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Context of Early Childhood

Special Education

Prevalence of Young Children


With Special Needs
Prevalence refers to the total number of
cases of a particular condition (those with
exceptionality (giftedness and talent) and
developmental disabilities and impairments.

Identifiable Prevalence refers to the cases


that have come in contact with some
systems. The number of children and
youth with special needs is derived from
census data.

True Prevalence assumes that there are a


larger number of children and youth with special
needs who are in school or in the community
who have not been identified as such and are
not in the special education programs of the
Department of Education

43.3 % have speech defects


40.0 % are mute
33.3 % have mental retardation
25.9 %are those without one both arms and hands
16.4 % are those without one or both legs or feet
16.3 % have mental illness
11.5 % are totally deaf
11.4 % are totally blind

43.3 % have speech defects


40.0 % are mute
33.3 % have mental retardation
25.9 %are those without one both arms and hands
16.4 % are those without one or both legs or feet
16.3 % have mental illness
11.5 % are totally deaf
11.4 % are totally blind

Ecological Perspective on Young


Children with Special Needs

Levels of Giftedness
Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate
outstanding levels of aptitude (defined as an exceptional
ability to reason and learn) or competence (documented
performance or achievement in top 10% or rarer) in one or
more domains. Domains include any structured area of
activity with its own symbol system (e.g., mathematics,
music, language) and/or set of sensorimotor skills (e.g.,
painting, dance, sports).

Level IQ
Mildly (or basically) Gifted
Moderately Gifted
Highly Gifted
Exceptionally Gifted
Profoundly Gifted
180+

Range
Prevalence
115 - 129
1:6 - 1:44
130 - 144
1:44 - 1:1000
145 - 159
1:1000 - 10,000
160 - 179
1:10,000 - 1:1 million
Fewer than 1:1million

Classification of Mental Retardation


Mental Retardation (MR) refers to substantial
limitations
in
present
functioning.
It
is
characterized by significantly sub- average
intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with
related limitations in two or more of the following
adaptive skills areas: communication, self- care,
home- living, social skills, community use, selfdirection, health and safety, functional academics,
leisure and work.

In American Association on Mental Retardation


(AAMR), there are four levels of Mental
Retardation that are still widely used today

Mild MR with IQ scores from 55 to 70


Moderate MR with IQ scores from 40 to 54
Severe MR with IQ scores from 25 to 39,
and
Profound MR with IQ scores below 25

Intermittent supports are on as needed


basis, that is, the person needs help only
at certain periods of time and not all the
time. Support will most likely be required
during periods of transition, for example,
moving from school to work.

Limited supports are required consistently,


though not on a daily basis. The support
needed is of a non- intensive nature.

Extensive supports are needed on a


regular basis; daily supports are required in
some environments, for example, daily
home living tasks.

Pervasive supports are daily extensive


supports, perhaps of a life- sustaining nature
required in multiple environments.