Remote Sensing for Agricultural

Tom Loveland and Eric Wood
U.S. Geological Survey / EROS

USGS EROS Data Center

Examples of my USGS
Participation in Agricultural
Related Projects

USGS EROS Data Center

 Sustainable Tree Crops
 Famine early warning
 Natl. land certification
 Env. monitoring systems
 Modeling land use /cover
Other International
 Bananas –Dominica
 Coffee – LA/Carib
 Tribal LULC – N. Great Plains
 SD rangeland monitoring
 Chemical exposure – cancer study with NCI
 EEAP – USGS Central Region


USGS EROS Data Center

the Great Lakes region of eastern Africa. 1 500 million hectares (3 706 million acres) of the world’s land is currently being used for growing crops • Of all human activities. accounting for 70% of all water withdrawals worldwide USGS EROS Data Center Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Well-being 2005. and parts of Brazil and Argentina • According to FAO estimates. confined livestock production and freshwater aquaculture cover approximately 24% of total land area • In the last two decades.S. including croplands. parts of South Asia. the Amazon Basin.CROPLAND • Cultivated systems. eastern China. and the U. Great Plains • The major decreases of cropland occurred in the southeastern United States. the major areas of cropland expansion were located in Southeast Asia. agriculture consumes the greatest amount of water. UNEP 2005 . shifting cultivation.

Spain • 1987: The landscape reflects rather typical rural agricultural land use • 2000: The area has been converted to intensive greenhouse agriculture • 2004: Greenhousedominated land appears as whitish gray patches USGS EROS Data Center .Greenhouse agriculture in Almeria.

Bolivia • 1975: Forested landscape • 2003: Large corporate agricultural fields transform the landscape USGS EROS Data Center .Converting forests into farms in Santa Cruz.

following the patterns in Poland USGS EROS Data Center .Novovolynśk: Contrast in land use practices. Ukraine 1988-2000: Apparent change in the approach to land use in Ukraine.

United States • 1972: Clearing of forest during the 1960s and 1970s increased flooding and erosion • 2001: Land cover change on the Louisiana side of the image is striking 2 Oct 1972 USGS EROS Data Center 2 Oct 1972 .Difference in change pattern across Tensas River Basin.

Greening of Al’ Isawiyah desert Saudi Arabia • 1991 – Irrigation in the desert begins • 2000 – Irrigation transforms the desert • 2004 – Irrigation intensity increases USGS EROS Data Center .

the faint blue-green areas around the lakes are newly created agricultural lands USGS EROS Data Center .Toshka: Farming the desert Egypt These images show the desert area transformed into vegetable plots n • 1984-87: Image of the area before the desert reclamation project began in mid-1990s • 2000: Four new lakes are visible in this image.

Why Use Remote Sensing for Agricultural Applications?    Multi-spectral capabilities are advantageous for assessing crop types and conditions Repetitive coverage captures seasonal changes in crop development Historical coverage permits monitoring of changes in agricultural practices USGS EROS Data Center .

Applications of Remote Sensing in Agriculture      Mapping the types and extent of agricultural land Assessing and monitoring the condition of agricultural lands Monitoring agricultural land change Precision agriculture Environmental assessments USGS EROS Data Center .

Mapping Crop Extent and Types USGS EROS Data Center .

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Vegetation Spectral Signatures Landsat bands: MODIS bands: VIIRS (400m): 3 1 I1 4 2 I2 5 6 (no Aqua) I3 7 7 .

NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) aka “Greenness” Seasonal Metrics Start of Season End of Season Length of Season Growing season greenness Greenness “to-date” USGS EROS Data Center .

Normal color Color IR USGS EROS Data Center .

82 USGS EROS Data Center .Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI = (Near IR – Red)/(Near IR + Red) Range = -1 to +1 NDVI (grass = (50-5)/(50+5) = 0.

20 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI = nearIR-vis / nearIR+vis (range -1 to 1) NDVI(turf) = 3-5/3+5 = -.25 .Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI = (Near IR – Red)/(Near IR + Red) NDVI (turf) = (6-4)/(6+4) = 0.

NDVI is seasonally dependent Spring USGS EROS Data Center Summer .

NDVI is seasonally dependent NDVI .June 2002 USGS EROS Data Center .March 2002 NDVI .

