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Intro to

Literature
Poetry

MAISRUL
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Roel Man

What is Poetry?
Some definitions of poetry:
Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of

powerful feeling (W. Wordsworth)


An artistically concrete expression of
human thought in the rhythmical
emotional language (Watts-Danton)
Ingenious fiddle - faddle (Isaac Newton)
The rhythmical creation of beauty (Edgar
Allan Poe)

What is Poetry?
A Form of literary work having
metrical language and certain
measurement (meter)
composition
Metrical

means language or sound


which contains a meter like rhythm,
rhyme, etc
Meter is a unit for measuring verses

What is Poetry?
Poetry refers to a general

sense or poetry as a whole.


Poem means certain work of
poetry.
Poet refers to person who
writes or composes poems.

Components of Poetry
Sound Devices
Technique for producing a musical
or pleasing effect of language in
Literature, esp. Poetry.
Language/Structure Devices
The internal (language)
organization of a poems content.
It refers to the style of language
used by the poet.

Sound Devices
Rhythm
Any wavelike recurrence of
sound having pattern or
Measured flow of word sounds
It is determined by Accented

(stressed) syllables of words.


Unaccented (unstressed) syllables
of words.
- Accented is marked by / ' /
- Unaccented is marked by //

Sound Devices
Metrical Feet
- Metrical Feet is the division of
foot according to the numbers
of accented and unaccented
syllables in one foot.
- Foot is the unity of grouped
rhythm. It is the basic unit
used in scansion of verses.
- Scansion is the process of
measuring verses

Five types of metrical Feet


1. Iambic (iamb): foot consisting of
Sound
one
// andDevices:
one /'/ / '/ (rehearse)
Metrical
2. Trochaic
(trochee):Feet
One /'/ and one // --> /'
/ = (barter)
3. Anapestic (Anapest): two/ / and

one /'/ / '/ = (understand)

4. Dactylic (dactyl): foot

consisting of one /'/ and

Sound Devices:
two / / / ' / (merrily)
Metrical Feet
Spondaic (Spondee): two /''/

5. Spondaic (Spondee): two /''/


= (blue bird)

Metrical Line is the division of line of a


verse according to the number of
feet
Sound
Devices:
1. Monometer: One foot line
Line
2. Metrical
Dimeter: two feet
line
Take her up/ tenderly (dactylic
dimeter)
3. Trimeter: three feet line
He stood/and heard/the steeple
(iambic trimeter)

4. Tetrameter: Four feet line

My heart/is like/a sing/ing bird


(iambic tetrameter)
Sound
Devices:
5. Pentameter: Five feet line
Metrical
Line
The summ/er thun/der, like/a
wood/en bell (iambic pentameter)
6. Hexameter : Six feet line
7. Heptameter: Seven feet line
8. Octameter: eight feet line

Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar


sounds esp. the accented one Ex. Old

Cold Vane Reign


Perfect (exact) rhyme : Differing sound are
followed by identical stress, vowel sound =
foe toe, buffer rougher
Half rhyme (off rhyme): only the final consonant
sounds of the words are identical = sou l oil
mirth forth
Masculine rhyme: The final stressed syllables
are identical: stark mark support - retort
Feminine rhyme: Repeated accented vowel in
either the second or third last syllable of the
word: revival arrival fatter - batter

Sound Devices :
Rhyme (Rime)

Internal rhyme: Occurs when the

rhyming words are in the same line


Ex.Sound
Here is theDevices:
grackle, people
Here is the fox, folks
Rhyme (Rime)
Alliteration: the repetition at close
interval of initial sounds and
sometimes as prominent repetition of
a consonant.
Ex. Bring me my bow or burning gold
Full fathom five thy father lies

Assonance: The repetition at


close interval of similar
Sound
Devices:
vowel sounds which have
Rhyme
different(Rime)
consonant
sounds.
Ex. Full fathom five thy father
lies

Lines of poetry arranging in


rhythmical unit

Stanzaic
Patterns
a. Couplet: A Stanza of two lines
b. Triplet (tercet): A three line stanza

(usually with one rhyme)


c. Quatrain: A four line stanza rhyme
or unrhymed
d. Quantain: A five line stanza

e. Sestet: Six line stanza


f. octet/octave: Eight line stanza
Stanzaic Patterns
g. Sonnet: Fourteen line poem
- Italian / Petrachan (Francesco
Petrach, 14th c) : arranged by
octave rhyming abba abba
and sestet (six lines) rhyming
cd cd cd or variant.

