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MENGGUNAKAN

PERHUBUNGAN RUANG DAN

MASA

oleh

Rohaya Mee

APA?

Kebolehan

SCE3106_RM2011

memperihalkan atau

menunjukkan lokasi, arah, bentuk dan

saiz sesuatu objek dan perubahannya

mengikut masa

CONTOH

Penyemaian

SCE3106_RM2011

biji kacang.

Murid diarahkan mengukur ketinggian

anak benih kacang setiap hari selama 1

minggu.

KEPENTINGAN

Menyedarkan

SCE3106_RM2011

perubahan itu adalah mengikut masa

Membantu kita menyusun peristiwaperistiwa mengikut koronologinya.

AKTIVITI

SCE3106_RM2011

Indicator:

To describe the changes of direction, shape and size of

an object in a period of time

To describe the relationships between the distance that

has been covered in a period of time.

To arrange events chronologically

To determine the magnitude of changes that occurred

based on the rate of changing

To determine the location of an object in space and to

describe its location

To describe the shape of an object when it is seen from a

location or a point of different frame of reference.

SCE3106_RM2011

KPSB :

MENTAFSIR

MAKLUMAT

SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3

oleh

Rohaya Mee

SCE3106_RM2011

data. Construct a visual

EXERCISE

1

information best.

innermost planet is Mercury. It has a surface

temperature of about 327C. The next planet, Venus, has

a surface temperature of about 482C. Our home planet

Earth is next. Its surface temperature is about 14C.

Mars is the fourth planet and its surface temperature is

about -23C. Jupiter comes after Mars. Jupiter has a

surface temperature of about -151C. Saturn is next with

a surface temperature of about -184C. Uranus is after

Saturn. Its surface temperature is about -207C. Next is

Neptune whose surface temperature is about -223C.

Pluto is the outermost planet. It is so far away from the

sun that its surface temperature has not been measured

but it is estimated to be about -230C.

8

SCE3106_RM2011

Sun

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

what data you want to gather. This comes from

the hypothesis you devise.

It is important to organize data for easy

interpretation. Data tables and charts are

usually used. Graphs are created from data

tables to get a visual image of the observations

which simplifies interpretation and drawing

conclusions.

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

10

Bar

variables that will be counted)

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

week, etc

Line

investigated over time)

Eg. Volume of water, height of ladders, units of clock time,

mass of fruit etc.

11

Construct a table of data

Construct a graph

Interpreting a graph (relationship between

variables)

SCE3106_RM2011

PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES

12

COMMON CONVENTIONS:

1.

The MANIPULATED VARIABLE is recorded

in the LEFT column, the RESPONDING

VARIABLE is recorded in the RIGHT column.

2.

When repeated trials are conducted, the RV

column is divided into smaller

column.DERIVED QUANTITY is recorded in

one or more columns to the right of the RV

column.

3.

UNITS are included in the column heading.

4.

The levels of the MV are ordered, usually

from smallest to largest.

SCE3106_RM2011

CONSTRUCTING A TABLE OF

DATA

13

TRIALS

COLUMN FOR MV

COLUMN FOR RV

SCE3106_RM2011

COLUMN FOR

DERIVED QUANTITY

14

Is the left column for the MV?

Are the label and units given for the MV?

Are the levels of the MV ordered?

Is the right column for the RV?

Are the label and units given for the RV?

Is the RV column subdivided for repeated trials?

Are the RV data correctly recorded?

Are there additional columns for derived quantities?

Are the label and units given for the derived

quantities?

Are the derived quantities correctly calculated?

SCE3106_RM2011

15

PROCEDURE

1. Draw a horizontal line (x-axis) and a vertical

line (y-axis)

2. The MV is written on the x-axis. The RV is

written on the y-axis.

3. Write the title of the graph.

SCE3106_RM2011

CONSTRUCTING A GRAPH

The Effect of the MV on the RV

How Does the MV affect the RV?

16

SCE3106_RM2011

4.

Determine interval

scales for each axis.

PROCEDURE

(CONT)

STEPS

1.

2.

3.

