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# Failure analysis in a cracked

## cantilever beam under

dynamic conditions
Batch number : 16

approach ?

## and finite element methods

Purpose of using vibrations
By using vibrations we will understand dynamic behavior of
given system
By plotting graph between amplitude vs. time we can
observe where the critical failure occurs
we will plot this graph by using mat lab.
purpose of using finite element methods:
By using fem the given system is divided into numbers of
elements and then we will calculate mass and stiffness matrices
which are then idealized into a equivalent mass and spring
system

## cantilever beam under the presence of damping with

out any crack
Step 2: observing the forced vibrations of given
system under damping with out any crack
Step 3: observing the forced vibrations of given
system under damping by locating a crack at some
point in the beam

## So far we covered in this project:

Firstly we assumed a cantilever beam (freely
vibrating) with out any crack and then we calculated
equivalent mass and stiffness matrices which are
idealized into mass and spring system
With help of equivalent mass and spring system we
calculated different natural frequencies and then
plotted a graph between amplitude vs. time by using
mat lab program code.

## Steps involved to plot the graph between

amplitude vs. time

## Cantilever beam with square cross section

Dimensions assumed:

## Length of the beam = 1000mm

Moment of inertia = 4e6mm^4
Area of cross section= 6928mm^2
Material assumed
Mild steel 0.2% carbon
E=200 Gpa
Density = 7850 kg/m^3

## Calculation for mass and stiffness matrices for beam:

Ke= 8e5 [12 6 -12 6; 6 4 -6 2; -12 -6 12 -6; 6 2 -6 4] ..Equivalent stiffness
matx
Me =0.129 [156 22 54 -13; 22 4 13 -3; 54 13 156 -22;-13 -3 -22 4]..Mass
matx
Equation of motion for given system:
Where m = mass matrix
K= stiffness matrix
Applying dynamic conditions we get
Ku=w^2mu;
Where u=displacement matrix;
Boundary conditions for cantilevered beam:
At fixed end: u1=u2=0

## Applying elimination approach u1=u2=0 we get a 2*2

matrix in reduced form
1.0e+0.009* [8.7138 -1.2323; -1.2323 0.2264]*[u3
u4] = 0
From umu=1 we get u3 and u4
Finally we get displacement matrix u
=transpose of [0 0 0.149 1.0533]
Note: the above matrix is for only one
value of lambda.
Since there are four types of degrees of
freedom, four types of responses are
possible, here we calculated only for one
value of response.

## Graph between amplitude vs. time

Finally we required to draw response graph between amplitude and time for free
vibrating system

## Please note that an assumption of zero damping is typically not accurate.

In reality, there almost always exists some resistance in vibratory systems.
This resistance will damp the vibration and dissipate energy; the oscillatory
motion caused by the initial disturbance will eventually be reduced to zero.
therefore we consider damping to certain extent by introducing

## damping factor as zi=0.5.in this way the resultant motion is

oscillatory with decreasing amplitude