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NDVI is responsive to vegetation condition USGS EROS Data Center Non-Drought Drought .

MODIS 250 m Study Area NDVI 16-day Comp. USGS EROS Data Center .

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National Land Cover Classification

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USGS EROS Data Center .AVHRR NDVI changes over time can be used to map the unique vegetation development in cropped areas.

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See: http://www. .Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) Aggregated 28 class Note: there is also a 323 disaggregated class map of the World.we have achieved USGS EROS Data Center ……….

Recently released. .Global Map of Rainfed Cropland Area (GMRCA) Disaggregated 66 class USGS EROS Data Center ……….

Prototype CONUS Irrigated Lands Map USGS EROS Data Center .

Irrigated Agriculture Methodology MODIS Annual Peak NDVI County irrigated area statistics Land cover mask USGS EROS Data Center .

Assessing Agricultural Lands Condition USGS EROS Data Center .

Vegetation Canopy Dynamics Measures from 18+ Years of Satellite Greenness Data Seasonal Metrics Start of Season End of Season Length of Season Growing season greenness Greenness “to-date” USGS EROS Data Center .

TIN Time Integrated NDVI USGS EROS Data Center .

National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) AVHRR Vegetation Condition Product USGS EROS Data Center .

National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) AVHRR Vegetation Condition Percent Change Product USGS EROS Data Center .

USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Veg Health .Principal Drought Monitor Inputs USGS Streamflow CPC Daily Soil Model Palmer Drought Index USDA Soil Ratings 30-day Precip.

NIR. NDWI) Thermal  Surface temperature  Cold cloud tops (rainfall estimates) USGS EROS Data Center . SWIR)  Vegetation Indices (NDVI. VCI.Remote Sensing Sources: Potential Value for Drought Decision Support  Radar – rainfall estimates    Passive microwave – surface soil moisture Optical (visible.

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VegDRI Models: Current Drought Status Model Input Layers Start of Season Anomaly Seasonal Greenness Anomaly VegDRI (Vegetation Drought Response Index) Standardized Precipitation Index Available Water Capacity Regression Tree Modeling Land Cover Ecoregions USGS EROS Data Center Irrigated Ag. .

Satellite anomalies may be caused by drought. flooding.Integrating Satellite and Climate Data for Improving Drought Monitoring Satellite-derived vegetation condition provides a relative measure of vegetation condition. Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI) Maps Climate-based drought data provide some explanation for the satellite vegetation anomalies. late greennup. etc. Regression Tree Modeling Climate-based drought indicators provide levels of drought severity. land cover conversion. .

Recurring operations .Input Data AVHRR NDVI Satellite Data Data Mining and Information Discovery Subsystem Search archives Data retrieval Mosaic Reprojection Derive metrics Data rescaling Extract samples 1992 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Reprojection Calc dominant LC Subset Extract samples State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Database Extract Attributes Calculate Variables Omernik EPA Level III Ecoregions % of Land in Farms in Irrigation (USDA) Standardized Precipitation Index (bi-weekly) Palmer Drought Severity Index (bi-weekly) USGS EROS Data Center Rasterize Reprojection Subset Extract samples Image Produce Text File Modeling and Dissemination Subsystems CART CART analysis analysis of ofinput inputvariables variables Iterate Iterate with withsample sample analyses analyses Derive Derive variable variable coefficients coefficients and and weights weights Database of Model Variables Model Parameters And Rules Model Input Data Model Results Image Produce Text File Image Produce Text File Reports Maps Apply ApplyModel Modelto toCalculate Calculate Vegetation VegetationDrought Drought Response Response Index Index (VegDRI) (VegDRI) Calculate variables Polygon encoding Data retrieval Compile database Segment seasons Interpolate surface Extract samples Subset Reprojection Rescale data Image Produce Text File Internet portal for data access and distribution Internet Portal For Data Access And Distribution Dynamic Inputs Dependent variable in models Static Inputs Model formulation and implementation.

VegDRI map for July 25. 2002 Imagine how the USDM would have looked if one of the inputs was VegDRI… Drought Monitor map for July 23. 2002 USGS EROS Data Center .

2007 USGS EROS Data Center .Current Year VegDRI Products July 16.

Past Protype VegDRI Products 1997 USGS EROS Data Center 1989 1993 2002 2004 .

usgs.2007 VegDRI Map Access .edu/vegdri/VegDRI_Main.drought.unl.php QuickViews Dynamic Map Viewer USGS EROS Data Center http://www.

