Elaborated by

Bivol Elena

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the first known list of the most remarkable manmade creations of antiquity. and was based on guide-books popular among Greek sight-seers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim. .Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled over the ages to catalogue the most spectacular man-made constructions and natural sites in the world.

By the time Greece became powerful (classical Greece). including lists for the Medieval World and the Modern World. Many similar lists have been made. these had been built. Most were not built by the Greeks themselves.The number seven was chosen because the Greeks believed it to be the representation of perfection and plenty. but they appreciated them anyway. .

and what is seen today is the underlying core structure. and Pyramid of Cheops. is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for Fourth dynasty Egyptian King Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3. .800 years.The Great Pyramid of Giza The Great Pyramid of Giza. Egypt. Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface. also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu.

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. is considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World.. They were built by Nebuchadnezzar II around 600 BC. . He is reported to have constructed the gardens to please his wife. who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland Persia. The gardens were destroyed by several earthquakes after the 2nd century BC. Amities of Media. near present-day Al Hillah in Iraq (formerly Babylon).

Nebuchadnezzar II also used massive slabs of stone. No one knows what happened to the ruins of the gardens. An idea similar to Archimedes' water screw was used as a process of raising the water to the required height. to prevent the water from eroding the ground. which was unheard of in Babylon.The lush Hanging Gardens are extensively documented by Greek historians such as Strabo and Diodorus Siculus. .

"he would unroof the temple. Greece." the geographer Strabo noted early in the first century BC. some 12 metres (39 feet) tall.” . The seated statue. Phidias. "It seems that if Zeus were to stand up. It was made by the Greek sculptor of the Classical period. occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple built to house it.The Statue of Zeus at Olympia The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. circa 432 BC on the site where it was erected in the temple of Zeus. Olympia.

in 475. No copy has survived. but a very detailed description of the sculpture and the throne was recorded by the traveler Pausanias. . though there are recognizable but approximate versions on coins of Elis and Roman coins.Zeus was a sculpture. made of ivory and gold-plated bronze. The circumstances of its eventual destruction are a source of debate: the eleventhcentury Byzantine historian Georgios Kedrenos recorded the tradition that it was carried off to Constantinople. where it was destroyed in the great fire of the Lauseion. Others argue that it perished with the temple when it burned in 425 AD.

It stood approximately 45 metres (135 ft) in height. and each of the four sides was adorned with sculptural reliefs created by each one of four Greek sculptors who worked on it. such as the Taj Mahal. Mausol-eion used to mean “tomb of Mausolus” but now the word mausoleum has since come to be used generically for any grand tomb.The Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus The Tomb of Mausolus. for Mausolus. and his wife and sister. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythis. a Governor in the Persian Empire. was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus in Turkey. .

the Knights of St John of Malta invaded the region and built a massive castle called Bodrum Castle. When they decided to fortify it in 1494. they used the stones of the Mausoleum. . Sections of polished marble from the tomb can still be seen there today. In the early fifteenth century.A series of earthquakes shattered the columns around 1404 AD and only the very base of the Mausoleum was still recognizable.

Before its destruction. It was made of solid bronze and stood watch over the harbour. making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world.The Colossus of Rhodes The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek god Helios. It is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. the Colossus of Rhodes stood over 30 meters (107 ft) high. erected on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC. .

Pliny the Elder remarked that few people could wrap their arms around the fallen thumb and that each of its fingers was larger than most statues. and they declined to rebuild it. they were so impressive that many traveled to see them. The remains lay on the ground as described by Strabo for over 800 years. but the oracle of Delphi made the Rhodians afraid that they had offended Helios. . In 654 an Arab force under Muslim caliph Muawiyah I captured Rhodes and melted down the scrap metal. Ptolemy III offered to pay for the reconstruction of the statue. and even broken.The statue snapped at the knees and fell over on to the land.

.The Lighthouse at Alexandria The Lighthouse of Alexandria was a tower built in the 3rd century BC (between 285 and 247 BC) on the island of Pharos in Alexandria harbour. With a height variously estimated at between 115 and 150 m (380 and 490 ft) it was among the tallest man-made structures on Earth for many centuries. and later. to serve as that port's landmark. its lighthouse. There are ancient claims the light from the lighthouse could be seen from up to 35 mi (56 km) away.

. The remnants of the lighthouse that were incorporated into the walls of Fort Qaitbey are still clearly visible due to their excessive size in comparison to surrounding masonry.The two earthquakes in 1303 and 1323. using some of the fallen stone. damaged the lighthouse and it toppled over. Even the remnants disappeared in 1480. when the Sultan of Egypt built a medieval fort on the former location of the building.