4.

the smallest value from the

largest value)

7

12

22

37

46

55

number of interval you want (to

use/cover the entire graph area)

55 7 = 48

counting number eg. 5, 10, 2, 4

etc

Mark off intervals along the axis.

Begin with an interval that is

less than the smallest value to

be plotted and continue until

you have exceeded the largest

value to be plotted.

48 5 = 9.6

9.6 10

10

20

30

40

50

60 17

6.

Connect the points or draw a best-fit line.

SCE3106_RM2011

PROCEDURE

(CONT)

5. Plot data pairs as points on the graph. The

The rules are:

All points should lie either on the line or very near to

the line.

There should be approximately equal number of data

points on either side of the line.

18

PROCEDURE

Tell what happens to the RV as the MV

changes.

SCE3106_RM2011

INTERPRETING A GRAPH

length of time it is heated increases

For

sentences.

First describe the relationship until the

curve changes direction.

A change in direction of a line indicates a

change in the relationships between the

variables

Then tell what the relationship is for the

rest of the graph.

19

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

2

through data points. Decide whether it is a bestfit line. If not, why?

one side

Should be curved

20

Should be curved (U shaped)

seems to average

the points.

points on one side.

be lowered.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE 2 (CONT.)

J shaped smooth

curve is best-fit.

21

SCE3106_RM2011

Draw best-fit

EXERCISE

3 lines for these points.

22

SCE3106_RM2011

SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 3

23

increases as the

diameter of the rope

increases.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

4

Write a statement

of relationship between

recognized decreases

as the distance from

the chart increases.

24

produced increased rapidly until

a temperature of 19C was

reached. Above 19C the average

number of tomatoes produced

declined rapidly.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE 4 (CONT.)

steadily increases when heated

for 7 minutes. After that the

temperature stays about the

25

same even though heating

continues.

EXERCISE 5

Description of an investigation and the data collected are given

below. Also given are a graph of the data, a best-fit line, and a

statement of the relationship between the variables.

section has not been correctly presented, check what part is wrong.

sheltered lagoon

were counted over a

number of years.

STATEMENT

The number of sea

otters in this location

has been steadily

decreasing since 1932

Year

Number

of sea

otters

193

2

194

46

0

42

195

35

2

30

196 SELF CHECK

26 on wrong axis

Variables

2

197 Statement is ok

2

Line does not average points (all

points above line)

SCE3106_RM2011

THE INVESTIGATION

26

1.

2.

3.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

6 of an investigation and a table of

A description

Construct a graph

Draw a best-fit line

Write a statement of the relationship between

the variables.

THE INVESTIGATION

An investigation was carried

out to determine the

relationship between the

size of a car motor and the

gasoline mileage.

Size of Motor

(horsepower

)

Average

Kilometers per

Liter of Gasoline

47

100

140

193

227

7.0

5.0

4.0

3.5

3.0

27

SCE3106_RM2011

ANSWER EXERCISE 6

decreases as the size of the motor increases.

However, the decrease is slower for motors

above 120 horsepower.

28

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Is the MV on the x-axis?

Are the labels/units given for the MV?

Is the scale on the x-axis appropriate to

represent the values of the MV?

Is the RV on the y-axis?

Are the labels/units given for the RV?

Is the scale on the y-axis appropriate to

represent the values of the RV?

Are the data correctly plotted?

Is the line-of-best-fit appropriate?

Is the graph done neatly?

SCE3106_RM2011

29

SCE3106_RM2011

30

SCE3106_RM2011

31

SCE3106_RM2011

32

SCE3106_RM2011

33

KPSB :

MENDEFINISI

SECARA OPERASI

oleh

Rohaya Mee

an operational definition tells what operation is

performed (and observed) and how it is measured.

If you can measure a variable directly using

standard systems of measurement, you do not

need to define it operationally. Eg: depth ruler,

temperature thermometer, time stopwatch.

Defining operationally involves finding equivalent

ways of measuring something indirectly that

cannot be conveniently measured directly. Eg:

pendulum activity measure period in terms of

number of swings per 15 seconds because time of

one swing could not be measured conveniently.

