# Chapter 14

The Ideal Gas Law
and Kinetic Theory

14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number

To facilitate comparison of the mass of one atom with another, a mass scale
know as the atomic mass scale has been established.
The unit is called the atomic mass unit (symbol u). The reference element is
chosen to be the most abundant isotope of carbon, which is called carbon-12.

1 u  1.6605  10 27 kg

The atomic mass is given in atomic
mass units. For example, a Li atom
has a mass of 6.941u.

14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number

One mole of a substance contains as many
particles as there are atoms in 12 grams of
the isotope cabron-12.
The number of atoms per mole is known as

N A  6.022  10 23 mol 1
N
n
NA
number of
moles

number of
atoms

and Avogadro’s Number mparticle N m n  mparticle N A Mass per mole The mass per mole (in g/mol) of a substance has the same numerical value as the atomic or molecular mass of the substance (in atomic mass units).00794 g/mol. the Mole.1 Molecular Mass. . while the mass of a single hydrogen atom is 1.00794 u. For example Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1.14.

5 carats) is almost pure carbon.14. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al2O3 molecules in the ruby. The Rosser Reeves ruby (138 carats) is primarily aluminum oxide (Al2O3). and Avogadro’s Number Example 1 The Hope Diamond and the Rosser Reeves Ruby The Hope diamond (44.1 Molecular Mass. One carat is equivalent to a mass of 0. the Mole. .200 g.

5 carats   0.1 Molecular Mass.271 mol Mass per mole 101   .63  10 23 atoms .011 g mol   N  nN A   0.022 10 23 mol 1  1.200 g  1 carat   n   0.741 mol 6.46 10 23 atoms (b)  m 138 carats    0. and Avogadro’s Number (a) n  44.200 g  1 carat    0.96 g mol 2  26.741 mol m  Mass per mole 12.98   3 15.022 10 23 mol 1  4.14.271 mol 6.99    N  nN A   0. the Mole.

P T . At constant volume the pressure is proportional to the temperature.14. The condition of low density means that the molecules are so far apart that they do not interact except during collisions. which are effectively elastic.2 The Ideal Gas Law An ideal gas is an idealized model for real gases that have sufficiently low densities.

the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume. P 1 V The pressure is also proportional to the amount of gas.2 The Ideal Gas Law At constant temperature.14. Pn .

31 J  mol  K  .14.2 The Ideal Gas Law THE IDEAL GAS LAW The absolute pressure of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature and the number of moles of the gas and is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas. nRT P V PV  nRT R  8.

31 J  mol  K   23   1 .14.2 The Ideal Gas Law n N NA  R PV  nRT  N   NA k   T  NkT  R 8.022 10 mol . 38  10 J K 23 1 N A 6.

00x105Pa) from the blood in the capillaries.2 The Ideal Gas Law Example 2 Oxygen in the Lungs In the lungs. PV  NkT .125 mm. The average radius of the alveoli is 0. Assuming that the air behaves as an ideal gas at 310K.14. find the number of oxygen molecules in one of these sacs. These sacs are called alveoli. the respiratory membrane separates tiny sacs of air (pressure 1. and the air inside contains 14% oxygen.

38  10 J K  310 K  5  4 3  23 3   1.00  10 Pa  0.14.9  1014 1.7 10 14 13  3  .14  2.125  10 m PV N  kT 1.2 The Ideal Gas Law    1.9 10    0.

14. often doubling in volume by the time they reach the surface. If you look carefully.2 The Ideal Gas Law Conceptual Example 3 Beer Bubbles on the Rise Watch the bubbles rise in a glass of beer. Why does the bubble grow as it ascends? . you’ll see them grow in size as they move upward.

with the amount of the gas remaining constant. PV  nRT PV  nR  constant T Pf V f Tf PiVi  Ti .2 The Ideal Gas Law Consider a sample of an ideal gas that is taken from an initial to a final state.14.

constant n: PiVi  Ti Pf V f  PiVi Boyle’s law Vf Vi  T f Ti Charles’ law .2 The Ideal Gas Law Pf V f Tf Constant T. constant n: Constant P.14.

As a result.14. colliding with each other and with the walls of the container.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases The particles are in constant. Each collision changes the particle’s speed. the atoms and molecules have different speeds. random motion. .

14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR SPEEDS .

14.Initial momentum Time between successive collisions   mv     mv   mv 2   2L v L .3 Kinetic Theory of Gases KINETIC THEORY v  mv   F  ma  m t  t Average force  Final momentum .

3 Kinetic Theory of Gases For a single molecule. the average force is: 2  N   mv  F    3   L  F F  N   mv 2  P  2   3  A L  3 L  root-mean-square speed volume .14. the average force is: mv 2 F L For N molecules.

3 Kinetic Theory of Gases 2  N   mv  P   3   V  NkT KE    2 2 PV  13 N mvrms  23 N 12 mvrms KE  mv 1 2 2 rms  32 kT  .14.

3 Kinetic Theory of Gases Conceptual Example 5 Does a Single Particle Have a Temperature? Each particle in a gas has kinetic energy. to conclude that a single particle has a temperature? . Is it valid. then.14. we have established the relationship between the average kinetic energy per particle and the temperature of an ideal gas. On the previous page.

0u) and oxygen O2 molecules (molecular mass 32. 1 2 2 mvrms  32 kT vrms 3kT  m .14. Assume that each behaves as an ideal gas and determine the rms speeds of the nitrogen and oxygen molecules when the temperature of the air is 293K.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases Example 6 The Speed of Molecules in Air Air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen N2 molecules (molecular mass 28.0u).

022  10 mol vrms 3kT 3 1.14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases For nitrogen… m 28. 65  10 kg 23 1 6.38  10  23 J K  293 K     511 m s  26 m 4.0 g mol  23  26  4 .65  10 kg   . 65  10 g  4 .

3 Kinetic Theory of Gases THE INTERNAL ENERGY OF A MONATOMIC IDEAL GAS 2 KE  12 mvrms  32 kT U  N 32 kT  32 nRT .14.

.4 Diffusion The process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration is called diffusion.14.

Why does it take so long? . it often takes several seconds. and sometimes minutes. a molecule could travel across an ordinary room in just a fraction of a second.14. At such speed. Yet.4 Diffusion Conceptual Example 7 Why Diffusion is Relatively Slow A gas molecule has a translational rms speed of hundreds of meters per second at room temperature. for the fragrance of a perfume to reach the other side of the room.

4 Diffusion A Transdermal Patch .14.

4 Diffusion .14.

4 Diffusion FICK’S LAW OF DIFFUSION The mass m of solute that diffuses in a time t through a solvent contained in a channel of length L and cross sectional area A is diffusion constant  DAC  t m L SI Units for the Diffusion Constant: m2/s concentration gradient between ends .14.

while that on the outside is approximately 0.5x10-5m. The diffusion constant for water is 2.0x10-11m2 and a length of about 2. .4 Diffusion Example 8 Water Given Off by Plant Leaves Large amounts of water can be given off by plants. water passes from the liquid phase to the vapor phase at the walls of the mesophyll cells. Determine the mass of water that passes through the stomatal pore in one hour. Inside the leaf.4x10-5m2/s. The concentration on the interior side of the pore is roughly 0.011 kg/m3. A stomatal pore has a cross sectional area of about 8.14.022 kg/m3.

022 kg m 3  0.011 kg m 3  3600 s  2.0 10 11 m 2 0.5 10-5 m  3.4 10  5    m 2 s 8.14.0  10 9 kg .4 Diffusion m  DAC  t L  2.