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Original Title: Chapter 5 - Solid & Fluid

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SCIENCE

TOPIC 5

SOLID & FLUID

OBJECTIVE

UNDERSTANDING OF SOLID, LIQUID

& GAS

Determine material density and specific density

Explain measurement and pressure control fluid

system

Pascal Laws

Archimedes Laws

Solve problems related to solid and fluid

Determine material density

2

CONCEPTUAL MAP

State

State of

of Matter

Matter

Solid

Solid

Liquid

Liquid

Gas

Gas

Pressure

Pressure

Density

Density

Pressure

Pressure in

in

liquids

liquids

Pressure

Pressure

General formula

formula

P

P == F

F

A

A

Pressure

Pressure

P

P == h

hg

g

of which

SI

SI unit

unit

Pascal

Pascal (Pa)

(Pa)

Generalized in

Pascals

Pascals

principle

principle

Archimedes

Archimedes

principle

principle

3

STATES OF MATTER

Basic Structure of Matter

Matter is made up of small discrete particle

As these particles are too tiny to be seen with the naked eye, we use

an electron microscope to view them.

There are three states of matter:

a) solid

b) liquid

c) gas

Wood is an example of solid, oil is an example of liquid and oxygen is an

example of gas

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

4

PROPERTIES OF SOLID

It cannot be compressed.

The particles in solid are closely packed in an orderly arrangement.

The particle in solid only vibrate and rotate in their fixed positions.

They do not move freely and also cannot flow.

SOLID

5

PROPERTIES OF LIQUID

For example, water takes the shape of the container that holds it.

It cannot be compressed.

The particle in melt (liquid) lose the orderly arrangement and have

moved further apart from one another.

The particle in liquid can move freely and randomly.

These particles also collide with one another.

Liquid can flow because the particles can slide over one another.

LIQUID

6

PROPERTIES OF GASES

It has the same shape and volume as the container that it fills.

It can be compressed.

The distance between particles is the largest in gases. When a gas

is compressed, this distance becomes smaller.

The particles in gas move freely and randomly at high speeds.

They collide with one another frequently.

A gas can flow because the particle can move freely.

GAS

7

SUMMERIZE

Physical

Properties

Solid

Liquid

Gases

Shape

Fixed shape

No fixed shape

No fixed shape

Volume

Fixed volume

Fixed volume

No Fixed volume

compressible

Not easily

compressible

Compressible

Arrangement

between particles

between particles

between particles

easily

rigid

Flows easily

Flows easily

Vibrates or rotates

Moving randomly

and freely in all

directions.

Constantly colliding

with one another

Moving randomy

and freely at high

speed in all

directions.

Constantly colliding

8

with one another.

Flow

Movement

per unit of its volume.

The SI unit for density is kg m-3.

It is scalar quantity

It divided by two category :

1. Density of substance

2. Specific density

Density tells us how heavy or light a substance actually is.

It is independent of the size of the sample.

Density =

mass ( kg )

volume ( m3 )

m

v

kg / m3

9

SPECIFIC DENSITY

Calculate as the ratio of density of substance to the

density of water.

No unit.

Specific gravity =

Density of substance

Density of water

Substance

Density

( kg / m3 )

Water

1000

Ice

917

Alcohol

790

Oxygen

1.43

Air

1.29

10

EXERCISE 1

1)

copper is 9 gcm-3. find the mass of copper used in the object.

2)

that is completely made of gold has a mass of 5 g. What is

the volume of the jewellery?

3)

When the bottle is emptied, it weights 0.5 kg. Calculate the

density of liquid X.

11

PRESSURE

Pressure is defined as the perpendicular or normal force per unit

area acting on a surface.

Pressure =

P

=

Perpendicular force ( N )

Area ( m2 )

F

A

N / m2

or Newton per square meter (Nm-2)

12

PASCALS PRINCIPLE

Pascals Principle states that pressure applied to an enclosed

fluid is transmitted uniformly to every part of the fluid and to the walls

of the container.

Mathematically, Pascals principle can be written in the form of the

following equation.

Force ( N )

Pressure =

P

=

F

A

Area ( m2 )

N / m2

force from one place to another, but also to multiply that force. The force

multiplier of a hydraulic system can be represented by the equation:

Output force

Input force

Input piston force

13

PASCALS PRINCIPLE

Formulae:

F1

A1

F2

A2

F1 = Input force

A1 = Cross-sectional of the input cylinder

F2 = Output force

A2 = Cross-sectional of the output cylinder

Force, F1

Force, F2

Area, A1

Area, A2

Pressure, P

Figure A

14

PASCALS PRINCIPLE

Examples:

Hydraulic jack

Hydraulic Lift

Hydraulic brakes

15

EXERCISE 2

1. Figure below shows a 10N weight balancing a N weight placed on a bigger

syringe

10N

N

Cross-sectional area,

Cross-sectional area,

A1 = 14.5 cm2

A2 = 4.5 cm2

2. Figure below shows a garage hydraulic lift with two pistons. The smaller piston

has a cross-sectional area, A1=4.0 cm2. The bigger piston has a cross-sectional

area, A2=240cm2.

F1

F2

A2

A1

16

EXERCISE 3

Force, F1 = ?

Area, A1

Area, A2

= 0.005 m2

Pressure, P

3.

Force, F2 =

5000 N

= 0.01 m2

0.005 m2.

a) The upward force for lifting a load placed on top the large piston is

5000 N. Calculate the downward force on the plunger required to lift

this load assuming a 100 % work efficiency.

b) If the distance moved by the plunger is 50 cm, what is the distance

moved by the large piston?

17

ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

wholly immersed in a fluid (liquid or gas) is acted upon by an

upward buoyant force equals to the weight of the fluid it

displaces.

depth.

density . Using the formulae of pressure, p=hg and p = F ,

A

liquid

Liquid displaced

18

. Using the formulae of pressure, p=hg and p = F ,

A

Force acting on its upper surface, F1 = h1gA

Force acting on its upper surface, F2 = h2gA

The buoyant force = the resultant force acting upwards

= F 2 F1

= (h2 h1)A g

= (Vliquid displaced) g, where Vliquid displaced = (h2 h1)

= (mliquid displaced)g

Hence, buoyant force = weight of liquid displaced by the object.

19

ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

Examples:

Submarine

Ship

Hot-air balloon

Hydrometer: the apparatus that

measure liquid density

20

ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

Archimedes principle states that for a body immersed wholly or

partially in a fluid, the upward buoyant force acting on the body is

equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

For an object wholly immersed in a liquid as shown in Figure B,

the volume of liquid displaced is equal to the volume of the

object.

= Vg

Where,

V = Volume of liquid displaced by the object

= Density of the liquid

g = Gravitational field strength

21

EXERCISE 4

1.

2.

3.

its apparent weight is 2.2 N. Calculate the density of the solution

if its volume displaced by the stone is 25 cm3. [ g=9.8 Nkg-1 ]

A piece of log weighing 840 kg floats on a freshwater lake. What

is the volume of the lake water displaced if its density is 1080

kgm-3?

The material used for building a hot air balloon has mass of 50

kg. The balloon is filled with hot air of density 1.0 kgm-3 until its

1000m3. Calculate

a) the total weight of the balloon with hot air in it.

b) the upward buoyant force acting on the balloon if the density

of the air is 1.3 kgm-3.

c) maximum load the balloon can carry so that it still can rise

upwards. [ g = 9.8 N kg-1 ]

22

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