atoms are in 0.

02 x 1023 molecules CO2 = 4.50 x 1024 molecules CO2? 2.50 x 1024 molecules CO2 x 1 mole CO2 6. How many moles of CO2 are in 2.Using Avogadro’s Number Avogadro’s number is used to convert particles of a substance to moles.15 mole CO2 8 .

0 Al atoms. 2.Learning Check 1.8 x 1024 atoms S is A. B. C. C. 3.0 mole S atoms. 3.0 x 1023 Al atoms.0 mole S atoms.0 mole Al is A. The number of moles of S in 1. The number of atoms in 2. 2. 1. B. 1.2 x 1024 Al atoms.1 x 1048 mole S atoms. 1. 9 .

8 x 1024 atoms S is 1.02x1023 Al atoms = 1.Solution A. The number of atoms in 2.02 x 1023 S atoms Avogadro’s Number = 3.2 x 1024Al atoms 1 mole Al Avogadro’s Number B.8 x 1024 atoms S x 1 mole S 6.0 mole Al x 6.0 moles of S atoms 10 . The number of moles of S in 1.0 mole Al is 2.

• the moles of each element in 1 mole of compound.Subscripts and Moles The subscripts in a formula show • the relationship of atoms in the formula. Glucose C6H12O6 In 1 molecule: 6 atoms C 12 atoms H 6 atoms O In 1 mole: 6 mole C 12 mole H 6 mole O 11 .

Subscripts State Atoms and Moles 9 mole C 8 mole H 4 mole O 12 .

Factors from Subscripts The subscripts are used to write conversion factors for moles of each element in 1 mole compound. the following factors can be written: 9 mole C 1 mole C9H8O4 and 1 mole C9H8O4 C9H8O4 9 mole C 8 mole H 4 mole O 1 mole C9H8O4 1 mole C9H8O4 1 mole C9H8O4 8 mole H 1 mole 4 mole O 13 . For aspirin C9H8O4.

How many mole O are in 0.150 mole aspirin C9H8O4? 14 . How many O atoms are in 0.150 mole aspirin C9H8O4? B.Learning Check A.

150 mole aspirin C9H8O4? 0.Solution A. How many mole O are in 0.150 mole C9H8O4 x 4 mole O x 6. How many O atoms are in 0.61 x 1023 O atoms 15 .150 mole C9H8O4 x 4 mole O = 0.02 x 1023 O atoms 1 mole C9H8O4 1 mole O subscript Avogadro’s factor Number = 3.600 mole O 1 mole C9H8O4 subscript factor B.150 mole aspirin C9H8O4? 0.