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY

INFORMATION

The method or procedure

used to measure a

35

E on the endurance of a person.

The variable endurance of a person could be

defined operationally many different ways;

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY

Different investigatorsINFORMATION

may use different

The distance a person could run without stopping.

The number of jumping jacks a person could do before

tiring.

that another investigator could carry out the

measurement without any further information from

the investigator.

36

SCE3106_RM2011

EXAMPLE 1

had any effect on automobile accidents. Different

numbers of billboards were put up in Keningau over a

period of four months to see if the number of people

hospitalized because of auto accidents was affected.

In January, five billboards carried safety messages; in

February there were ten, in March there were fifteen;

and in April there were twenty.During each of these

four months, a record of the number of people

hospitalized because of accidents was measured.

How was each variable operationally defined?

37

MANIPULATED

VARIABLE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

Number of safety billboards put up in the

town during each month

RESPONDING

VARIABLE

SCE3106_RM2011

EXAMPLE

1

SAFETY

ADVERTISING

Operation to measure: counting the

number of billboards erected each month

AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

Number of people who are hospitalized

because of automobile accidents.

Observed : people who are hospitalized

because of automobile accidents.

Operation to measure: counting the

number of hospitalized people

38

SCE3106_RM2011

EXAMPLE 2

exercise has on pulse rate. Teacher trainees rode

bikes for different numbers of kilometers and then

their pulse rate was measured. One group rode 10

km, a second group rode 20 km, a third group rode

30 km and a fourth group rode 40 km. Following

the exercise the pulse rate was immediately

measured by counting the pulse for one minute.

How was each variable operationally defined?

39

MANIPULATED

VARIABLE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

Number of kilometer a person rode

SCE3106_RM2011

EXAMPLE

2

AMOUNT

OF EXERCISE

Observed : distance in km

RESPONDING

VARIABLE

(measuring) the number of kilometers a

person rode

PULSE RATE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

Number of heartbeats felt at the wrist

following exercise.

Observed : heartbeats.

Operation to measure: counting number of

heartbeats

40

INDIVIDUALLY.

REMEMBER !!!! THERE ARE A VARIETY

OF WAYS TO OPERATIONALLY DEFINE A

VARIABLE. WRITE AT LEAST THREE.

BE CREATIVE. I KNOW YOU CAN

HONESTLY DO IT!!!

THINK! THINK! THINK!

SCE3106_RM2011

NOW

ITSFOLLOWING

YOUR TURN

DO THE

EXERCISE

41

paper towels.

paper towel?

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

1 to measure the absorbency of

A student wants

1. Measure the amount of water that remains after a crumpled

paper towel has been placed in 25 ml of water for 5

minutes.

2. Measure the amount of water that collects after 25 ml of

water has been poured through a crumpled paper towel.

3. Measure the height that water reaches after the end of a

folded paper towel has been inserted in water for 15

minutes.

42

size of a person.

defined operationally.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

2

You want to operationally

define the variable

1.

2.

3.

4.

a scale.

The smallest number showing when a person stands

against a ruler which extends from the floor up.

The amount of water that overflows when a person is

submerged in a full bathtub.

The amount of tape required to encircle the chest, waist and

hips.

43

beans in an experiment.

variable amount of plant growth.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

3 in agriculture. You are using

You are an expert

1.

2.

3.

and count them again.

Measure the distance from the soil to the uppermost leaf.

Ten days later, measure it again.

Weigh the plant and its pot. Wait one month and do it

again. The difference is how much it grew.

44

List at least 3 ways that enjoyment of reading

could be operationally defined. Think of some

specific things you could measure with your students

that would indicate their enjoyment of reading.

SCE3106_RM2011

A primary school

EXERCISE

4 has a program for increasing

1.

2.

3.

4.

table.

Number of references to books read during sharing time.

Number of voluntary book reports.

Number of books taken home.

45

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

5 of SK IPKS is that all children acquire

One of the goals

define this variable? Describe at least three.

