KPSA

:
MENGGUNAKAN
PERHUBUNGAN RUANG DAN
MASA

SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3
oleh
Rohaya Mee

APA?
 Kebolehan

SCE3106_RM2011

memperihalkan atau
menunjukkan lokasi, arah, bentuk dan
saiz sesuatu objek dan perubahannya
mengikut masa

2

CONTOH
 Penyemaian

SCE3106_RM2011

biji kacang.
 Murid diarahkan mengukur ketinggian
anak benih kacang setiap hari selama 1
minggu.

3

KEPENTINGAN  Menyedarkan SCE3106_RM2011 kita bahawa setiap perubahan itu adalah mengikut masa  Membantu kita menyusun peristiwaperistiwa mengikut koronologinya. 4 .

AKTIVITI  Week 9 – Making A Sun Clock SCE3106_RM2011 5 .

 To arrange events chronologically  To determine the magnitude of changes that occurred based on the rate of changing  To determine the location of an object in space and to describe its location  To describe the shape of an object when it is seen from a location or a point of different frame of reference.  SCE3106_RM2011 6 . shape and size of an object in a period of time  To describe the relationships between the distance that has been covered in a period of time.SPACE TIME RELATIONSHIPS  Indicator: To describe a location and time  To describe the changes of direction.

KPSB : MENTAFSIR MAKLUMAT SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3 oleh Rohaya Mee .

has a surface temperature of about 482°C. Jupiter has a surface temperature of about -151°C. Our sun has a surface temperature of about 5538°C. 8 . Pluto is the outermost planet. Uranus is after Saturn. The next planet. It is so far away from the sun that its surface temperature has not been measured but it is estimated to be about -230°C. Mars is the fourth planet and its surface temperature is about -23°C. Venus.SCE3106_RM2011 Read the following data. Its surface temperature is about -207°C. Next is Neptune whose surface temperature is about -223°C. Our home planet Earth is next. Saturn is next with a surface temperature of about -184°C. Construct a visual EXERCISE 1 representation that you think will communicate the information best. The innermost planet is Mercury. It has a surface temperature of about 327°C. Jupiter comes after Mars. Its surface temperature is about 14°C.

SAMPLE VISUAL REPRESENTATION SCE3106_RM2011 Planet’s Position from Sun Surface Temperature (°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Which is better? Why? 9 .

This comes from the hypothesis you devise. Graphs are created from data tables to get a visual image of the observations which simplifies interpretation and drawing conclusions. Data tables and charts are usually used.  It is important to organize data for easy interpretation.The first step in interpreting data is to decide what data you want to gather.  SCE3106_RM2011 INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION 10 .

11 . Brands of paper towels. height of ladders. etc  Line graph for continous data (data from variables investigated over time) Eg. types of wood. units of clock time. days of the week. mass of fruit etc. Two types of graph:  Bar graph for descriptive/discrete data (data from variables that will be counted) SCE3106_RM2011 INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION Eg. Volume of water. gender.

You should be able to:  Construct a table of data  Construct a graph  Interpreting a graph (relationship between variables) SCE3106_RM2011 PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES 12 .

The levels of the MV are ordered.DERIVED QUANTITY is recorded in one or more columns to the right of the RV column. 2. When repeated trials are conducted. the RESPONDING VARIABLE is recorded in the RIGHT column. SCE3106_RM2011 CONSTRUCTING A TABLE OF DATA 13 .COMMON CONVENTIONS: 1. UNITS are included in the column heading. usually from smallest to largest. 3. The MANIPULATED VARIABLE is recorded in the LEFT column. the RV column is divided into smaller column. 4.

EXAMPLE OF TABLE OF DATA TRIALS COLUMN FOR MV 2 3 COLUMN FOR RV SCE3106_RM2011 1 COLUMN FOR DERIVED QUANTITY 14 .

Does the title tell about the MV and the RV?  Is the left column for the MV?  Are the label and units given for the MV?  Are the levels of the MV ordered?  Is the right column for the RV?  Are the label and units given for the RV?  Is the RV column subdivided for repeated trials?  Are the RV data correctly recorded?  Are there additional columns for derived quantities?  Are the label and units given for the derived quantities?  Are the derived quantities correctly calculated?  SCE3106_RM2011 TABULATING DATA SKILLS CHECKLIST 15 .

