Name of Institution

AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL
MBA
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES
DR TARANJEET DUGGAL

1

Objectives of the programs

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• To encourage the participants to
understand communication, human
communication and interpersonal
communication.
• To establish inter personal
communications the core of our existence

OBJECTIVES

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To define communication and
understand the communication process
in detail
To help personnel use communication
as a tool for improving interpersonal
relations.

.COMMUNICATION Name of Institution Communication is the process of managing message for the purpose of creating meaning. Communication can be said to be the passing of information from one person to another and understanding it.

Three Key elements of communication process : • Message Name of Institution • Managing • Meaning. .

MEANING Meaning refers to the interpretation people assign to a message – how it is recognized or understood. actions and gestures that people express to one another when they interact.COMMUNICATION MESSAGE Name of Institution Messages are the words sounds. MANAGING Managing refers to the handling or supervising of people or some process or material. .

The Communication Process Name of Institution A TWO WAY PROCESS Feedback Source Encoding Message Channel Message Decoding Message Receiver Message .

Name of Institution FACTORS OF COMMUNICATION SENDER OR TRANSMITTER  PURPOSE  ENCODING  TRANSMISSION  DECODING  FEEDBACK  .

BEHAVIOURAL COMMUNICATION Name of Institution “ A problem well stated is already half solved” COMMUNICATE COMMUNICARE .

. value. Successful communication is measured by your ability to persuade others and move them in the direction you choose. Persuasion is the use of communication to reinforce change or modify an audience attitude. belief or actions.COMMUNICATION AS PERSUASION Name of Institution Communication as persuasion involves influencing others in order to achieve your own goals.

Name of Institution 7 C’s OF COMMUNICATION Completeness Conciseness Considerateness Concreteness Clarity Courtesy Correctness .

THE FOUR S’s • Shortness • Simplicity • Strength • Sincerity Name of Institution .

 7% 38% .VERBAL COMMUNICATION Name of Institution “Talking and listening with our eyes” Verbal  Bodily movements & gestures 55%  Voice. Tone etc.NON .

COMPONENTS OF BODY LANGUAGE KINESICS Name of Institution Facial Expressions  Eye Contact  Gestures  Appearance  Head and Posture  .

PARALANGUAGE Its components are:  Voice  Pitch Variation  Speaking Speed  Pause Name of Institution .

• Asking the right questions. cont. • Using positive words to challenge limiting belief. to help the person remember them. . • Say the most important things first.How to Improve verbal communication Name of Institution • Think and prepare before you speak. • Be brief and to the point..

• Reduce your usage of verbal pauses. . • Be explicit. they can’t give you accurate information.How to Improve verbal communication Name of Institution • Always give the person the opportunity to ask clarifying questions. If they don’t understand what you are asking. • Avoid careless language. Don't raise irrelevant points.

What is inter personal communication Name of Institution • Interpersonal communication is a special form of human communication that occurs when we interact simultaneously with another person and mutually influence each other. • Simultaneous interaction means that the communication partners are both acting upon the same information at the same time. • Mutual influence means that both partners are affected by the interaction .

Interpersonal Communication The process of interacting simultaneously and sharing mutual influence with another person. .COMPARING KEY DEFINITIONS Name of Institution Term Communication Definition The process of acting upon information The process of making sense Human Communication out of the world and sharing that sense with others.

Human Communication: A two way process Name of Institution FEEDBACK RX TX COMMUNICATION .

.Communication as sharing meaning Name of Institution Two models of sharing communication are: • Interactive Model • Transactional Model Interactive model: use communication as sharing meaning and adds off feedback loop that links the receiver to the source Transactional model: maintains that people are senders and receiver of messages simultaneously.

PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Name of Institution Implication Interpersonal Communication You cannot communicate Is Inescapable Interpersonal Communication Once a message is sent. you cannot take it back. environmental. relational. Interpersonal Communication Communication occurs in Is Contextual psychological. situational. . and cultural contexts. Is Irreversible Interpersonal Communication You cannot completely Is Complicated understand others.

 Make sure your message is ethical. .Name of Institution THREE GOALS FOR INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION  Make sure your message is understood  Make sure your message has the effect you intended.

. Range from impersonal to interpersonal Emphasize content and emotions May be complementary or symmetrical Are governed by rules Evolve in stages. . Range from self-oriented to other-oriented.Name of Institution CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Interpersonal relationships….

HEARING Hearing is an automatic process that involves the psychological repetition of sound.LISTENING AND HEARING Name of Institution LISTENING Listening is a learned communication skill so it employs much more than hearing. .

Name of Institution LISTENING PROCESS Levelling Sharpening Assimilation .

WHAT IS LISTENING? Name of Institution  Sensing  Interpreting  Evaluating  Remembering  Responding .