Possible Operational Definitions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

environment matters

The weight of rubbish picked up on the playground each week

The number of paper bags thrown away (instead of reused) from

the cafeteria

The number of paper towels used in the washrooms

The number of posters on environmental matters in a show-yourconcern-with-a-poster contest

46

evaporation.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE

6 is underway to see how the initial

An investigation

Describe at least three ways that amount of

evaporation could be operationally defined.

Possible Operational Definitions

1.

2.

3.

Measure the depth of the liquid. Measure it again twentyfour hours later.

Pour a known quantity of liquid into an open container.

Measure its volume again three hours later.

Weigh the container of liquid. Twenty minutes later, weigh

it again. The difference is the amount of evaporation.

47

SCE3106_RM2011

THANK YOU

POUNSIKOU

XIE XIE

ARIGATO

DANKE

DANK U WEL

NANEDRI

GARCIAS

48

KPSB :

MENGENAL PASTI & MENGAWAL

PEMBOLEH UBAH

SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3

Oleh

APA?

hubungan yang boleh diubah dalam suatu kejadian

atau sistem yang dikaji

Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan untuk menghasilkan

perubahan dalam pemboleh ubah kedua (pemboleh ubah

bergerakbalas)

Pembolehubah lain yang mungkin mempengaruhi

keputusan perlu dimalarkan (pemboleh ubah

dimalarkan)

50

SCE31

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2011

APA?

Pembolehubah manipulasi

faktor yang diubah oleh pengkaji untuk mengkaji

kesan terhadap hasil eksperimen

Pembolehubah bergerakbalas

hasil eksperimen yang bergerakbalas terhadap

faktor yang diubah oleh pengkaji.

Pembolehubah yang dimalarkan

faktor- faktor lain eksperimen yang dikawal atau

yang tidak diubah

51

SCE31

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2011

CONTOH

52

Sebatang lilin dinyalakan.

Sebuah bekas kaca ditelangkupkan untuk

menutup lilin itu.

Masa untuk lilin terpadam dicatatkan.

Eksperimen diulangi dengan menggunakan

bekas-bekas kaca yang berlainan saiz

Apakah tujuan eksperimen Nadiah?

Tujuan eksperimen di atas adalah mengkaji

kesan saiz bekas ke atas masa untuk lilin

terpadam sedang dikaji.

SCE31

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2011

CONTOH

53

pembolehubah-pembolehubah dalam eksperimen yang

dijalankan.

Saiz bekas diubah untuk menentukan kesannya ke atas

masa untuk lilin terpadam.

Oleh itu saiz bekas kaca ialah pembolehubah yang

dimanipulasi, manakala masa untuk lilin terpadam

adalah pembolehubah yang berubah.

Pembolehubah yang berubah ini dinamakan

pembolehubah gerakbalas.

SCE31

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2011

KEPENTINGAN

Membantu kita menentukan dengan teliti

pembolehubah yang menyebabkan sesuatu kesan

kepada keputusan ujikaji yang dilaksanakan.

Menetapkan pembolehubah-pembolehubah

tertentu supaya tidak memberi kesan kepada

keputusan ujikaji.

Membantu kita menentukan bahawa sesuatu

kesan adalah disebabkan oleh pembolehubah

yang dimanipulasi ke atas pembolehubah

gerakbalas

54

SCE31

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2011

DEFINITION

VARIABLES:

BE CHANGED IN AN EVENT OR SYSTEM

THINGS WITHIN AN INVESTIGATION WHICH

CAN BE CHANGED OR KEPT THE SAME

55

FACTORS

SCE31

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2011

TYPES OF VARIABLES

VARIABLE / INPUT VARIABLES) WHAT TO

CHANGE

CHANGED IN AN EXPERIMENT / INVESTIGATION.

