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UNIT SYSTEMS

Objectives of BM

• Describes and illustrates any material

flow present in the system (Drawing

process diagrams)

• Write data so that decisions may be

taken.

• Writing material balance equations

• Understanding process variables

• Solving

equations

with

unknown

variables

All those definitions are formal statements and they determine the required levels of model accuracy. . black box approach. mass balance equations.This presentation reviews basic definition like system. dimension. unit system.

the cell.. human body.SYSTEMS Systems OPEN or CLOSED Any arbitrary portion of or a whole process that you want to consider for analysis Reactor. section of a pipe Closed System Material neither enters nor leaves the system Changes can take place inside the system Open System Material can enter through the boundaries .

It shows input and ouput and indicate the sequence or steps of the productive process .PROCESSES • What are considered processes? activities. equipments. chemical operation or utility aspects Flow diagram Input Plant. phisycal operation. Process or Unit Operación Output Graphic interpretation of the materials flows. products.

looking at what goes into the system and what leaves. PROCESSES Input Output . and extrapolating data about the properties of the entrance and exit streams from this. This means that we take a look at a unit operation from the outside. we don't care about how the unit operation is designed.The "Black Box" approach When doing a black-box analysis. only what the net result is.

Example 1: Input and Output diagram Auxiliary materials Water Energy Raw material Unit Operation Product (expected) byproduct (usable) Waste Waste easily assimilated by the environment Inert waste always available toxic/dangerous waste .

.Material Balance Conservation mass principle is used because it indicates that: • Input Material = Output Material • Measurements given in specifical unit system How to dimension a system ? All mass-balance measurements at points should be symbolized by small letters and Reported. One cannot combine the two systems without introducing errors. It is very important that one system be used for all measurements.

but it is measured in units of feet (ft) or meters (m). length is a dimension. There is a difference between dimensions and units.In order to solve a problem effectively. you´ll get the " Inconsistent Units" error. A dimension is a measure of a physical variable (without numerical values). For example. . or should be in the same system if not. all the types of units should be consistent with each other. Therefore you need to convert units. while a unit is a way to assign a number to that dimension.

Primary dimensions and units Primary Dimension Symbol SI unit BG unit English unit mass m (sometimes M) kg (kilogram) slug lbm (pound-mass) length L (sometimes l) m (meter) ft (foot) ft (foot) time t (sometimes T) s (second) s (second) s (second) temperature T (sometimes ) K (Kelvin) oR (degree Rankine) R (Rankine) electric current I (sometimes i) A (ampere) A (ampere) A (ampere) amount of light (luminous intensity) C (sometimes I) c (candela) c (candela) c (candela) amount of matter n or N (sometimes ) mol (mole) mol (mole) mol (mole) .

These are called secondary dimensions Secondary Dimension force acceleratio n pressure energy power Symbol SI unit BG unit English unit F (sometimes f) N (Newton) = kg× m/s2 a m/s2 lbf (poundforce) ft/s2 lbf (poundforce) ft/s2 p or P lbf/ft2 (psf) lbf/in2 (psi) (note: 1 ft = 12 in) ft× lbf (foot pound) ft× lbf/s N/m2. . i.All other dimensions can be derived as combinations of these seven primary dimensions.e. Pa (Pascal) E (sometimes e) J (Joule) = N× m P W (watt = J/s) ft× lbf (foot pound) ft× lbf/s There are conversion factors listed in many textbooks to enable conversion from any of these units to any other.

where it is cooled. The flow rate of the vapor stream was measured to be 4*10^6 L/min and its density was 4 g/m^3. the other is fed into a heat exchanger. where it loses enough energy to condense fully and leave as a single stream. One of the liquid streams is discharged as waste. . The vapor stream enters a turbine. Three streams come from the evaporator: a vapor stream and two liquid streams.How a MB is done? A Typical Type of Problem Single Component in Multiple Processes: a Steam Process A feed stream of pure liquid water enters an evaporator at a rate of 0. Calculate the flow rate of the discharge . This stream leaves the heat exchanger at a rate of 1500 pounds per hour.5 kg/s.

you need to find out how they are. m1=0. Draw a basic sketch of the processes and their connections. Evaporator (A).Step 1: Draw a Flowchart First.5 kg/s (feed) A m6 (liquid) B v2=4 x 10^6 L/min C vapor m4 (waste) m2=1500 lb/hr m3 . ask yourself.2. Exchanger (B). Heat. what processes are in use in this problem? Make a list of the processes in the problem: 1. and label the flow processes. Turbine (C) Once you have a list of all the processes. 3.

The equation relating volumetric flowrate to mass flow rate is: Vi * ρi = mi . if not.Step 2: Make sure your units are consistent The second step is to make sure all your units are consistent and. to convert everything so that it is.

Step 3: Relate your variables Since we have the mass flow rate of the vapor stream we can calculate the unknown variable directly. .

Draw a flow chart • If the flow rates of input and output are found to be different. wrong measurement . methane is consumed or generated in a reaction 3.Material Balance • Suppose methane. Possible explanations are . is a component of both input and output of a process. methane is accumulating in the process vessel 4.… 1. methane is leaking 2.

Thank you .

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