H-BRIDGE

Sachin T John
EE/ISP
14EE64D01
1

Index





Introduction to H-Bridge.
Construction.
DC Motor Control.
Operation.
Micro-controller Interfacing.
Conclusion.
2

H-BRIDGE OPERATION Image Courtesy: http://en.org/wiki/H_bridge • An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction.wikipedia. 3 .

CONSTRUCTION 4 .

CONSTRUCTION Image Courtesy: Solarbotics A B C D Function 1 0 0 1 Forward 0 1 1 0 Reverse 1 1 0 0 Brake 0 0 1 1 Brake 1 0 1 0 Fuse Test 0 1 0 1 Fuse Test 5 .

DC MOTOR CONTROL • A motor control circuit: – Provides power to the motor coils in either polarity – Allows the external logic to control direction/speed • There are two basic types of motor controllers – Electromechanical relay based controllers – Semiconductor based controllers (H6 bridges) .

Relay Motor Control Circuit • Advantages – Uses simple. robust electromechanical devices – Can handle high voltages and large currents • Disadvantages – Requires periodic maintenance (cleaning contacts) – Relatively slow due to inertia in mechanical parts – Contact make/break/bounce sparks creating EMI or possible explosion hazard • Example: Used under the hood in cars 7 .

umass. – where the wearing out of mechanical parts is undesirable.edu 8 . Image Courtesy: http://www.H-Bridge v/s Relays • A "double pole double throw" relay can generally achieve the same electrical functionality as an H-bridge. • H-bridge would be preferable where:– a smaller physical size is needed. – low driving voltage.ecs. – high speed switching.

H-bridge Motor Control Circuit • A DC motor such as our elevator system drive motor requires one H-bridge per motor – The direction is determined by the inputs (1 or 2) – The motor can be turned on and off by a u-controller. • A bipolar stepper motor such as the Mercury Motor requires two H-Bridge circuits per motor – The direction is determined by the ordering of the logic signals to the inputs (1. or 4) – The speed is controlled by the speed of sequencing 9 . 3. 2.

Controlling a PMDC Motor Options • DC operation – Rotational speed of the DC motor is fixed at a given voltage and load • PWM Operation – Average voltage (and rotational speed) can be controlled by opening/closing the switches quickly • Braking – Shorting the terminals or momentarily reversing the drive • Others 10 .

OPERATION 11 .

Controlling a Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) Motor • Bi-directional PM DC motors are controlled with an "H-Bridge" circuit consisting of the motor and four power switches Animation Courtesy: Infineon 12 .

Turning On a PMDC Motor • One switch is closed in each leg of the "H" • One switch is open in each leg of the "H" Current Animation Courtesy: Infineon 13 .

Turning On a PMDC Motor in the Other Direction • One switch is closed in each leg of the "H" • One switch is open in each leg of the "H” Current Animation Courtesy: Infineon 14 .

Controlling a Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) Motor • Unidirectional motors are controlled by a “half-H” bridge circuit Current Animation Courtesy: Infineon 15 .

umass. • That is. with an H-bridge. 16 . brake.ecs. or remote control can electronicallyImage command a Courtesy: http://www.Micro-Controller Interfacing • H-bridge allows a microcontroller full control over a standard electric DC motor. and coast. a microcontroller. logic chip.edu motor to go forward. reverse.

L298 . Hence. heat sink is provided. 17 • Protective Diodes against back EMF must be provided .dual full-H driver Image Courtesy: solarbotics • Output current per channel = 2A.

Micro-Controller Interfacing 18 .

Micro-Controller Interfacing Image Courtesy: Afrotechmods 19 .

Micro-Controller Interfacing Image Courtesy: Afrotechmods 20 .

/PF63147 • Wikipedia.edu • http://www.org • http://www..com 21 .umass.com/web/en/catalog/sense_p ower/FM142/CL851/.afrotechmods.ti.REFERENCES • www.com/lit/ds/symlink • freescale.ecs.com/files/analog/doc • www.st..

umass.ecs.Thankyou! 22 Images Courtesy: http://www.edu .