• SCE3106_RM2011 CONSTRUCTING A GRAPH A graph title may take these form: The Effect of the MV on the RV How Does the MV affect the RV? 16 . The MV is written on the x-axis.PROCEDURE 1. Write the title of the graph. The RV is written on the y-axis. 3. Draw a horizontal line (x-axis) and a vertical line (y-axis) 2.

48  5 = 9. 4. PROCEDURE (CONT) STEPS 1. Determine interval scales for each axis.6 ≈ 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 17 . Begin with an interval that is less than the smallest value to be plotted and continue until you have exceeded the largest value to be plotted. 3. 2. 2. Find the range of data (subtract the smallest value from the largest value) 7 12 22 37 46 55 Divide the difference by the number of interval you want (to use/cover the entire graph area) 55 – 7 = 48 Round up interval to an easy counting number eg. 4 etc Mark off intervals along the axis. 10.SCE3106_RM2011 4.6 9. 5.

Plot data pairs as points on the graph.y) or (MV. point is represented as (x.6. There should be approximately equal number of data points on either side of the line.RV). • SCE3106_RM2011 PROCEDURE (CONT) 5. The The rules are:    The line should be a straight line or a smooth curve. 18 . Connect the points or draw a best-fit line. All points should lie either on the line or very near to the line.

19 . First describe the relationship until the curve changes direction. A change in direction of a line indicates a change in the relationships between the variables Then tell what the relationship is for the rest of the graph. SCE3106_RM2011 INTERPRETING A GRAPH Eg: The temperature of water increases as the length of time it is heated increases  For     a curved line graph Describe the relationship in two sentences.PROCEDURE  Tell what happens to the RV as the MV changes.

why? • • Too many data points on one side Should be curved • Some points too far from line • 20 Should be curved (U shaped) .SCE3106_RM2011 Shown are several graphs with lines drawn EXERCISE 2 through data points. Decide whether it is a bestfit line. If not.

• Too many data points on one side.) • Curve not smooth. 21 . Line seems to average the points. • Curved line should be lowered.• Line is best-fit. A ‘J’ shaped smooth curve is best-fit. SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 2 (CONT.

3 6 22 .1 4 2 5 SCE3106_RM2011 Draw best-fit EXERCISE 3 lines for these points.

1 4 SCE3106_RM2011 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 3 2 5 3 6 23 .

The breaking point increases as the diameter of the rope increases.the variables for each graph. 24 . SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 4 Write a statement of relationship between The number of letters recognized decreases as the distance from the chart increases.

SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 4 (CONT. Above 19°C the average number of tomatoes produced declined rapidly. After that the temperature stays about the 25 same even though heating continues.The average number of tomatoes produced increased rapidly until a temperature of 19°C was reached. .) The temperature of water steadily increases when heated for 7 minutes.

a best-fit line. The sea otters in a sheltered lagoon were counted over a number of years. If a section has not been correctly presented.EXERCISE 5 Description of an investigation and the data collected are given below. and a statement of the relationship between the variables. Also given are a graph of the data. You are to describe whether each has been properly prepared. check what part is wrong. STATEMENT The number of sea otters in this location has been steadily decreasing since 1932 Year Number of sea otters 193 2 194 46 0 42 195 35 2 30 196 SELF CHECK 26 on wrong axis • Variables 2 197 • Statement is ok 2 • Line does not average points (all points above line) SCE3106_RM2011 THE INVESTIGATION 26 .

2. SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 6 of an investigation and a table of A description data are given here.0 5.5 3. Size of Motor (horsepower ) Average Kilometers per Liter of Gasoline 47 100 140 193 227 7.0 4.0 3.1.0 27 . THE INVESTIGATION An investigation was carried out to determine the relationship between the size of a car motor and the gasoline mileage. Construct a graph Draw a best-fit line Write a statement of the relationship between the variables. 3.

the decrease is slower for motors above 120 horsepower. However. 28 .SCE3106_RM2011 ANSWER EXERCISE 6 The number of kilometers per liter of gasoline decreases as the size of the motor increases.