– Meaning Of The Spoken Words Lies More In The Perception Of The Listener – It Is Essentially A Two Way Process – Transmission and Reception Of Message Can Never Be Identical . Signs.MYTHS & REALITIES OF COMMUNICATION • REALITIES Name of Institution • MYTHS – We Communicate Consciously And Deliberately – We Communicate Primarily Through Words – Words We Speak mean The Same To Everyone – Communication Is A One Sided Process – Message Sent & Received Are Identical – We Communicate UnConciously At All Times Non-Verbally – We Communicate Most Through Non Verbal. Etc.

Name of Institution “It really boils down to this. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality.” Martin Luther King Jr. 1967 29 . that all life is interrelated.

We now want to clarify what interpersonal communication is so that we have shared understanding of what it includes and means.Defining Interpersonal Communication Name of Institution So far we’ve seen that interpersonal communication is a primary way to meet a range of human needs. 30 .

not where they are or how many are present. This emphasizes what happen between people. we can say that interpersonal communication is a distinct type of interaction between people. 31 . of interaction. then. For starters.What distinguish interpersonal communication? Name of Institution What distinguishes interpersonal communication is the particular quality or character.

The Communication Continuum Impersonal Interpersonal Name of Institution It You Thou These distinctions are captured in poetic terms by philosopher Martin Buber (1970) who distinguishes between three levels of communication: I.You and I.It.Thou 32 . I.

we treat others very impersonally.I-It Communication Name of Institution • In an I-It relationship. 33 . almost as objects. we may not even affirm their existence. severs in restaurants and clerical staff often are treated not as people but as instruments to take orders and deliver what we want. • Salespeople. • In I-It communication we do not acknowledge the humanity of other people.

which accounts for the majority of our interactions. For example: suppose you go shopping and sales clerk asks. People acknowledge one another as more than objects.I-you Communication Name of Institution • I-You communication. “May I help you?” Chances are you won’t have a deep conversation with the clerk. 34 . • They don’t fully engage each other as unique individuals. but might treat him or her as more than it.

For instance. • We interact with peers. 35 . we talk with others in our classes and on our sports teams in ways that are somewhat personal. superiors and subordinates within our job roles. • In the workplace the majority our relationships are I-You.Name of Institution • I-You relationship may also be more personal than interactions with sales clerks.

• Instead of dealing with them as occupants of social roles. we meet other in their wholeness and individuality.I-Thou Communication Name of Institution • The rarest kind of relationship involves I-Thou Communication. 36 . we see them as unique human beings whom we know and accept in their totality. • When we interact on an I-Thou level. Buber regarded this is as the highest form of human dialogue because each person affirms the other as cherished and unique.

in I-Thou communication we don’t mask ourselves: instead. we open ourselves fully. • Buber believed that only in I-Thou relationship do we become fully human. trusting others to accept us as we are with virtues and vices. which for him meant we discard the guise we use most of the time and allow ourselves to be completely genuine in interaction.Name of Institution • Also. 37 . strengths and weaknesses. hopes and fears.

• For Buber.Name of Institution • In I-Thou relationships. only I-Thou communication is fully interpersonal because only in I-Thou encounters do we met each other as whole existential people. we engage in ‘being’ through which we reveal who we really are and how we really feel. 38 . however.

we’ll examine three models of interpersonal communication to see how thinking about interpersonal communication has progressed over the years. • Models are attempts to represent what something is and how it works. 39 .Models of Interpersonal Communication Name of Institution • To gain that.

• Laswell didn’t use a visual diagram to represent his view of communication. process in which one person acts on another person. communication is a linear. 40 . or one-way.1. Linear Model Name of Institution • In 1948 Harold Laswell developed an initial model of communication. • According to Laswell’s model.

Name of Institution • Instead. he provided a verbal model that consisted of five questions describing a sequence of acts that make up communication: -Who? -Says What? -In What Channel? -To Whom? -With What Effect? 41 .

Linear Model of Communication Name of Institution Fig1.3 Shannon & Weaver’s Model 42 .

These linear models have three serious shortcomings. such as those by Laswell and Shannon and Weaver are useful starting points in thinking about what interpersonal communication is and how it works. 43 . • Firstly. • This suggests that listeners only listen.Name of Institution • Although early models. they never send messages. they portray communication as flowing in the only one direction from sender to receiver.

• The second weakness of linear models is that listeners passively absorb sender’s messages and don’t respond. • The third deficiency of listen model is that they represent communication as a sequential set of actions in which step(listening) follows an earlier step(talking.Name of Institution • Also.) 44 . it suggests that speakers only speak: they never listen or receive messages from listeners.

Interactive Model of Communication Name of Institution 45 .

3. Transactional Model

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• To overcome the weakness of interactive
models, we need a model that emphasizes the
dynamism of interpersonal communication and
the multiple roles assume during the process.
• An accurate model would include the factor of
time and would depict other aspects of
communication- such as messages, noise and
fields of experience- as varying over time
rather than as constant.