A County Story Hand County. South Dakota USGS EROS Data Center .

SD   Total area 3.000 acres) Top Five Commodities (from 1997 Ag census)  Cattle and calves Drought Monitor map for July 23. 2002  Wheat  Corn (for grain)  All other grains  Hogs and pigs USGS EROS Data Center .705 km2 (>900.Hand County.

SD Land Cover July 25.Hand County. 2002 168.000 acres of grassland impacted by drought USGS EROS Data Center 213.000 acres of row crops impacted by drought .

Hand County. SD Land Cover (from National Land Cover Database) Pink: Row Crops Burgundy: Small Grains Tan: Grassland Yellow: Pasture/Hay USGS EROS Data Center .

Hand County. 2002 . SD May 30. 2002 July 25. 2002 47% of county is “normal” 53% of county is in drought USGS EROS Data Center September 5.

Monitoring Agricultural Land Change USGS EROS Data Center .

USGS EROS Data Center . The regional color patterns show differences in grass density related to differences in range site characteristics and management practices. By 2000. By 1992. most of the cropland reverted to grassland. approximately 15 percent of the area was converted to cropland (see strip cropping patterns).1974 1992 2000 Meade County Land Change – 1974 to 2000 Almost all of this 6 by 6 square mile area in north central Meade County was grassland in 1974.

1984 June 30.1973. 1973 USGS EROS Data Center August 13. and 2000 (all summer scenes) July 5. 2000 .Lake Thompson. 1973 July 5. 1984. 2000 June 30. SD. 1984 August 13.

Irrigation Expansion in the Western High Plains 1973 USGS EROS Data Center 2000 .

Management Styles. and Policies USGS EROS Data Center .New Agricultural Technologies.

Irrigation Expansion USGS EROS Data Center .

USGS EROS Data Center Conservation Reserve Program .

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Southeastern Plains Ecoregion
This ecoregion lost over 1 million
hectares of cropland, with 84% of the
lost cropland converted to forest
USGS EROS Data Center


Coastal Plain
USGS EROS Data Center

The 20 Forested Eastern Ecoregions -overall 1973-2000 change: 12.5%

USGS EROS Data Center

044 +/.Primary Eastern U.70 * Agricultural Lands -24.693 -1.962 +/.761 +/.367 +/.791 9.5 Developed Land 36.4 Transitional Lands 28.4 USGS EROS Data Center .428 -2.S. Land Changes: 1973-2000 Land Cover Type Area Changed Margin of Percent (km2) from 1973 Error (km2) Change from and 2000 1973-2000 Forest Land -37.

with a net loss of 2.4 percent (24.891 km2) between 1973 and 2000 .USGS EROS Data Center Agricultural land cover declined almost everywhere.

892 Forest to Agriculture USGS EROS Data Center 4.305 Agriculture to Forest 25.085 Forest to Mining 8.792 Forest to Urban 8.106 Disturbed to Forest 37.654 Agriculture to Urban 6.902 Agriculture to Forest 9.501 Disturbed to Forest 11.995 Agriculture to Forest 18.995 Wetlands to Disturbed 6.890 Forest to Urban 11.443 Agriculture to Urban 5.915 Forest to Disturbed 33.Eastern United States: Most Frequent Land Cover Conversions 1973 to 1980 Area (km2) Change 1980 to 1986 Area (km2) Change 1986 to 1992 Area (km2) Change 1992 to 2000 Area (km2) Change 41.876 Forest to Disturbed 81.296 Disturbed to Forest 48.653 Agriculture to Urban .515 Forest to Agriculture 11.811 Disturbed to Forest 66.456 Forest to Disturbed 51.359 Forest to Agriculture 10.710 Agriculture to Urban 7.782 Forest to Agriculture 7.577 Forest to Disturbed 72.601 Forest to Urban 5.

USGS EROS Data Center Southern Florida Coastal Plain .

Between 1973 and 1980. 1. USGS EROS Data Center .3% of the Southern Florida Coastal Plain wetlands were drained for cropland due to the Cuba sugar embargo.

Southern Coastal Plain Net loss of agricultural cover – 396.981 ha USGS EROS Data Center .