3. 4. 6. 5. 7. 9. 2. 8. Does the title communicate the MV and RV? Is the MV on the x-axis? Are the labels/units given for the MV? Is the scale on the x-axis appropriate to represent the values of the MV? Is the RV on the y-axis? Are the labels/units given for the RV? Is the scale on the y-axis appropriate to represent the values of the RV? Are the data correctly plotted? Is the line-of-best-fit appropriate? Is the graph done neatly? SCE3106_RM2011 GRAPHING SKILLS CHECKLIST 29 . 10.1.

SCE3106_RM2011 30 .

SCE3106_RM2011 31 .

SCE3106_RM2011 32 .

SCE3106_RM2011 33 .

KPSB : MENDEFINISI SECARA OPERASI SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3 oleh Rohaya Mee .

temperature – thermometer.  Defining operationally involves finding equivalent ways of measuring something indirectly that cannot be conveniently measured directly. time – stopwatch. SCE3106_RM2011 INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION  The method or procedure used to measure a 35 . Thus an operational definition tells what operation is performed (and observed) and how it is measured.variable is called an operational definition. Eg: depth – ruler. you do not need to define it operationally. Eg: pendulum activity – measure period in terms of number of swings per 15 seconds because time of one swing could not be measured conveniently.  If you can measure a variable directly using standard systems of measurement.

Operational definition should be EXPLICIT enough that another investigator could carry out the measurement without any further information from the investigator.      SCE3106_RM2011 INTRODUCTORY  Different investigatorsINFORMATION may use different The number of hours a person could stay awake.operationally definition for the same variable. 36 .  The variable “endurance of a person” could be defined operationally many different ways. The number of jumping jacks a person could do before tiring. Example: “investigation to test the effects of Vitamin E on the endurance of a person”. The distance a person could run without stopping.

and in April there were twenty. a record of the number of people hospitalized because of accidents was measured. In January. How was each variable operationally defined? 37 .   Identify the MV and RV. in March there were fifteen. Different numbers of billboards were put up in Keningau over a period of four months to see if the number of people hospitalized because of auto accidents was affected.SCE3106_RM2011 EXAMPLE 1 A study was done to determine if safety advertising had any effect on automobile accidents. five billboards carried safety messages. in February there were ten.During each of these four months.

Operation to measure: counting the number of hospitalized people 38 .MANIPULATED VARIABLE OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Number of safety billboards put up in the town during each month RESPONDING VARIABLE SCE3106_RM2011 SAMPLE ANSWER FOR EXAMPLE 1 SAFETY ADVERTISING Observed : safety billboards Operation to measure: counting the number of billboards erected each month AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Number of people who are hospitalized because of automobile accidents. Observed : people who are hospitalized because of automobile accidents.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXAMPLE 2

A study was done to determine the effect that
exercise has on pulse rate. Teacher trainees rode
bikes for different numbers of kilometers and then
their pulse rate was measured. One group rode 10
km, a second group rode 20 km, a third group rode
30 km and a fourth group rode 40 km. Following
the exercise the pulse rate was immediately
measured by counting the pulse for one minute.

Identify the MV and RV.
How was each variable operationally defined?

39

MANIPULATED
VARIABLE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Number of kilometer a person rode

SCE3106_RM2011

SAMPLE ANSWER FOR
EXAMPLE
2
AMOUNT
OF EXERCISE

Observed : distance in km

RESPONDING
VARIABLE

Operation to measure: counting
(measuring) the number of kilometers a
person rode
PULSE RATE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Number of heartbeats felt at the wrist
following exercise.
Observed : heartbeats.
Operation to measure: counting number of
heartbeats

40

INDIVIDUALLY.
 REMEMBER !!!! THERE ARE A VARIETY
OF WAYS TO OPERATIONALLY DEFINE A
VARIABLE. WRITE AT LEAST THREE.
 BE CREATIVE. I KNOW YOU CAN
HONESTLY DO IT!!!
 THINK! THINK! THINK!

SCE3106_RM2011

NOW
IT’SFOLLOWING
YOUR TURN
 DO THE
EXERCISE

41

Measure the height that water reaches after the end of a folded paper towel has been inserted in water for 15 minutes. Measure the amount of water that remains after a crumpled paper towel has been placed in 25 ml of water for 5 minutes. 3. 2.paper towels. How does he operationally define “absorbency of paper towel”? SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 1 to measure the absorbency of A student wants Possible Operational Definitions 1. Measure the amount of water that collects after 25 ml of water has been poured through a crumpled paper towel. 42 .

SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 2 You want to operationally define the variable Possible Operational Definitions 1. 2. The amount of tape required to encircle the chest. Write at least 3 ways this variable could be defined operationally. 4. 43 . waist and hips. The reading in kilograms obtained when a person steps on a scale. The amount of water that overflows when a person is submerged in a full bathtub. The smallest number showing when a person stands against a ruler which extends from the floor up.“size of a person”. 3.

44 . You are using You are an expert Possible Operational Definitions 1. The difference is how much it grew. Write at least 3 ways to define operationally the variable “amount of plant growth”. 2. Ten days later. measure it again. Wait one month and do it again. 3. Count the number of leaves on a plant. Weigh the plant and its pot.beans in an experiment. Measure the distance from the soil to the uppermost leaf. Wait two weeks and count them again. SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 3 in agriculture.

List at least 3 ways that “enjoyment of reading” could be operationally defined. 45 .student’s enjoyment of reading. Amount of time students voluntarily spend at the reading table. Number of references to books read during sharing time. 3. 4. Think of some specific things you could measure with your students that would indicate their enjoyment of reading. Number of voluntary book reports. Number of books taken home. 2. SCE3106_RM2011 A primary school EXERCISE 4 has a program for increasing Possible Operational Definitions 1.

3. Possible Operational Definitions 1.a concern for their environment. 5. The number of special projects students choose to do on environment matters The weight of rubbish picked up on the playground each week The number of paper bags thrown away (instead of reused) from the cafeteria The number of paper towels used in the washrooms The number of posters on environmental matters in a show-yourconcern-with-a-poster contest 46 . 2. SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 5 of SK IPKS is that all children acquire One of the goals What are some of the ways that we might operationally define this variable? Describe at least three. 4.

2. weigh it again. 3. Weigh the container of liquid. Measure the depth of the liquid.temperature of a liquid affects the amount of evaporation. Measure it again twentyfour hours later. The difference is the amount of evaporation. Possible Operational Definitions 1. SCE3106_RM2011 EXERCISE 6 is underway to see how the initial An investigation Describe at least three ways that “amount of evaporation” could be operationally defined. Pour a known quantity of liquid into an open container. Measure its volume again three hours later. Twenty minutes later. 47 .

SCE3106_RM2011 THANK YOU POUNSIKOU XIE XIE ARIGATO DANKE DANK U WEL NANEDRI GARCIAS 48 .

KPSB : MENGENAL PASTI & MENGAWAL PEMBOLEH UBAH SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3 Oleh .

APA? Pemboleh ubah boleh jadi satu faktor. keadaan atau hubungan yang boleh diubah dalam suatu kejadian atau sistem yang dikaji  Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan untuk menghasilkan perubahan dalam pemboleh ubah kedua (pemboleh ubah bergerakbalas)  Pembolehubah lain yang mungkin mempengaruhi keputusan perlu dimalarkan (pemboleh ubah dimalarkan)  50 SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

APA? Pembolehubah manipulasi – faktor yang diubah oleh pengkaji untuk mengkaji kesan terhadap hasil eksperimen  Pembolehubah bergerakbalas – hasil eksperimen yang bergerakbalas terhadap faktor yang diubah oleh pengkaji.  Pembolehubah yang dimalarkan – faktor.faktor lain eksperimen yang dikawal atau yang tidak diubah  51 SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

 Sebuah bekas kaca ditelangkupkan untuk menutup lilin itu.  Eksperimen diulangi dengan menggunakan bekas-bekas kaca yang berlainan saiz   Apakah tujuan eksperimen Nadiah?  Tujuan eksperimen di atas adalah mengkaji kesan saiz bekas ke atas masa untuk lilin terpadam sedang dikaji.CONTOH 52 Nadiah telah melakukan eksperimen :  Sebatang lilin dinyalakan.  Masa untuk lilin terpadam dicatatkan. SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

CONTOH 53 Saiz bekas kaca dan masa untuk lilin terpadam adalah pembolehubah-pembolehubah dalam eksperimen yang dijalankan.  Pembolehubah yang berubah ini dinamakan pembolehubah gerakbalas.  SCE31 06_RM 2011 . manakala masa untuk lilin terpadam adalah pembolehubah yang berubah.  Oleh itu saiz bekas kaca ialah pembolehubah yang dimanipulasi.  Saiz bekas diubah untuk menentukan kesannya ke atas masa untuk lilin terpadam.

