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# TECHNICIAN

SCIENCE
TOPIC 5
SOLID & FLUID

OBJECTIVE
UNDERSTANDING OF SOLID, LIQUID
& GAS

## State solid & liquid and gas characteristics

Determine material density and specific density
Explain measurement and pressure control fluid
system
Pascal Laws
Archimedes Laws
Solve problems related to solid and fluid
Determine material density
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CONCEPTUAL MAP
State
State of
of Matter
Matter
Solid
Solid

Liquid
Liquid

Gas
Gas
Pressure
Pressure

Density
Density

Pressure
Pressure in
in
liquids
liquids

Pressure
Pressure
General formula

formula

P
P == F
F
A
A

Pressure
Pressure
P
P == h
hg
g

of which
SI
SI unit
unit
Pascal
Pascal (Pa)
(Pa)

Generalized in

Pascals
Pascals
principle
principle

Archimedes
Archimedes
principle
principle
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STATES OF MATTER
Basic Structure of Matter
Matter is made up of small discrete particle
As these particles are too tiny to be seen with the naked eye, we use
an electron microscope to view them.
There are three states of matter:
a) solid
b) liquid
c) gas
Wood is an example of solid, oil is an example of liquid and oxygen is an
example of gas

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS
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PROPERTIES OF SOLID

## A solid has a fixed volume and a fixed shape.

It cannot be compressed.
The particles in solid are closely packed in an orderly arrangement.
The particle in solid only vibrate and rotate in their fixed positions.
They do not move freely and also cannot flow.

SOLID
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PROPERTIES OF LIQUID

## A liquid has a fixed volume but not fixed shape.

For example, water takes the shape of the container that holds it.
It cannot be compressed.
The particle in melt (liquid) lose the orderly arrangement and have
moved further apart from one another.
The particle in liquid can move freely and randomly.
These particles also collide with one another.
Liquid can flow because the particles can slide over one another.

LIQUID
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PROPERTIES OF GASES

## A gas does not have fixed shape and fixed volume.

It has the same shape and volume as the container that it fills.
It can be compressed.
The distance between particles is the largest in gases. When a gas
is compressed, this distance becomes smaller.
The particles in gas move freely and randomly at high speeds.
They collide with one another frequently.
A gas can flow because the particle can move freely.

GAS
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SUMMERIZE
Physical
Properties

Solid

Liquid

Gases

Shape

Fixed shape

No fixed shape

No fixed shape

Volume

Fixed volume

Fixed volume

No Fixed volume

compressible

Not easily
compressible

Compressible

Arrangement

## Little free space

between particles

## Little free space

between particles

## Lots of free space

between particles

## Does not flow

easily
rigid

Flows easily

Flows easily

Vibrates or rotates

Moving randomly
and freely in all
directions.
Constantly colliding
with one another

Moving randomy
and freely at high
speed in all
directions.
Constantly colliding
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with one another.

Flow

Movement

## The density of a substance is the mass of the substance

per unit of its volume.
The SI unit for density is kg m-3.
It is scalar quantity
It divided by two category :
1. Density of substance
2. Specific density
Density tells us how heavy or light a substance actually is.
It is independent of the size of the sample.
Density =

mass ( kg )
volume ( m3 )
m
v

kg / m3
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SPECIFIC DENSITY
Calculate as the ratio of density of substance to the
density of water.
No unit.

Specific gravity =

Density of substance
Density of water

Substance

Density
( kg / m3 )

Water

1000

Ice

917

Alcohol

790

Oxygen

1.43

Air

1.29

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EXERCISE 1
1)

## 25 cm3 of copper is used to make an object. If the density of

copper is 9 gcm-3. find the mass of copper used in the object.

2)

## The density of pure gold is 19.3 gcm-3. A piece of jewellery

that is completely made of gold has a mass of 5 g. What is
the volume of the jewellery?

3)

## The mass of a 1.5 l bottle containing unknown liquid X is 2 kg.

When the bottle is emptied, it weights 0.5 kg. Calculate the
density of liquid X.

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PRESSURE
Pressure is defined as the perpendicular or normal force per unit
area acting on a surface.

