MODULE 12

Introduction to Industrial Hygiene

What is Industrial Hygiene?
Industrial hygiene is the science of
anticipating, recognizing, evaluating,
and controlling workplace conditions
that may cause workers' injury or illness.
 Key factors:
 Employee exposure to hazards
 Control for hazards to protect workers
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©2006 TEEX

Steps to Protect Employees




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Anticipate potential hazards
Recognize potential hazards
Evaluate exposure and risk
Control exposure and risk
(Not just for health hazards)

©2006 TEEX

Procedures. Guarding Requires little or no employee action 2.Hierarchy of Controls 1. Controlled access areas Requires employee action ©2006 TEEX . Administrative controls: Manage exposure    4 Worker rotation. Training Trench shoring. Chemical substitution Ventilation. Shielding. Engineering controls: Remove hazard    Process change.

Hierarchy of Controls 3. Boots. Clothing Fall protection equipment. Gloves. behind engineering and administrative controls Addressed in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I ©2006 TEEX . Hard hats Requires individual employee action Last line of defense. Personal protective equipment (PPE)      5 Respirators.

Chemical exposures in oil and gas operations  What chemicals are used in oil and gas operations?  How can employees be exposed?  What toxic effects do these chemicals have?  How can employees be protected from these effects? 6 ©2006 TEEX .

29 CFR Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances .

Z-2.1000 Air Contaminants:  Includes Z tables: worker exposure limits for specific listed substances  Employee exposure cannot exceed limits  Tables Z-1. Z-3 each have their own requirements  PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit 8 ©2006 TEEX .29 CFR Subpart Z  1910.

and others  1910.1001-1096:  Specific regulations for individual substances including:  asbestos (1910.1025).  bloodborne pathogens (1910.1001).29 CFR Subpart Z  1910.1200 Hazard Communication 9 ©2006 TEEX .1030).  lead (1910.

1910.1000(a) .Table Z-1  Derived from 1968 ACGIH TLVs  American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists  Threshold Limit Values  Levels thought to cause no significant adverse health effects in the majority of the community CHECK 10 ©2006 TEEX .

1000(a) .Table Z-1  Lists common workplace chemicals  Two types of limits:  8-hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) or  Ceiling (C) limits  Employee exposure shall at no time exceed a ceiling (C) exposure limit 11 ©2006 TEEX .1910.

1910.Table Z-1  8-hour Time Weighted Averages (TWA)  Employee exposure shall not exceed 8hour TWA in any 8-hour work shift of a 40hour work week  Calculations illustrated in (d)  Units:  Parts per million (ppm)  Milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3) 12 ©2006 TEEX .1000(a) .

Total dust Subtitles & Transitions 5 mg/M3. Respirable fraction .Table Z-1 Examples Substance Acetone Carbon monoxide 8-hr TWA 1000 ppm 50 ppm Chlorine FOR EXAMPLE… Particulates not otherwise regulated (PNOR) Ceiling 1 ppm 15 mg/M3.

Table Z-2  Adopted from ANSI standards (American National Standards Institute)  Expanded standards developed for some of the substances found in Z-2.1027 Formaldehyde 1910.1910. including:     14 Benzene 1910.1048 Methylene chloride 1910.1000(b) .1028 Cadmium 1910.1052 ©2006 TEEX .

Table Z-2  Table Z-2 expresses exposure limits as:  8-hour TWA  Ceiling  Peak  If a substance has both ceiling and peak limits: peak = level never to be exceeded  Exposure levels over the ceiling but under the peak must comply with margin notes in table  TWA must still not be exceeded 15 ©2006 TEEX .1000(b) .1910.

Table Z-2 Examples Substance 8-hr TWA Ceiling Peak Notes Benzene 10 ppm 25 ppm 50 ppm 10 min Hydrogen sulfide 20 ppm 50 ppm 10 min Styrene 100 ppm 200 ppm 600 ppm 5 min in any 3 hrs Toluene 200 ppm 300 ppm 500 ppm 10 min 16 ©2006 TEEX .1910.1000(b) .

Table Z-3  8-hour TWA limits for forms of silica  Adopted from ACGIH TLVs  SiO2 : basic component of sand. and bentonite mud additives 17 ©2006 TEEX . lignite.1910. granite  Quartz: 2nd most common mineral  Quartz sand (crystalline silica) used to fracture rock formations in wells  Silica in barite.1000(c) .