KEPENTINGAN Membantu kita menentukan dengan teliti pembolehubah yang menyebabkan sesuatu kesan kepada keputusan ujikaji yang dilaksanakan.  Membantu kita menentukan bahawa sesuatu kesan adalah disebabkan oleh pembolehubah yang dimanipulasi ke atas pembolehubah gerakbalas  54 SCE31 06_RM 2011 .  Menetapkan pembolehubah-pembolehubah tertentu supaya tidak memberi kesan kepada keputusan ujikaji.

DEFINITION  VARIABLES: / CONDITIONS THAT CAN CHANGE OR BE CHANGED IN AN EVENT OR SYSTEM  THINGS WITHIN AN INVESTIGATION WHICH CAN BE CHANGED OR KEPT THE SAME 55  FACTORS SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

TYPES OF VARIABLES  MANIPULATED VARIABLE (INDEPENDENT VARIABLE / INPUT VARIABLES) – WHAT TO CHANGE OR CONDITION THAT IS INTENTIONALLY CHANGED IN AN EXPERIMENT / INVESTIGATION.  56  FACTOR RESPONDING VARIABLE (DEPENDENT VARIABLE / OUTCOME VARIABLE) – WHAT TO MEASURE  FACTOR OR CONDITION THAT WILL BE AFFECTED AS A RESULT OF THAT CHANGE (MV)  CONTROLLED VARIABLE (CONSTANT VARIABLES) – WHAT TO KEEP THE SAME  FACTOR OR CONDITION THAT IS DELIBERATELY NOT CHANGED (KEPT THE SAME) SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

TYPES OF VARIABLES 57 MANIPULATED VARIABLE (WHAT TO CHANGE) RESPONDING VARIABLE (WHAT TO MEASURE) CONTROLLED VARIABLE (WHAT TO KEEP THE SAME) FACTOR OR CONDITION THAT IS INTENTIONALLY CHANGED IN AN EXPERIMENT / INVESTIGATION TO FIND OUT WHAT EFFECT IT HAS FACTOR OR CONDITION THAT IS AFFECTED AS A RESULT OF CHANGING THE MANIPULATED VARIABLE FACTOR OR CONDITION THAT IS DELIBERATELY NOT CHANGED (KEPT THE SAME) TO MAKE IT A FAIR TEST SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES: WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS? “The time it takes to run a kilometer depend on the amount of exercise a person get” 58 Time to run a kilometer VARIABLE : _______________________ amount of exercise VARIABLE : _______________________ NOTE: It would not be correct to name just time or exercise. We must include how each variable will be measured or described. SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES: WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS? Temperature of water VARIABLE : _______________________ 59 “The higher the temperature of water. the faster an egg will cook” time needed for an egg to cook VARIABLE : _______________________ SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES: WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS? 60 “An investigation was done to see if keeping the light on for different amount of time each day affected the number of eggs chickens laid” Hours (or amount) of light VARIABLE : _______________________ number of eggs VARIABLE : _______________________ NOTE: Just light and eggs however. SCE31 06_RM 2011 . IT MUST BE MEASURABLE. would be incorrect descriptions of the variables.

RV. CV “The amount of pollution produced by cars was measured for cars using gasoline containing different amount of lead” 61 MANIPULATED VARIABLE : amount of lead in gasoline _______________________ RESPONDING VARIABLE : amount of pollution _______________________ SCE31 06_RM 2011 .CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV.