56

FACTOR

OUTCOME VARIABLE) WHAT TO MEASURE

FACTOR

A RESULT OF THAT CHANGE (MV)

WHAT TO KEEP THE SAME

FACTOR

CHANGED (KEPT THE SAME)

SCE31

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2011

TYPES OF VARIABLES

57

MANIPULATED VARIABLE

(WHAT TO CHANGE)

RESPONDING VARIABLE

(WHAT TO MEASURE)

CONTROLLED VARIABLE

(WHAT TO KEEP THE

SAME)

FACTOR OR CONDITION

THAT IS INTENTIONALLY

CHANGED IN AN

EXPERIMENT /

INVESTIGATION TO FIND

OUT WHAT EFFECT IT HAS

FACTOR OR CONDITION

THAT IS AFFECTED AS A

RESULT OF CHANGING

THE MANIPULATED

VARIABLE

FACTOR OR CONDITION

THAT IS DELIBERATELY

NOT CHANGED (KEPT THE

SAME) TO MAKE IT A FAIR

TEST

SCE31

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2011

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES:

WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS?

amount of exercise a person get

58

VARIABLE : _______________________

amount of exercise

VARIABLE : _______________________

NOTE:

It would not be correct to name just time

or exercise. We must include how each

variable will be measured or described.

SCE31

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2011

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES:

WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS?

Temperature of water

VARIABLE : _______________________

59

egg will cook

VARIABLE : _______________________

SCE31

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2011

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES:

WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS?

60

for different amount of time each day affected the

number of eggs chickens laid

Hours (or amount) of light

VARIABLE : _______________________

number of eggs

VARIABLE : _______________________

NOTE:

Just light and eggs however, would be incorrect

descriptions of the variables. IT MUST BE

MEASURABLE.

SCE31

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2011

CV

for cars using gasoline containing different amount of

lead

61

MANIPULATED VARIABLE :

amount of lead in gasoline

_______________________

RESPONDING VARIABLE :

amount of pollution

_______________________

SCE31

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2011

CV

fertilized more

62

MANIPULATED VARIABLE :

amount of fertilizer

_______________________

RESPONDING VARIABLE :

number of bushels of potatoes

_______________________

SCE31

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2011

CV groups of rats are fed identical diets except for the

Five

63

different amount. After three weeks on the diet, the rats

are weighed to see if the amount of vitamin A received has

affected their weight.

MANIPULATED VARIABLE :

Amount of Vitamin A

_______________________

RESPONDING VARIABLE :

_______________________

Weight of rats

NOTE:

Weight of rats may not be affected if

Vitamin A is not essential but the weight

of rats is still the RV.

SCE31

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2011

CV

64

airplane affected the distance it would fly. Paper clips

were added before each test flight. As each paper clip was

added, the plane was tested to determine how far it would

fly

MANIPULATED VARIABLE :

Number of paper clip added

_______________________

RESPONDING VARIABLE :

Distance flown

_______________________

CONTROLLED VARIABLES :

The same plane was used for each trial

_______________________

SCE31

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2011

65

ATTENTION AND

COOPERATION

SCE31

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2011

KPSB:

MEMBUAT

HIPOTESIS

SCE 3106

PISMP SEM 3

Oleh

Rohaya Mee

INTRODUCTORY

INFORMATION

A

67

prediction as to the relationship between two

variables, the MANIPULATED VARIABLE

and the RESPONDING VARIABLE.

A hypotheis should be TESTABLE ie. It

should point the way towards the DESIGN

of an experiment to test it.

Expressed as an IF.THEN

sentence. This form, while not always

necessary, is a useful way to learn to write a

hypothesis.

SCE31

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M2011

HYPOTHESIS

1.

3.

4.

68

2.

relationship.

Identify a pair of variables that might be

logically related.

Identify the manipulated and responding

variables.

Write the hypothesis using the format:

will increase / decrease

SCE31

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EXAMPLE 1

69

PROBLEM / QUESTION

Rosli raises bees. He noticed that different

numbers of young hatched from the same

number of hives at different times. He

wondered what factors might influence the

hatching rate of bees. He selected the

following variables to be tested:

1. Temperature of the hive

2. Relative humidity inside the hive

3. Amount of food available

4. Number of bees living in the hive.

Construct a hypothesis for each variable

listed above.

SCE31

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1.

3.

4.

70

2.

the hatching rate will increase.

As the relative humidity inside the

hive increases, the hatching rate will

decrease.

As the amount of food available

decreases,

the

hatching

rate

increases.

As the number of bees living in the

hive increases, the hatching rate

decreases.

