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# DC MOTOR

Soedibyo

References
1. Theraja, B. L., Electrical Technology, S.
Chand & Company Ltd., 1978.
2. Schmidt-Walter, H., Kories, R., Electrical
Engineering: A Pocket Reference, Artech
House Inc., 2007.
3. Chapman, S. J., Electric Machinery
Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 2005.

DC Motors Outlines
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.Dc motor:
..dc motor parts & works
..back emf
..motor equivalent circuit
..characteristics of dc motor: Ta~Ia and n~E/
.Dc shunt motor:
..characteristics of dc shunt motor
..speed control of dc shunt motor: n ~ (V IaRa)/

11:

## .Dc series & compound motor

..characteristics of dc series & compound motor:
Ta~Ia and n~E/
..speed control of dc shunt motor: n ~ (V IaRa)/

12:

## .Braking & starting of dc motor

.Dc motor power stages
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dc series motor
s
V

Ta/Ia characteristic
Ta

Ia

In
Ia

n/Ia characteristic

n/Ta characteristic
Ta

Starting point

Nominal point

nn

## Shunt vs series vs compound

Cumulatively compound:
.like series motor: it has
extra torque for starting.
.like shunt motor: it
doesnt overspeed at no
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## Revisions & Last Tasks

Motor in a car toy -> dc shunt motor
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Armature Cu
Loss
Field Cu Loss

Copper Losses
hysteresis

Total Losses

Iron/Magnetic
Losses

Mechanical
Losses

Eddy current

friction
windage

## Total Loss in a DC machine (2)

The losses in a dc motor are the same as in generator.

## a. Copper losses (Cu losses)

.Armature copper loss = Ia2Ra
.Field copper loss = If2Rf
.Loss due to brush contact resistance; usually included in
the armature copper loss.
b. Iron/Magnetic losses
.Hysteresis loss
.Eddy current loss
c. Mechanical losses
.Friction loss at bearings and commutator
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## .Air-friction or windage loss of rotating armature

Iron/Magnetic Losses
Energy Conversion

Electrical

Mechanical
Electromagnetism

Energy

Energy

## Total Loss in a DC machine (1):

Iron Loss in Armature
Due to the rotation of the iron core of the armature in the magnetic
flux, there are some losses taking place continuously in the
core: Iron Losses or Core Losses.
1. Hysteresis Loss
2. Eddy Current Loss

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x

x
.

## Magnetic domains lined up in the

presence of an external magnetic field

.When the external magnetic field is removed, the domains dont completely
randomize again.
Because turning them back requires energy.
.The fact that turning domains in the iron requires energy leads to a common
energy loss in all machines and transformers -> hysteresis loss.
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## Hysteresis Loss (2)

. P1:both field strength and flux density are
zero.
.The field strength is increased in the
positive direction and the flux begins to grow
along the dotted path until we reach P2.
This is called the initial magnetization curve.
.When the applied field is returned to zero
there will still be a remaining (remnant or
remanent) flux density at P3.

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## Eddy Current Loss

.The core material is electrically conductive.
.When it rotates, it also cuts the flux.
.Hence, an emf is induced in the body of the core.
.This emf sets up current in the body of the core..

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## Eddy Current Loss

.The core material is electrically conductive.
.When it rotates, it also cuts the flux.
.Hence, an emf is induced in the body of the core.
.This emf sets up current in the body of the core..

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Mechanical Loss
.Friction loss at bearings and commutator
.Air-friction or windage loss of rotating armature
Poles

Fan

Brushes

Rotor winding
Bearing
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Commutator

Armature Cu
Loss
Field Cu Loss

Copper Losses
hysteresis

Total Losses

Iron/Magnetic
Losses

Mechanical
Losses

Eddy current

friction
windage

## Stray Losses: usually magnetic and mechanical losses are

collectively known as Stray Losses.
Constant Losses: Wc, consists of stray losses and shunt Cu
losses.
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Variable Loss: varied with the load current -> armature Cu loss.

## DC machine Constant Losses

.If a motor runs on no-load at rated speed, then there is no
output power.
.If the Cu losses are subtracted from the input power of the
motor,
.The remaining input power must consist of the mechanical
and core losses.
.These losses are assumed constant under load condition.

Constant Losses =
No-load Input Cu Losses
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Motor Input

Copper
Losses

Driving power
in armature

Losses

EIa Watt
VI Watt

## Total Losses = Constant Losses + Variable Losses

Constant Losses = No-load Input Cu Losses
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Output
HP

-Ende24-8
24-21

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24-22.
The input to a 220-V dc shunt motor is 11 kW.
The no-load current = 5 A;
no-load speed = 1150 rpm;
Ra = 0.5 ;
Rf = 110 ;
Calculate:
a. Torque developed
b. Efficiency
c. Speed at this load
Solution

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24-34.
Solution

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-ENDE

Figures:
Iron

core
Laminated iron core

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Induced e.m.f
i.

## Dynamically induced: field is

stationary & conductors cut across it
-> dc generators

ii.

## Statically induced: conductor/coil

remains stationary & flux linked with
it is changed by changing the
current producing this flux ->
transformers

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Electric Braking
Rheostatic/Dynamic Braking

Plugging/Counter-current braking

Regenerative braking
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