RV.CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV. CV “more bushels of potatoes will produced if the soil is fertilized more” 62 MANIPULATED VARIABLE : amount of fertilizer _______________________ RESPONDING VARIABLE : number of bushels of potatoes _______________________ SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

Each group gets a different amount.” MANIPULATED VARIABLE : Amount of Vitamin A _______________________ RESPONDING VARIABLE : _______________________ Weight of rats NOTE: Weight of rats may not be affected if Vitamin A is not essential but the weight of rats is still the RV. SCE31 06_RM 2011 . CV groups of rats are fed identical diets except for the “Five 63 amount of Vitamin A that they receive. the rats are weighed to see if the amount of vitamin A received has affected their weight. After three weeks on the diet. RV.CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV.

the plane was tested to determine how far it would fly” MANIPULATED VARIABLE : Number of paper clip added _______________________ RESPONDING VARIABLE : Distance flown _______________________ CONTROLLED VARIABLES : The same plane was used for each trial _______________________ SCE31 06_RM 2011 . RV. As each paper clip was added. CV 64 “A student wanted to test how the mass of a paper airplane affected the distance it would fly. Paper clips were added before each test flight.CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV.

65 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION AND COOPERATION SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

KPSB: MEMBUAT HIPOTESIS SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3 Oleh Rohaya Mee .

the MANIPULATED VARIABLE and the RESPONDING VARIABLE. SCE31 06_R M2011 .  Expressed as an “IF…….THEN……” sentence. This form. It should point the way towards the DESIGN of an experiment to test it.  A hypotheis should be TESTABLE ie.INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION A 67 hypothesis is a statement of your best prediction as to the relationship between two variables. while not always necessary. is a useful way to learn to write a hypothesis.

then the (RV) will increase / decrease SCE31 06_R M2011 . Write the hypothesis using the format: If the (MV) increases / decreases. • 68 2. Identify variables in a given event or relationship. 3. Identify a pair of variables that might be logically related.STEPS FOR WRITING HYPOTHESIS 1. Identify the manipulated and responding variables. 4.

Temperature of the hive 2. Construct a hypothesis for each variable listed above. Number of bees living in the hive. He wondered what factors might influence the hatching rate of bees. SCE31 06_R M2011 . Relative humidity inside the hive 3. He noticed that different numbers of young hatched from the same number of hives at different times. Amount of food available 4. He selected the following variables to be tested: 1.EXAMPLE 1 69 PROBLEM / QUESTION Rosli raises bees.

the hatching rate will increase. 70 2. the hatching rate will decrease. 3. As the number of bees living in the hive increases. the hatching rate decreases.ANSWER FOR EXAMPLE 1 1. SCE31 06_R M2011 . As the amount of food available decreases. As the temperature of hive increases. As the relative humidity inside the hive increases. 4. the hatching rate increases.

EXAMPLE 2 71 PROBLEM / QUESTION What factors determine the rate at which an object falls through air? List 4 possible variables and construct a hypothesis for each variable. SCE31 06_R M2011 .

the faster it will fall Weight of object The more weight and object has. Volume of object b. Length of fall The longer or farther an object falls through air. the faster it will fall through air SCE31 06_R M2011 . the rate at which it falls through air decreases.ANSWER FOR EXAMPLE 2 72 Possible variables: a. Surface area of object c. Weight of object Hypothesis: Volume of object As the volume of an object increases. Surface area of object As the surface area of an object increases. the rate at which it falls through air decreases. Length of fall d.

IT’S YOUR TURN (EXERCISE 1) 73 PROBLEM / QUESTION Why is it warmer in one house than another? List 3 possible variables and construct a hypothesis for each variable. SCE31 06_R M2011 .

the higher the temperature inside the house. Thickness of insulation   The nearer the house is to the equator. the higher the temperature inside the house. the higher the temperature inside the house. Number of openings to the outside  The more openings (windows and doors) to the outside. SCE31 06_R M2011 . the higher the temperature inside the house. The thicker the insulation. Slope of roof   74  The higher the outside temperature. the lower the temperature inside the house.SAMPLE ANSWER – EXERCISE 1  Outside temperature  Location of house   The steeper the roof.

SCE31 06_R M2011 .IT’S YOUR TURN (EXERCISE 2) 75 PROBLEM / QUESTION What factors determine the length of a shadow? List 3 possible variables and construct a hypothesis for each variable.

SAMPLE ANSWER – EXERCISE 2  Height of object  taller the object.  Season of year  As the season progresses from summer to winter. Time of day 76  The  The closer the time moves toward noon. the length of a shadow becomes longer. the shorter the shadow of an object. the longer its shadow. SCE31 06_R M2011 .

a golden retriever and a dachshund? List 3 possible variables and construct a hypothesis for each variable.IT’S YOUR TURN (EXERCISE 3) 77 PROBLEM / QUESTION What factors determine the number of fleas on two types of dog. SCE31 06_R M2011 .

