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how crack develops in a cantilever under dynamic loading

- Ainatul Mardiah Ibrahim
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dynamic conditions

Batch number : 16

approach ?

Purpose of using vibrations

By using vibrations we will understand dynamic behavior of

given system

By plotting graph between amplitude vs. time we can

observe where the critical failure occurs

we will plot this graph by using mat lab.

purpose of using finite element methods:

By using fem the given system is divided into numbers of

elements and then we will calculate mass and stiffness matrices

which are then idealized into a equivalent mass and spring

system

out any crack

Step 2: observing the forced vibrations of given

system under damping with out any crack

Step 3: observing the forced vibrations of given

system under damping by locating a crack at some

point in the beam

Firstly we assumed a cantilever beam (freely

vibrating) with out any crack and then we calculated

equivalent mass and stiffness matrices which are

idealized into mass and spring system

With help of equivalent mass and spring system we

calculated different natural frequencies and then

plotted a graph between amplitude vs. time by using

mat lab program code.

amplitude vs. time

Dimensions assumed:

Moment of inertia = 4e6mm^4

Area of cross section= 6928mm^2

Material assumed

Mild steel 0.2% carbon

E=200 Gpa

Density = 7850 kg/m^3

Ke= 8e5 [12 6 -12 6; 6 4 -6 2; -12 -6 12 -6; 6 2 -6 4] ..Equivalent stiffness

matx

Me =0.129 [156 22 54 -13; 22 4 13 -3; 54 13 156 -22;-13 -3 -22 4]..Mass

matx

Equation of motion for given system:

Where m = mass matrix

K= stiffness matrix

Applying dynamic conditions we get

Ku=w^2mu;

Where u=displacement matrix;

Boundary conditions for cantilevered beam:

At fixed end: u1=u2=0

matrix in reduced form

1.0e+0.009* [8.7138 -1.2323; -1.2323 0.2264]*[u3

u4] = 0

From umu=1 we get u3 and u4

Finally we get displacement matrix u

=transpose of [0 0 0.149 1.0533]

Note: the above matrix is for only one

value of lambda.

Since there are four types of degrees of

freedom, four types of responses are

possible, here we calculated only for one

value of response.

Finally we required to draw response graph between amplitude and time for free

vibrating system

In reality, there almost always exists some resistance in vibratory systems.

This resistance will damp the vibration and dissipate energy; the oscillatory

motion caused by the initial disturbance will eventually be reduced to zero.

therefore we consider damping to certain extent by introducing

oscillatory with decreasing amplitude

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