Pressure =

P
=

Perpendicular force ( N )
Area ( m2 )
F
A

N / m2

## The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa)

or Newton per square meter (Nm-2)

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PASCALS PRINCIPLE
Pascals Principle states that pressure applied to an enclosed
fluid is transmitted uniformly to every part of the fluid and to the walls
of the container.
Mathematically, Pascals principle can be written in the form of the
following equation.
Force ( N )

Pressure =

P
=

F
A

Area ( m2 )
N / m2

## In a hydraulic system, Pascals principle not only allows us to transmit

force from one place to another, but also to multiply that force. The force
multiplier of a hydraulic system can be represented by the equation:
Output force
Input force

## Output piston force

Input piston force

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PASCALS PRINCIPLE

Formulae:
F1
A1

F2

A2

F1 = Input force
A1 = Cross-sectional of the input cylinder
F2 = Output force
A2 = Cross-sectional of the output cylinder

Force, F1
Force, F2

Area, A1

Area, A2
Pressure, P

Figure A

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PASCALS PRINCIPLE
Examples:
Hydraulic jack
Hydraulic Lift
Hydraulic brakes
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EXERCISE 2
1. Figure below shows a 10N weight balancing a N weight placed on a bigger
syringe
10N

N
Cross-sectional area,

Cross-sectional area,

A1 = 14.5 cm2

A2 = 4.5 cm2

2. Figure below shows a garage hydraulic lift with two pistons. The smaller piston
has a cross-sectional area, A1=4.0 cm2. The bigger piston has a cross-sectional
area, A2=240cm2.

F1

F2

A2
A1
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EXERCISE 3
Force, F1 = ?
Area, A1

Area, A2

= 0.005 m2
Pressure, P

3.

Force, F2 =
5000 N

= 0.01 m2

## The cylindrical piston of a hydraulic jack has a cross-sectional area of

0.005 m2.
a) The upward force for lifting a load placed on top the large piston is
5000 N. Calculate the downward force on the plunger required to lift
this load assuming a 100 % work efficiency.
b) If the distance moved by the plunger is 50 cm, what is the distance
moved by the large piston?
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ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

## Archimedes principle state that an object which is partially or

wholly immersed in a fluid (liquid or gas) is acted upon by an
upward buoyant force equals to the weight of the fluid it
displaces.

depth.

## Consider an object of base area A, immersed in a liquid of

density . Using the formulae of pressure, p=hg and p = F ,
A

liquid

Liquid displaced

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## Consider an object of base area A, immersed in a liquid of density

. Using the formulae of pressure, p=hg and p = F ,
A
Force acting on its upper surface, F1 = h1gA
Force acting on its upper surface, F2 = h2gA
The buoyant force = the resultant force acting upwards
= F 2 F1
= (h2 h1)A g
= (Vliquid displaced) g, where Vliquid displaced = (h2 h1)
= (mliquid displaced)g
Hence, buoyant force = weight of liquid displaced by the object.

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ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
Examples:
Submarine
Ship
Hot-air balloon
Hydrometer: the apparatus that
measure liquid density

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ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
Archimedes principle states that for a body immersed wholly or
partially in a fluid, the upward buoyant force acting on the body is
equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
For an object wholly immersed in a liquid as shown in Figure B,
the volume of liquid displaced is equal to the volume of the
object.

## Buoyant = Weight of liquid displaced

= Vg
Where,
V = Volume of liquid displaced by the object
= Density of the liquid
g = Gravitational field strength

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EXERCISE 4
1.

2.

3.

## A stone weight 2.5 N. When it is fully submerged in a solution,

its apparent weight is 2.2 N. Calculate the density of the solution
if its volume displaced by the stone is 25 cm3. [ g=9.8 Nkg-1 ]
A piece of log weighing 840 kg floats on a freshwater lake. What
is the volume of the lake water displaced if its density is 1080
kgm-3?
The material used for building a hot air balloon has mass of 50
kg. The balloon is filled with hot air of density 1.0 kgm-3 until its
1000m3. Calculate
a) the total weight of the balloon with hot air in it.
b) the upward buoyant force acting on the balloon if the density
of the air is 1.3 kgm-3.
c) maximum load the balloon can carry so that it still can rise
upwards. [ g = 9.8 N kg-1 ]
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THE END