 Presence of flea collar  If dogs have flea collars. then they will have fewer fleas than dogs without flea collars.  78  If Length of hair  If dogs have longer hair. SCE31 06_R M2011 .SAMPLE ANSWER – EXERCISE 3  Size of dog dogs are larger. then they will have more fleas than dogs with shorter hair. then they will have a larger flea population than smaller dogs.

EXERCISE 4 79 Which of the following are stated as hypotheses? 1. Magnetism and gravity are not the same. The earth’s crust contains 90 elements. 2. the sound will become louder. the water will become cloudy. a hypothesis is stated as the predicted effect one variable (MV) will have on another (RV) SCE31 06_R M2011 . 4. 3. 1. 4 Remember. If the length of a vibrating string is increased. As more salt is dissolved in water.

the temperature of a cold-blooded animal increases. 3. 2. SCE31 06_R M2011 .EXERCISE 6 80 Which of these statements are hypotheses? 1. therefore glass will scratch anything which is softer than iron. 2. 3 In all three cases we are predicting what will happen to a responding variable if we manipulate another variable. Glass is harder than iron. As the temperature of its environment increases. A change in weather causes a change in mood 1.

EXERCISE Which of these7statements are hypotheses? 1. and roots store the food in plants. the slower plants grow. 1. then the earth should get colder on cloudless nights. The colder the temperature. 81 2. the greater the pressure. 3. The deeper one dives. 5. 3. 4. If clouds act as insulators. 4 SCE31 06_R M2011 . Leaves manufacture food. Algae are living organisms. stems transfer food.

Then.EXERCISE 8 82 Read the description of investigations in the following slides. answer the following questions. What was the hypothesis being tested? SCE31 06_R M2011 . What variable was manipulated? 3. What are some of the constants? 2. Which variable was expected to respond? 4. 1.

EXERCISE 8 – INVESTIGATION 1 83 John was interested in determining the effect the number of plants located in an area has on growth rate. 20 seed. In the first carton. and in the fourth. 15 seeds.5 cm apart. he planted 5 seeds 1 cm deep and no less than 5 cm apart. SCE31 06_R M2011 . Each carton was watered daily and daily measurements of the length of leaves were made. in the second. in the third. 10 seeds were planted 1 cm deep and no more than 2 cm apart. He planted radish seeds in several milk cartons. 1 cm deep and 1 cm apart. 1 cm deep and 0.

Kind of seed. kind of containers. the length of the leaves will become shorter. • Factors that were kept the same: SCE31 06_R M2011 . OR As the number of plants in an area increases. 3. environmental temperature. type of soil. 4. and amount of light received. the length of the leaves will become longer 84 2. Manipulated variable : number of plants in an area Responding variable : Growth rate (OD = length of leaves) As the number of plants in an area increases.ANSWER FOR EXERCISE 8 – INVESTIGATION 1 1. amount of water. planting depth.

EXERCISE 8 – EXPERIMENT 2 85 Is there a relationship between the amount of training received and the length of time a learned behaviour persists in insects? Select a number of sowbugs which always turn right when entering the intersection of a Tshaped maze. SCE31 06_R M2011 . Using the tendency of sowbugs to avoid light. Test each animal once an hour by running it through the Tmaze. Subject an animal to 1. 5. 15. 10. or 20 training sessions. it is possible to train them to turn left by shining a strong-light from the right as they enter the intersection.

SCE31 06_R M2011 .ANSWER FOR EXERCISE 8 – EXPERIMENT 2 1. 3. environmental temperature MV : the amount of training RV : the length of time a learned behaviour persisted If the amount of training is increased. strength of light source. 4. The constants: type of animal. shape of maze. then the length of time a learned behavior persisted will also increase. 86 2.

”The most common problem is that students write a simple statement that is a cause and effect relationship that makes a prediction (example: "If I eat chocolate."). minimizing assumptions first and then stating your hypothesis is how variables are controlled. but not necessarily related.”…… SCE31 06_R M2011 . In other words they failed to state a proposed relationship before making the prediction. They have to be reminded that what makes a hypothetical statement is the idea that two things might be. then I will get pimples. In models for scientific research. Literally speaking.A TEACHER’S REFLECTION 87 …. cause and effect statements are based on unstated assumptions.