46

Transactional Model of
Communication

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47

Definition of Interpersonal
Communication

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• Interpersonal
communication
is
a
selective, systematic, unique and ongoing
process of interaction between people
who reflect and build personal knowledge
of one another and create shared
meanings.

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of Institution • We’ll discuss key terms in this definition soName that we have a common understanding of interpersonal communication. -Selective -Systematic -Unique -Ongoing process -Interaction -Individuals -Personal Knowledge -Meanings 49 .

Understanding these will help you communicate more effectively in a variety of contexts.Principles of Interpersonal Communication Name of Institution The definition of interpersonal communication and our discussion of reasons we communicate suggest eight basic principles. 50 .

Name of Institution • • • • • • We cannot not communicate Communication is irreversible Interpersonal communication involves ethical choices Meanings are constructed in interpersonal communication Meta communication affects meanings Interpersonal communication develops and sustains relationships • Interpersonal communication is not a panacea • Interpersonal communication effectiveness can be learned 51 .

Guidelines for Interpersonal Communication Competence Name of Institution Five skills are closely tied to competence in interpersonal communication: •Develop a range of skills •Adapt communication appropriately •Engage in dual perspective •Monitor your communication •Commit to effective and ethical interpersonal communication 52 .

Name of Institution INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION STYLES • Assertiveness • Non-assertiveness • Aggressiveness .

• Aggression is a form of negative personal power. It is concerned with standing up for oneself and one’s rights in such a way that the right’s of others are violated. . • Non-assertiveness is to fail to stand up for oneself and one’s rights effectively and also is an expression of powerlessness.• Assertiveness is standing up for oneself one’s Name of Institution rights in such a way that the other person’s right are not violated.

SEE-SAW OF BEHAVIOURS SELF AGGRESIVE ASSERTIVE Name of Institution OTHERS Inflate one’s ego Fuel other’s High handedness Empower Self Empower Others NON-ASSERTIVE Incapacitate Self Put down Others .

Name of Institution Interpersonal Relationship Is Affected By Interpersonal Communication .

What is Interpersonal Relationship (IR)? Name of Institution .

psychological and social satisfaction • Interpersonal relations evolve over a series of transactions and instances between two or more individuals.Definition Name of Institution • Interpersonal relations determine the way a person behaves with others • It is the integration of people into work situations that motivates them to work together productively and cooperatively for providing economic. .

Concept Name of Institution The concept of interpersonal relations comes from understanding others feelings and attitude. thereby developing more respect for people and accepting them as individuals .

Concept Name of Institution Interpersonal Skill. Behavioural Skill are just different names for an ability to deal with people in a warm. positive and result oriented manner……… . Relationship Management Skill.

Goals Of Interpersonal Relations Name of Institution • To gain better understanding of one’s self • To broaden and sharpen sensitivity to the feelings of others • To develop respect for others and create a conducive environment .

Name of Institution Interpersonal Relationships affiliations social associations between two or more people connections .

INTIMACY The degree to which individuals depend upon each other for acceptance and confirmation of their self-image.Name of Institution DIMENSIONS OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS TRUST The degree to which we are comfortable disclosing personal information about ourselves to another. . POWER The ability to influence another person in a desired direction.

• Success builds a robust belief in one’s personal efficacy. • Self Efficacy is defined as people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events. • A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well-being.Self Efficacy Name of Institution • Self Efficacy is ‘I can ’ belief . .

and personal accomplishment (Pajares.Why self-efficacy is important? Name of Institution Self-efficacy beliefs influence people’s thought patterns. 1999). . emotions and actions (influence human behavior) (Koul & Rubba. Self-efficacy beliefs provide the foundation for human motivation. well-being. 2002).

Personal Efficacy ( I Can Belief) and Role Efficacy Name of Institution • Personal Efficacy is a generalised notion while self efficacy is a subset and refers to specific skill sets and competencies. . • Role Efficacy is how confident a person feels in approaching a role.

Effects of Efficacy • • • • Name of Institution Influences the choices people make Course of action people pursue Determines how much effort people expend Influences the amount of stress and anxiety individuals experience. • The level of accomplishment they realise. .

Name of Institution Strong efficacy beliefs create feeling of certainty in approaching difficult tasks. and a narrow vision of how best to solve a problem. . Weak self efficacy fosters stress . depression.

Name of Institution Identify the area of high and low efficacy in your work (Professional ) situation .

Name of Institution SELF DISCLSOURE : A KEY TO INTIMATE (Complete Acceptance ) RELATIONSHIPS .

Self Disclosure : A Dance Name of Institution • As per Paul Insel ‘Self Disclosure has been described as a Dance ’ • Must be reciprocated at a mutually regulated pace. .