English (Shakespeare) Sonnet:


arranged by three quatrain and
couplet rhyming
abab cdcd efef
Stanzaic
Patterns
gg
Blank Verse: Unrhymed iambic
pentameter. Introduced in English
by Henry Howard (16th c)
Free Verse: Non-metrical verse;
rhythmical lines varying in
length; no fixed metrical pattern
and usually unrhymed

The Silken Tent

by Robert

She is as in a field a silken tent


Frost
At midday when a sunny summer breeze

Has dried the dew and all its ropes relent,


So that in guys it gently sways at ease,
And its supporting central cedar pole,
That is its pinnacle to heavenward
And signifies the sureness of the soul,
Seems to owe naught to any single cord,
But strictly held by none, is loosely bound
By countless silken ties of love and thought
To everything on earth the compass round,
And only by one's going slightly taut
In the capriciousness of summer air
Is of the slightest bondage made aware.

She is / as in / a field /a silk/en tent


At mid/day when /a sun/ny sum/mer breeze
Has dried /the dew/and all/ its ropes / relent,
So that /in guys /it gent/ly sways/ at ease,
And its supporting central cedar pole,
That is its pinnacle to heavenward
And signifies the sureness of the soul,
Seems to owe naught to any single cord,
But strictly held by none, is loosely bound
By countless silken ties of love and thought
To everything on earth the compass round,
And only by one's going slightly taut
In the capriciousness of summer air
Is of the slightest bondage made aware.

The internal (language)organization of


a poems content. It refers to the
Language/Structure
style
of language used by the poet.
A. Devices
Simile: A figure of speech in which
an explicit comparison is made
between two things essentially
unlike. It usually uses some words
as: like, as, than, similar to,
resembles, and seem.

But strictly held by none, is loosely bound


By countless silken ties of love and thought
To everything on earth the compass round,
And only by one's going slightly taut
In the capriciousness of summer air
Is of the slightest bondage made aware.

A. Simile:

Ex. Seem be a dove?


Language/Structure

Language/Structure
His feathers are but borrowed
(Shakespeare)
Devices
The holy time is quiet as a Hun
(Wordsworth)

B. Metaphor: Explicit comparison


between two things without
Language/Structure
connective words such as like,
Devices
as
etc.
Ex. She is the rose, the glory of
the day
(Spancer)

C. Personification: a figure of
speech
in
which
human
Language/Structure
attributes are given to an
Devices
animal,
an object or concept.
Ex. But time did beckon to the fowers,
and they
(Herbert)

d. Overstatement(hyperbole):
a figure of speech containing
exaggeration
statement
=
Ive
told
you
Language/Structure
a thousand times.
-Devices
Understatement; is the opposite of
overstatement
e. Paradox: a statement that at first
strikes as self-contradictory but that on
refection makes some sense.
Ex. The peasant lives in a larger world than the

globe-trotter
larger = contrasted : greater in values Vs miles

Imaginary and Symbolism:


Imaginary: the representation
Language/Structure
through
the language of sense
experience like pressure, heat, sight,
Devices
smell, taste, touch, and sound
Ex. I have eaten the plums
that were in the icebox

Forgive me they were delicious


So sweet and so cold

Symbol : A figurative of speech in which

something means more than what it is.


- Private symbol: known only by one person
(the writer).
- Original Symbol: Its meaning defined by its
context in a particular work.
White whale (Moby Dick) a vengeance
whale.
- Traditional (Conventional) symbol: Its
meaning defined by our common culture and
heritage.
rose love / woman

Language/Structure
Devices
Flag nationality, patriotism.

1.

The baby was like an octopus,

Simile

2.As the teacher entered the room, she muttered under her

breath, This class is like a three-ring circus!

Simile

Similes or Metaphors?
Metaphor

3.The giants steps were thunder as he ran toward Jack.

4.The pillow was a cloud when I put my head upon it after a long day.
5.Those girls are like two peas in a pod.

Metaphor
Simile

The fuorescent light was the sun during our test.

7.

The bar of soap was a slippery eel

Metaphor

Metaphor