88 SCE31 06_R M2011 .

KPSB : MENGEKSPERIMEN SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3 Oleh Rohaya Mee .

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION  90 EXPERIMENTING IS THE SCIENCE PROCESS SKILL THAT ENCOMPASSES ALL THE BASIC AND INTEGRATED PROCESSES. SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SKILLS 91 SCE31 06_RM 2011 .

Carrying out the experiment. (identifying the problem). SCE31 06_RM 2011 . 8. 3. 10. 7. Planning how to test the hypothesis (planning the experiment) • • 6. method to collect and analyse data. determine the procedure to carry out the experiment. Writing down what has been observed (collecting data). Finding a meaning for what has been observed (analysing and interpreting data). determine the apparatus and materials required. 92 4. Deciding whether the hypothesis is true (making conclusions). Identify the variables Define variables operationally Making a smart guess (forming a hypothesis). Writing a report on the investigation (reporting). Determining ‘what I want to find out’ 2. 5.STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT 1. 9.

A SIMPLE WHOLE INVESTIGATION PLAN. CARRY OUT INVESTIGATION The blue ball will bounce more than the red ball. I can see how high they bounce 93 HYPOTHESISING The red ball bounces up to my tummy but the blue ball only comes up to my knee I must tell the teacher COMMUNICATING RECORD & INTERPRET RESULTS That’s funny. because it is softer If I drop both balls at the same time. I didn’t think it would do that Well. DESIGN. the red ball bounces better than the blue one – that must be because it’s harder INFERRING SCE31 06_RM 2011 EVALUATING .

FACTORS AFFECTING COMPLEXITY OF INVESTIGATION





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NUMBER OF VARIABLES INVOLVED
TYPES OF VARIABLES INVOLVED
THE EASE VARIABLES CAN BE CONTROLLED
CONTEXT (FAMILIAR/EVERYDAY TO NOVEL/SCIENTIFIC)
KNOWLEDGE / CONCEPT BASE (SIMPLE GENERAL
KNOWLEDGE TO SCIENTIFIC THEORY)
ACCURACY OF OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT
REQUIRED
COMPLEXITY OF EQUIPMENT USED
DURATION OF INVESTIGATION (RANGE: MINUTES TO
MONTHS)
NUMBER OF LOOPS ROUND THE INVESTIGATION CYCLE
INVOLVED
DEGREE OF CERTAINITY IN THE EVIDENCE OBTAINED
INTERPLAY BETWEEN INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION
OF EVIDENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY / MODEL
INVOLVED

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PLANNING SHEETS

Help children


Help teachers identify









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plan
managing work
structure investigation
record evidence
apparatus likely to be needed
suggested apparatus likely to be inappropriate
safety considerations
Children who need guidance
Possible regrouping of children for more effective learning
Evidence of achievement of learning objectives

Not used as formal exercise for assessment purposes only
Adapted to make more appropriate to particular class/students
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE OF COMPLETED PLANNING SHEET
EXAMPLE OF ADVANCED PLANNING SHEET

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ENABLING QUESTIONS PLANNER
If answers are supplied to children at inappropriate
points in an investigation or if teachers ask questions
that close down options, achievement at a higher level
may be prevented and hinder investigative attitude.
 Questions that teachers ask during an investigation
has to be planned.
 Purpose of questions:

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Promote investigative attitude
 Encourage and support learning
 Help initiate investigations
 Encourage and assist children with procedural
difficulties such as assembly of equipment or measuring

EXAMPLE

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IN PAIRS OR GROUP OF 3  FOLLOW PROCEDURE AS BRIEFED BY ORGANIZER  FOLLOW THE STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE YOUR SELECTED PROBLEM USING THE ADVANCED INVESTIGATION PLANNING SHEET  DISPLAY & PRESENT DURING SCIENCE FAIR  SUBMIT EXPERIMENT REPORT SCE31 06_RM 2011 .ACTIVITY: YOUR TURN TO EXPERIMENT 97 TAKE PART IN A SCIENCE FAIR COMPETITION  INDIVIDUALLY.