Name of Institution Information about Self Self Description Self Disclosure •Low Risk Quality ( such as age.) •High Risk Quality . traumas etc. favourite food) (ones fears .

is the strongest norm of •Through reciprocal disclosure . •Through reciprocity.SELF DISCLOSURE AND RECIPROCITY Name of Institution •Reciprocity disclosure. we gain information and reduce uncertainty about the other person. . one can confirm other person’s self concept and also have one’s self concept confirmed.

.Self Disclosure : A fuel of Intimate Relationships Name of Institution • According to Derelega. it plays a major role in intimate relationships. • Intimate Relationship implies unconditional positive regard.

. founding father of self disclosure theory and research : Primary goal is maintenance of one’s mental health.Name of Institution Jourard.

• Sense of support and confirmation of self worth. • People become free. open and trusting of others. . • Acceptance of one’s ‘true self’.Goals of self disclosure Name of Institution • To gain knowledge about the other person as well as about oneself.

’ • Excellent method of repairing a damaged relationship. .Benefits of Self Disclosure Name of Institution • Increased accuracy in communication • People need to report both Facts and feelings. • Reduction of stress • Relationships built on ‘less than honesty are built on sand.

• Too much or too little disclosure can damage a relationship (process of disclosure is confusing and difficult ) . • ‘True self’ may be rejected.Risks of disclosure Name of Institution • High degree of vulnerability.

How much Disclosure is appropriate ? Name of Institution UnderDiscloser : Wants to remain in control Complete Concealment OverDiscloser : Wants someone to take charge of one’s own life. Complete Openness Golden Rule : Seek a Balance .

Two Models of Self Awareness Name of Institution • Social Penetration Model ( Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor ) • Johari Window ( Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham ) .

SOCIAL PENETRATION MODELS Name of Institution A Your ‘Self’ with all its various dimensions. and the rings represent the depth. . The pies represent the breadth of your ‘self’ .

It is disclosed in an intimate relationship. . The inner most circle is an individual’s sense of self or the real self .SOCIAL PENETRATION MODELS Name of Institution D An intimate relationship. Disclosure is complete.

Name of Institution JOHARI WINDOW (Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham) Not Known to Other Known to Other Known to self Not known to self OPEN BLIND HIDDEN UNKNOWN .

HOW DISCLOSURE HELPS …. Name of Institution SELF DISCLOSURE Awareness of self and Awareness of others Higher Self Acceptance LAYS THE FOUNDATION FOR HONEST RELATIONSHIPS .

Inter Personal Relationship Name of Institution • A state of Relatedness or Connectedness between people ( especially an emotional connection ) .

Inter Personal Relationship Name of Institution helps to …. . • To create a conducive working environment. • To gain better understanding of one’s self. • To broaden and sharpen one’s sensitivity to the feelings of others.

Name of Institution RELATIONAL M UN CO M IN TE R PE R SO NA IC AT L IO N DEVELOPMENT .

Stages of interpersonalName of Institution Relationships • Relationships go through distinct stages. • Often a change in the relationship is marked by ‘Turning points. . (Specific events that signify or signal a change in the stage of the relationship) • Turning points often trigger a discussion among the partners about the nature of relationship. • Interpersonal communication is used to move a relationship forward.

-Information shared is relatively more indepth.Model of relationship development Name of Institution (Escalation) Stage Features PreInteraction Awareness (silent Examination) -Passive Strategy Acquiring knowledge about others Initiation stage Exploration . .Presenting a ‘public self’ to the other person.

Name of Institution Intensificatio Beginning of dependence n stage on other for selfconfirmation. Partners seek Intimacy stage confirmation and acceptance of one’s selfconcept .

Relational De-escalation Name of Institution Turmoil/ Stagnation Deintensificati on stage Mutual Acceptance declines Decrease the dependence on the other for selfconfirmation. .

.Relational De-escalation Name of Institution Individualiz Get to terms with reality ation Stage Separation Intentional decision to Stage eliminate further interaction.

.Relational De-escalation Name of Institution PostInteraction Efforts may be needed to rejuvenate one’s sense of self.

Escalating Relationship

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As relationship escalates
We become more trusting
Disclosure increase
Relationship becomes
Intimate ( Complete Acceptance )

Maintaining Relationships

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-As per researcher Steve Duck, the best
tool to sustain a relationship is TALK.
- Able to verify and
CONNECTEDNESS.

confirm

their

Relational De-escalation

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- Reduction in intimacy.
- Reduction in self-disclosure.
- Relationship may descend through
various stages before reaching
termination.
- Termination is not inherently bad.

Name of Institution The primary goal of self disclosure is to build strong and healthy interpersonal relations. .

Name of Institution It is one of the most beautiful compensations of life that no man can sincerely try to help another without helping himself first .