D. Ph. compliments of OSHA) ©2006 TEEX ..Health Effects of Silica  Silicosis  Irreversible but preventable  Most commonly associated with silica dust  Other possible effects:  Lung cancer  Some auto-immune diseases 18 (Scanning electron micrograph by William Jones.

1000(c) .1910.Table Z-3 Substance Crystalline Silica (Respirable fraction) 10mg/m3 % Sio2 + 2 Amorphous 30mg/m3 % Sio2 Nuisance dust 15 mg/m3 Respirable dust 19 PEL 5 mg/m3 ©2006 TEEX .

1997 20 ©2006 TEEX .1000(d)(1)(ii) What about different work schedules?  Varies by chemical  Most chemicals: Worst 8 hours of shift  Lead: adjusted by hours worked  Interpretation – Foulke letter.1000(d) – Computation formulae  Time Weighted Average     E = (C1T1 + C2T2 + …)/total time Total time used = 8 hours Example in § 1910.1910.

1000(d) – Computation formulae  Exposure to Chemical Mixtures  Em = (C1/L1) + (C2/L2) + … + (Cn/Ln)  If Em > 1. employee is overexposed  Assumptions:  Chemicals’ effects are additive  Dose is proportional to C  T 21 ©2006 TEEX .1910.

1910.1000(e) – To achieve compliance  Administrative or engineering controls first wherever feasible  When those are not feasible for full compliance: protective equipment or other protective measures  Equipment or technical measures must be approved by competent industrial hygienist or qualified person  Respirators: 1910.134 22 ©2006 TEEX .

1027 Cadmium 1910. production. servicing exempt  1910.1025 Lead 1910.1026 Chromium (VI) (revised 2006) 1910.1029 Formaldehyde 23 ©2006 TEEX .1018 Inorganic Arsenic 1910.1001 Asbestos 1910.1028 Benzene  Oil and gas drilling.Chemical-Specific Standards       1910.

representatives.1910. with exceptions  Employee consent for medical records  OSHA access order posted if identifiable  Trade secrets  Employee information 24 ©2006 TEEX . and OSHA have right of access  Preserved for 30 years.1020 Access to employee exposure and medical records  Employees.

g. certain body fluids.1030 Bloodborne Pathogens  Occupational exposure:  Reasonably anticipated skin. tissues 25 ©2006 TEEX .1910. mucous membrane. or parenteral contact  With blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) e. eye.

1910.1096 Ionizing radiation  OSHA standards cover NORM and TENORM  Exposures must be kept within limits even if sources are natural 26 ©2006 TEEX .

placards and labels  Retain markings on packages received until clean enough to remove hazard  Freight container or vehicle retains placards until materials removed enough  Readily visible  Non-bulk packages not to be reshipped: Hazard Communication labels OK 27 ©2006 TEEX .1201 Retention of DOT markings.1910.

1450 Hazardous chemicals in laboratories  For laboratory use only  Supersedes other standards in Subpart Z – except:  PELs  Prohibition of eye and skin contact  Exposure monitoring and medical surveillance for those over action levels 28 ©2006 TEEX .1910.

Other Standards and Protective Measures .

General Duty Clause  Recognized hazards may be cited  If there is no PEL:  Consensus or proprietary standards  ANSI. AIHA  Industry Best Practices  Manufacturer Recommendations (MSDS) 30 ©2006 TEEX . ACGIH.

g.g. pollen. Malaria. spores  Toxins e. endotoxin  Allergens / sensitizers e.g. mold.g.g. red cedar 31 ©2006 TEEX . influenza  Vector-borne diseases e.Biological Hazards  Potentially infectious material exposure  Contagious diseases e. Lyme disease  Fungi e.

light) (1910 Subpart G)  Ionizing radiation     32 ©2006 TEEX .Physical and Radiological Hazards Heat or cold (General Duty Clause) Vibration (General Duty Clause) Noise (1910 Subpart G) Non-ionizing radiation (electromagnetic.

Other Standards  29 CFR 1926 Subpart D: Occupational Health and Environmental Controls  Construction operations only  API RP 54  Noise rules allow for 12 hour shifts  Handling drilling fluid chemicals and additives 33 ©2006 TEEX .

Protective Measures  How are exposures to health hazards evaluated on your site?  How are they controlled? 34 ©2006 TEEX .