Land Cover Change Results in Colder Temperatures and Long Freeze Periods in Key Florida Agricultural Regions 1900-era Land Cover 1993 Land Cover Model difference in minimum temperature Model difference in duration of freeze temperatures Areas where wetlands were converted to cropland had colder minimum temperatures and longer freezing periods.. Steyaert. 2003. 29-30. . R. Jr.A. USGS EROS Data Center Marshall. Nature. Wetlands once held heat from the day.. 426. C.H. and L. often keeping area temperatures above freezing throughout the night.T. Pielke Sr. Crop freezes and land-use change in Florida.

Western High Plains USGS EROS Data Center .

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South Platte River area 73 80 86 92 00 SW Kansas High Plains – Ogallala Aquifer Decline Increase 1973 2000 Texas High Plains USGS EROS Data Center 1972 2000 .

1950 1978 1997 Western Expansion of Corn Irrigated Area – Western High Plains Ecoregion Corn region Cotton region USGS EROS Data Center .

Drivers of change     Population growth  CV cities growing in the service and information sectors  Commuters from SF Bay Area and Los Angeles  (Relatively) affordable housing Climate variability  Loss (temporary?) of marginal farmlands in arid San Joaquin Valley Irrigation advances  Grapes. citrus. and nut crops at ecoregion periphery  Higher-risk crops on low productivity soils due in part to advances in drip irrigation practices Agricultural policy  CRP not a factor  California Farmland Conservancy Program  Waterfowl habitat programs to preserve and enhance migratory bird habitat USGS EROS Data Center .

Environmental Impacts of Agriculture USGS EROS Data Center .

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.Copeland et al. 1995 USGS EROS Data Center .

Utilization of the Landsat Archive for Agricultural Chemical Exposure Assessment Susan Maxwell and Eric Wood USGS EROS Data Center .

Primary Collaborators  Dr. et al. Leukemia. Mary Ward. NIH/National Cancer Institute • •  Epidemiologist Agricultural chemicals – cancer (NHL. Jay Nuckols. etc. Director EHASL Application of RS/GIS technology in environmental/human health studies USGS EROS Data Center . Colorado State University • • Environmental Engineer..) Dr. Professor.

USGS EROS Data Center .Overview  Rural populations can be exposed to chemicals through the proximity of their residences to treated cropland.  Rural populations generally excluded from epidemiological studies because exposure is difficult to assess.

Overview  Traditional methods for collecting chemical exposure data • • •  Questionnaires Environmental samples (e. blood) Problems with methods • • • • Historical data difficult or impossible People may not know Sampling is costly Subjective bias with questionnaires Problem: need an objective measure of chemical exposure USGS EROS Data Center .g. water) Biological samples (e.g. dust.. air.

Overview Exposure Metric Land Cover Concept Information Spatial Linkage of data sets to determine where chemicals applied USGS EROS Data Center Crop Chemical Corn Atrazine Vineyard Methyl Bromide … Chemical Use Information Corn (Atrazine) Residence Vineyard Methyl Bromide .

Overview Land Cover information requirements for agricultural chemical exposure assessment Epidemiology Study Land Cover Requirement Agricultural chemical exposure Need specific crop type information to link to chemical use Cancers take a long time to develop Historical land cover Rare diseases Need large geographical areas mapped Residential exposure Need relatively high spatial resolution (<50 m) Accuracy Accuracy assessment at the field-level USGS EROS Data Center .

Overview Primary Objective Develop a methodology to utilize the Landsat archive to derive historical crop maps for Iowa to support the NIH/NCI Agricultural Health Study USGS EROS Data Center .

more information in imagery to discriminate crop types. NLCD . Original Landsat Image NLCD Map .

1992 NLCD compared to 2000 Crop Map. Object-oriented knowledge based classification (eCognition) .

01 0.0.18 .02 .005 .003 .1 . Census Bureau Place Areas Cultivated with Sorghum 0.22 .Technical Approach  Develop an object-based rule-based image analysis approach Per-pixel approaches result in false exposure # # Residence with 500 Meter Buffer U.04 .18 0.02 0.001 . .22 0.06 No Data N # 0 USGS EROS Data Center 1 Mile Object-based approach .14 .06 .14 0.0.1 0.04 0.005 0.0.

