Ethnic Conflict, Mass Killings

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Genocide and International Security
Mohammad Atique Rahman
Assistant Professor

The Road Map: What is Ethnic Conflict?  Why Mass killings and Genocide Happened?  Global Trend of Mass Killing and Genocide  Impacts on International Security  International Response  The future trends  .

Pose significant threats to international peace and security. compared with 3.5 million people have died in internal conflicts.3 million in interstate wars. Till now 122 ethnic wars have been reported which caused 16.e.  Results: Human loss. widespread refugee dislocations and economic devastation. ethnic conflict is one of the internationally recognized major social conflicts. After 1945 till 1988 there were 111 ethnic conflicts in which 63 were internal matters and 36 were war of state formation i.Setting the Context       Today. Dragging countries to engage into a regional warfare. autonomy. .

It contrasts with civil war on one hand (where a single nation or ethnic group is fighting among itself) and regular warfare on the other. where two or more sovereign states (which may or may not be nation states) are in conflict. He suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation. [1] The primordialist account relies on a concept of kinship between members of an ethnic group. Primordialist accounts: Proponents of primordialist accounts of ethnic conflict argue that “[e]thnic groups and nationalities exist because there are traditions of belief and action towards primordial objects such as biological features and especially territorial location”. individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. because they found them more effective than social classes”. . Instrumentalist accounts: Ethnicity issue is used as cultural identity as sites of mass mobilization and as constituencies in their competition for power and resources.What is Ethnic Conflict     An ethnic conflict or ethnic war is an armed conflict between ethnic groups. Constructivist accounts: Ethnicity is a mechanism by which knowledge is internalized by learners.

Manifestations Ethnic Conflict A. Methods for eliminating differences:  Genocide  Forced mass-population transfers  Partition and/or secession (self-determination)  Integration and/or assimilation B. Methods for managing differences:  Hegemonic control  Arbitration (third-party intervention)  Cantonisation and/or federalisation  Consociationalism or power-sharing .

What is Genocide   “Genocide.” a term used to describe violence against members of a national. ethnical. the term would later be applied to the horrific acts of violence committed during conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and in the African country of Rwanda in the 1990s. In 1948. racial or religious group with the intent to destroy the entire group. . the United Nations declared genocide to be an international crime.

000 people by 1995. the government of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence from Yugoslavia. . and Bosnian Serb leaders targeted both Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) and Croatian civilians for atrocious crimes resulting in the deaths of some 100.Ethnic Conflict in Bosnia  In 1992.

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with horrifying brutality and speed. mostly of the Tutsi minority.000 people.  . members of the Hutu majority in Rwanda murdered some 800.Ethnic Conflict in Rwanda  From April to mid-July 1994.

and children Tutsis were killed in one week in 1994 (from 6-14 April) in Rwanda. 2.00. women.000 Hutu were the perpetrators .800.000 men.

Global Trend of Mass Killing and Genocide Increasing rate of human deaths! .

Winning the battles and losing the wars .

Implications to Global Peace and Security      Humanitarian Crisis: NATO intervened in Kosovo in 1998-99 to end Serb’s atrocities against Albanian Muslims. Child Soldiers: 250.000 involved in Ethnic Conflict Conflict Economy: Blood Diamond An Agenda for Peace by Boutros Ghali 1998 formation of International Criminal Court-ICC .

International Response: Divided Opinion: Polarization .

Peacebuilding to prevent recurrence of violence Regional P.K: OAU. Syria. UN Robust Peacekeeping: Third Generation P.K. Egypt and Libya.Future Trends:     Sluggish response: Kurdistan. NATO Humanitarian Intervention .