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EXAMPLE 2

71

PROBLEM / QUESTION

What factors determine the rate at which

an object falls through air?

List 4 possible variables and construct a

hypothesis for each variable.

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72

Possible variables:

a. Volume of object

b. Surface area of object

c. Length of fall

d. Weight of object

Hypothesis:

Volume of object

As the volume of an object increases, the rate at which it

falls through air decreases.

Surface area of object

As the surface area of an object increases, the rate at which

it falls through air decreases.

Length of fall

The longer or farther an object falls through air, the faster it

will fall

Weight of object

The more weight and object has, the faster it will fall

through air

SCE31

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73

PROBLEM / QUESTION

Why is it warmer in one house than

another?

a hypothesis for each variable.

SCE31

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Outside temperature

Location of house

The steeper the roof, the higher the temperature inside the

house.

Thickness of insulation

temperature inside the house.

Slope of roof

74

temperature inside the house.

inside the house.

lower the temperature inside the house.

SCE31

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75

PROBLEM / QUESTION

What factors determine the length of

a shadow?

List 3 possible variables and

construct a hypothesis for each

variable.

SCE31

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M2011

Height of object

Time of day

76

The

The

the shadow of an object.

Season of year

As

length of a shadow becomes longer.

SCE31

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M2011

77

PROBLEM / QUESTION

What factors determine the number

of fleas on two types of dog, a golden

retriever and a dachshund?

List 3 possible variables and

construct a hypothesis for each

variable.

SCE31

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Size of dog

population than smaller dogs.

78

If

Length of hair

If

fleas than dogs with shorter hair.

If

fleas than dogs without flea collars.

SCE31

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EXERCISE 4

79

1. As more salt is dissolved in water, the water

will become cloudy.

2. The earths crust contains 90 elements.

3. Magnetism and gravity are not the same.

4. If the length of a vibrating string is increased,

the sound will become louder.

1, 4

Remember, a hypothesis is stated as the predicted effect

one variable (MV) will have on another (RV)

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EXERCISE 6

80

1. As the temperature of its environment increases,

the temperature of a cold-blooded animal increases.

2. Glass is harder than iron; therefore glass will

scratch anything which is softer than iron.

3. A change in weather causes a change in mood

1, 2, 3

In all three cases we are predicting what will happen to a

responding variable if we manipulate another variable.

SCE31

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EXERCISE

Which of these7statements are hypotheses?

1.

3.

4.

5.

81

2.

get colder on cloudless nights.

Leaves manufacture food, stems transfer food, and

roots store the food in plants.

The colder the temperature, the slower plants grow.

The deeper one dives, the greater the pressure.

Algae are living organisms.

1, 3, 4

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EXERCISE 8

82

slides. Then, answer the following questions.

1. What are some of the constants?

2. What variable was manipulated?

3. Which variable was expected to respond?

4. What was the hypothesis being tested?

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EXERCISE 8 INVESTIGATION

1

83

the number of plants located in an area has on

growth rate. He planted radish seeds in several

milk cartons. In the first carton, he planted 5

seeds 1 cm deep and no less than 5 cm apart;

in the second, 10 seeds were planted 1 cm deep

and no more than 2 cm apart; in the third, 15

seeds, 1 cm deep and 1 cm apart; and in the

fourth, 20 seed, 1 cm deep and 0.5 cm apart.

Each carton was watered daily and daily

measurements of the length of leaves were

made.

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INVESTIGATION 1

1.

3.

4.

environmental temperature, amount of water,

kind of containers, and amount of light received.

an area

Responding variable : Growth rate (OD =

length of leaves)

As the number of plants in an area

increases, the length of the leaves will

become shorter. OR

As the number of plants in an area

increases, the length of the leaves will

become longer

84

2.

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EXERCISE 8 EXPERIMENT 2

85

of training received and the length of time a

learned behaviour persists in insects? Select

a number of sowbugs which always turn

right when entering the intersection of a Tshaped maze. Using the tendency of

sowbugs to avoid light, it is possible to train

them to turn left by shining a strong-light

from the right as they enter the

intersection. Subject an animal to 1, 5, 10,

15, or 20 training sessions. Test each animal

once an hour by running it through the Tmaze.