Technical Approach  Develop an object-based rule-based image analysis approach Need calibrated/normalized images to support automated classification Original Summer Image Rotated Soybeans Corn BAND 4r BAND 4 Soybeans Corn Water BAND 5 BAND 5r .



  http://www.cfm USGS EROS Data Center .usda.

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SD 57198 USA USGS EROS Data Center U.usgs. Geological Survey Department of the Interior .Crop Water Requirement Modeling in a GIS Environment USGS FEWS NET EROS Data Center Sioux Falls.S.

onset of rainfall and crop performance using a crop water balance model  To estimate production before the end of season USGS EROS Data Center . seasonally.Objective  To monitor.


Crop Type. LGP) RFE (NOAA) USGS EROS Data Center data from NOAA. pet. SOS. EOS. WHC. generated at EDC FAO soils map of the world Kc (FAO) .Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) WRSI = f (ppt.

Methods • NDVI data were masked to exclude non-agricultural areas using the SADC Regional Land Cover Database SADC Land Cover USGS EROS Data Center MODIS NDVI Cultivated Area NDVI .

Relative NDVI & Total Maize Production per District USGS EROS Data Center .Results . USGS EROS Data Center .Africa Data Dissemination Service (ADDS) Other FEWS NET links: http://earlywarning.usgs.usgs.

First Draft Land Use/Land Cover Map. West Africa 2000 USGS EROS Data Center .

Tools for Assessing Land Resources (Senegal) Images of land surface (Landsat) Land Productivity (MODIS) USGS EROS Data Center Current and seasonal vegetation production (MODIS NDVI) Land Use .

20 % 1994 (cultivated) 1–2% October 1994 Niombatu.Percent Woody Cover 1943: 40 – 70 % 1994 (woodlands) 10 . 25 October 1943 Saloum Agricultural Region .

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Video Image Mosaic: Terroir de Soukouto USGS EROS Data Center .

Land Use Map from Video Mosaic USGS EROS Data Center .

5 tons C in woody biomass/ha* • 4 woody species/ha *(based on measurements at comparable sites in the pastoral zone) Corona 1968 USGS EROS Data Center • 6.Tree Density Changes in the Pastoral Region.6 trees & shrubs/ha • 5. Northern Senegal • 8.8 tons C in woody biomass/ha* • 2 woody species/ha *(based on measurements at comparable sites in the pastoral zone) Quickbird 2004 .8 tons woody biomass/ha* • 1.3 tons woody biomass/ha* • 2.3 trees & shrubs/ha • 3.

Senegal Shows growing patchwork of savannas (greenish patches) • 1979: Image shows farmland before being abandoned • 1999: Hundreds of villages are scattered throughout the region to enjoy fallow and grazing lands USGS EROS Data Center .Farmlands abandoned for savannas Peanut Basin.

Impact of drought and over-grazing Revane. with extensive bushland vegetation • 1999: The badland phenomenon spread extensively along the shallow valley slopes USGS EROS Data Center . Senegal • 1965: Ancient valleys cutting through gravelly plateaus.

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Mapping Agricultural Expansion USGS EROS Data Center .

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Predictive Models of LULC Change USGS EROS Data Center .

S.S.Rapid Land Cover Mapper (RLCM) Gray Tappan and Matt Cushing SAIC. Geological Survey . USGS Center for EROS USGS EROS Data Center U. Department of the Interior U.

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Time-Series Mapping with the RLCM ETM+. 1972 USGS EROS Data Center . 1984 MSS. 2000 TM.

Ethiopia Land Tenure
Administration Program
Parcel demarcation
with farmers

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Field plots of IKONOS
satellite image

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USGS EROS Data Center . Crop Explorer on ESRI’s Geography Network (USDAFAS)  http://www.Web Sites for Accessing Ag Data  Crop Explorer and MODIS images from Rapid Response:   MODIS/NDVI 250-meter Time Series Database from UMD   http://www.usda.umd. National Agricultural Statistics Service http://www.usda.nass.Drought: National Drought Mitigation Center http://www.html USDA Agricultural Information: Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin .gov/ 2002 Census of Agriculture Current US Drought Monitor http://www. Other FEWS NET links: http://earlywarning.Africa Data Dissemination Service (ADDS) USGS EROS Data Center .usgs.

Questions …………. USGS EROS Data Center ..