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Physiology : Hematology

Medicine

PSL 222

WBC

Lecture 5
Dr. S.Bashir

Lecture objectives

Describe:
The characteristic features & functions
of the different WBC types.
Define inflammation & describe the
events involved.
Define leucocytosis, leucopenia, &
leukemia & state possible causes.
Dr. S.Bashir

WBC

WBC are transported by blood from the bone


marrow to their major sites of activity.
The majority of the functions of the white blood cells
occur when they leave the blood circulation to enter
other body tissues.
Dr. S.Bashir

Classification of WBC

Granulocytes
i) Neutrophils
ii) Eosinophils
iii) Basophils.

Agranulocytes
i) Lymphocytes
ii) Monocytes

Bases of classification?
Appearance after staining with Wrights stain
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Leukopoiesis : in bone marrow

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Neutrophils

50-80% of circulating WBCs.


Cytoplasm has pale "neutral"
colored granules.
Granules = lysosomes
Nucleus segmented
polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Highly mobile and are the first
WBC to arrive at a site of injury.
Phagocytic.
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Inflammation

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Role of neutrophils in Inflammation

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Neutrophils

Lifespan of about 6hrs to a


few days.
Their % increases in cases
of:
Acute inflammation e.g.
Acute bacterial infections:
tonsillitis, pneumonia, &
wound infections.
Dr. S.Bashir

EOSINOPHILS

1-4% of circulating WBC.


Reddish-orange staining granules.
Bi-lobed nucleus
Functions:
Phagocytose antibody-coated
bacteria& protozoa
Exocytose toxic compounds onto the
surface of large multi-cellular
parasites such as flukes or parasitic
worms that are too big to be
phyagocytosed..
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EOSINOPHILS

Typical lifespan of 8-12d

Their % increase during?


-Parasitic infections.
-Also during allergic
reactions, (asthma, hay
fever), because their
secretions may induce
allergic reactions.
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BASOPHILS

Less than 1% of WBC


Have large deep blue cytoplasmic granules
which cover the nucleus.
Migrate to injury sites and discharge the
contents of their granules:
Histamine
(Vasodilator and increaser of capillary
permeability.)
Heparin
(An anticoagulant.)
These 2 chemicals enhance the local
inflammation
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Role of Basophils in inflammation

They leave blood and


enter tissues
mast cells.
-Function? Release
inflammatory chemicals
chemotaxis.

They are
non-phagocytic.
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MONOCYTES

2-8% of WBC in blood.


Their nuclei deeply indented or
U-shaped, with reticular-appearing
chromatin
The cytoplasm contains lysosomal
granules .
Have more phagocytic power than
neutrophils & longer life span.
Leave the bloodstream to become large
phagocytic cells called tissue
macrophages .
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Fixed (tissue) Macrophages

Fixed macrophages derived from monocytes


include the
Langerhans cells within the Skin
Histiocytes within connective tissues.
Kupffer cells of the liver
Sinus lining cells of the spleen and lymph nodes
Pulmonary alveolar macrophages
Life span : days - years.
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Macrophage:
Tissue scavengers

Macrophages
phagocytose bacteria .

They also clean tissues


by removing dead cells
and foreign objects.
( Monocyte -macrophage
system)

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Phagocytosis

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Macrophage:
Antigen presentation

In addition to
phagocytosis ,
macrophages help
initiate specific
immunity by
presentation of
antigens to
lymphocytes.
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LYMPHOCYTES

20-30% of circulating WBC.


Large nucleus & thin halo of
cytoplasm.
Continuously migrate from the
bloodstream into the peripheral
tissues and back into the
bloodstream.
Lifespan of hrs to yrs.
Non- phagocytic cells
responsible for specific immunity.
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LYMPHOCYTES

Circulating blood contains 2 main


classes of lymphocytes:
T- Lymphocytes: Defend
against foreign cells and
tissues and coordinate the
immune response.
(Cell mediated immunity)
B- Lymphocytes: Produce
and distribute antibodies proteins that attack foreign
molecules.
(Humoral immunity)
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Differential White Cell Counts


Total WBC:
L

4,000 to 11,000

Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
2,000
to
7,500/L

Monocytes
1,500
to
3,500/L

200
to
800

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Eosinophils
40
to
440

<100

Basophils

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Differential WBC Count

Total WBC: 4,500 - 10,000/l


Leukocytosis : an excessive of WBCs.
Moderate leukocytosis (<30,000)
an infection.
Neutrophilic leukocytosis . When ?
Lymphocytic leukocytosis . When?
Extreme leukocytosis (>100,000 WBC/uL) may
indicate leukemia .
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Leukemia

Definition?

Extreme leukocytosis

Immature cell (blasts)


appear in peripheral
blood .

Possible causes?
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Myeloid Leukemia

AML
CML
Acute myeloblastic chronic myelocytic
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Lymphoid leukemia

ALL
CLL
Acute lymphoblastic

chronic lymphocytic

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Acute monocytic leukemia

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Leukopenia

An inadequate number of
WBCs.(< 4,000 /l)

Causes of leukopenia :
Viral infections,
sever bacterial infections,
and bone marrow
disorders.
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Thank You

Dr. S.Bashir

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