DC MOTOR

Soedibyo

1

References
1. Theraja, B. L., ‘Electrical Technology’, S.
Chand & Company Ltd., 1978.
2. Schmidt-Walter, H., Kories, R., ‘Electrical
Engineering: A Pocket Reference’, Artech
House Inc., 2007.
3. Chapman, S. J., ‘Electric Machinery
Fundamentals’, McGraw-Hill, 2005.

2

DC Motors Outlines
10:

.Dc motor:
..dc motor parts & works
..back emf
..motor equivalent circuit
..characteristics of dc motor: Ta~ΦIa and n~E/Φ
.Dc shunt motor:
..characteristics of dc shunt motor
..speed control of dc shunt motor: n ~ (V – IaRa)/Φ

11:

.Dc series & compound motor
..characteristics of dc series & compound motor:
Ta~ΦIa and n~E/Φ
..speed control of dc shunt motor: n ~ (V – IaRa)/Φ

12:

.Braking & starting of dc motor
.Dc motor power stages
3

dc series motor s V Ta/Ia characteristic Ta Ia In Ia 4 n/Ia characteristic n/Ta characteristic Ta Starting point Nominal point nn n n .

Shunt vs series vs compound Cumulatively compound: .like shunt motor: it doesn’t overspeed at no load 5 .like series motor: it has extra torque for starting. .

Revisions & Last Tasks Motor in a car toy -> dc shunt motor 24-23 6 .

Total Loss in a DC machine (1) Armature Cu Loss Field Cu Loss Copper Losses hysteresis Total Losses Iron/Magnetic Losses Mechanical Losses 7 Eddy current friction windage .

Total Loss in a DC machine (2) The losses in a dc motor are the same as in generator. Iron/Magnetic losses . a. Copper losses (Cu losses) .Field copper loss = If2Rf .Loss due to brush contact resistance. usually included in the armature copper loss.Hysteresis loss . Mechanical losses . b.Air-friction or windage loss of rotating armature .Armature copper loss = Ia2Ra .Eddy current loss c.Friction loss at bearings and commutator 8 .

Iron/Magnetic Losses Energy Conversion Electrical Mechanical Electromagnetism Energy 9 Energy .

1. Hysteresis Loss 2. there are some losses taking place continuously in the core: Iron Losses or Core Losses. Eddy Current Loss 10 .Total Loss in a DC machine (1): Iron Loss in Armature Due to the rotation of the iron core of the armature in the magnetic flux.

. 11 . the domains don’t completely randomize again. Because turning them back requires energy. x Magnetic domains oriented randomly Magnetic domains lined up in the presence of an external magnetic field .The fact that turning domains in the iron requires energy leads to a common energy loss in all machines and transformers -> hysteresis loss.When the external magnetic field is removed. . x .Hysteresis Loss (1) x .

When the applied field is returned to zero there will still be a remaining (remnant or remanent) flux density at P3.Hysteresis Loss (2) . This is called the initial magnetization curve. P1:both field strength and flux density are zero.The field strength is increased in the positive direction and the flux begins to grow along the dotted path until we reach P2. 12 . . .

Hysteresis Loss (3) 13 .

Hysteresis Loss (3) 14 .

. . it also cuts the flux.The core material is electrically conductive. .Eddy Current Loss . 15 .When it rotates.Hence. . an emf is induced in the body of the core.This emf sets up current in the body of the core.

. .Eddy Current Loss . .When it rotates. 16 .The core material is electrically conductive.This emf sets up current in the body of the core.. it also cuts the flux.Hence. an emf is induced in the body of the core.

Mechanical Loss .Air-friction or windage loss of rotating armature Poles Fan Brushes Rotor winding Bearing 17 Commutator .Friction loss at bearings and commutator .

Total Loss in a DC machine Armature Cu Loss Field Cu Loss Copper Losses hysteresis Total Losses Iron/Magnetic Losses Mechanical Losses Eddy current friction windage Stray Losses: usually magnetic and mechanical losses are collectively known as Stray Losses. Constant Losses: Wc. . 18 Variable Loss: varied with the load current -> armature Cu loss. consists of stray losses and shunt Cu losses.

. Constant Losses = No-load Input – Cu Losses 19 .These losses are assumed constant under load condition. .The remaining input power must consist of the mechanical and core losses.If a motor runs on no-load at rated speed.DC machine Constant Losses . then there is no output power.If the Cu losses are subtracted from the input power of the motor. .

Motor Power Stages Motor Input Copper Losses Driving power in armature Iron and Friction Losses EIa Watt VI Watt Total Losses = Constant Losses + Variable Losses Constant Losses = No-load Input – Cu Losses 20 Output HP .

-Ende24-8  24-21  21 .

Efficiency c. The input to a 220-V dc shunt motor is 11 kW. The no-load current = 5 A. Calculate: a.24-22. Rf = 110 .5 . no-load speed = 1150 rpm. Speed at this load Solution 22 . Ra = 0. Torque developed b.

24-34. Solution 23 .

-ENDE Figures:  Iron core  Laminated iron core 24 .

Statically induced: conductor/coil remains stationary & flux linked with it is changed by changing the current producing this flux -> transformers 25 .Induced e. Dynamically induced: field is stationary & conductors cut across it -> dc generators ii.m.f i.

26 .

Electric Braking Rheostatic/Dynamic Braking Plugging/Counter-current braking Regenerative braking 27 .

28 .

Electric Braking of Shunt Motors 29 .

30 .

31 .

32 .

33 .