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2

1.

3.

4.

86

2.

strength of light source, environmental

temperature

MV : the amount of training

RV : the length of time a learned behaviour

persisted

If the amount of training is increased, then the

length of time a learned behavior persisted will

also increase.

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A TEACHERS REFLECTION

87

write a simple statement that is a cause and effect

relationship that makes a prediction (example: "If

I eat chocolate, then I will get pimples."). They

have to be reminded that what makes a

hypothetical statement is the idea that two things

might be, but not necessarily related. In other

words they failed to state a proposed relationship

before making the prediction. Literally speaking,

cause and effect statements are based on unstated

assumptions. In models for scientific research,

minimizing assumptions first and then stating

your hypothesis is how variables are

controlled.

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88

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KPSB :

MENGEKSPERIMEN

Oleh

Rohaya Mee

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

90

SKILL THAT ENCOMPASSES ALL THE BASIC

AND INTEGRATED PROCESSES.

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2011

SKILLS

91

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2011

STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC

EXPERIMENT

1.

Determining what I want to find out

2.

3.

5.

Define variables operationally

Making a smart guess (forming a hypothesis),

Planning how to test the hypothesis (planning the experiment)

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

92

4.

determine the procedure to carry out the experiment, method

to collect and analyse data.

Writing down what has been observed (collecting data),

Finding a meaning for what has been observed (analysing and

interpreting data),

Deciding whether the hypothesis is true (making conclusions),

Writing a report on the investigation (reporting).

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INVESTIGATION

bounce more than

the red ball, because

it is softer

at the same time, I

can see how high

they bounce

93

HYPOTHESISING

up to my tummy but the

blue ball only comes up

to my knee

teacher

COMMUNICATING

RECORD &

INTERPRET RESULTS

Thats funny, I

didnt think it

would do that

bounces better than the

blue one that must be

because its harder

INFERRING

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EVALUATING

94

TYPES OF VARIABLES INVOLVED

THE EASE VARIABLES CAN BE CONTROLLED

CONTEXT (FAMILIAR/EVERYDAY TO NOVEL/SCIENTIFIC)

KNOWLEDGE / CONCEPT BASE (SIMPLE GENERAL

KNOWLEDGE TO SCIENTIFIC THEORY)

ACCURACY OF OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT

REQUIRED

COMPLEXITY OF EQUIPMENT USED

DURATION OF INVESTIGATION (RANGE: MINUTES TO

MONTHS)

NUMBER OF LOOPS ROUND THE INVESTIGATION CYCLE

INVOLVED

DEGREE OF CERTAINITY IN THE EVIDENCE OBTAINED

INTERPLAY BETWEEN INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION

OF EVIDENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY / MODEL

INVOLVED

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PLANNING SHEETS

Help children

95

plan

managing work

structure investigation

record evidence

apparatus likely to be needed

suggested apparatus likely to be inappropriate

safety considerations

Children who need guidance

Possible regrouping of children for more effective learning

Evidence of achievement of learning objectives

Adapted to make more appropriate to particular class/students

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE OF COMPLETED PLANNING SHEET

EXAMPLE OF ADVANCED PLANNING SHEET

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If answers are supplied to children at inappropriate

points in an investigation or if teachers ask questions

that close down options, achievement at a higher level

may be prevented and hinder investigative attitude.

Questions that teachers ask during an investigation

has to be planned.

Purpose of questions:

96

Encourage and support learning

Help initiate investigations

Encourage and assist children with procedural

difficulties such as assembly of equipment or measuring

EXAMPLE

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EXPERIMENT

97

INDIVIDUALLY, IN PAIRS OR GROUP OF 3

FOLLOW PROCEDURE AS BRIEFED BY

ORGANIZER

FOLLOW THE STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC

EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE YOUR

SELECTED PROBLEM USING THE

ADVANCED INVESTIGATION PLANNING

SHEET

DISPLAY & PRESENT DURING SCIENCE

FAIR

SUBMIT EXPERIMENT REPORT

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2011

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