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Partial Fractions

Partial Fractions

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of Algebraic Fractions

Given two or more

subtract them to form one single fraction.

For example:

1

1

x 1 x 1

( x 1) ( x 1)

( x 1)( x 1)

How

about

2

2

the reverse

x 1

process?

Partial Fractions

In the

fraction as a sum of more than one fractions.

5

For example: Given

x2 x 6

1

1

we can try to express it as

x2 x3

These are called

Before we proceed

If the degree of the

numerator of the given

fraction is equal to or greater

than that of the denominator,

divide the numerator by the

denominator until a

remainder is obtained, which

is of lower degree than the

denominator.

For example:

x -1

x3

x2 x 2

x2 x 2 x3

x3 + x2 2x

- x2 + 2x

-x2 x + 2

3x - 2

x3

x2 x 2

( x 2 x 2)( x 1) (3 x 2)

x2 x 2

3x 2

( x 1) 2

x x2

Type I:

Denominator with only linear factors

For example:

A

(ax b)

where A is a constant.

11x 12

(2 x 3)( x 2)( x 3)

A

B

C

2x 3 x 2 x 3

Now, the

problem is to

find the

constants A, B

and C.

11x 12

A

B

C

(2 x 3)( x 2)( x 3) 2 x 3 x 2 x 3

11x 12

A( x 2)( x 3) B(2 x 3)( x 3) C (2 x 3)( x 2)

(2 x 3)( x 2)( x 3)

(2 x 3)( x 2)( x 3)

11x + 12 A(x + 2)(x 3) + B(2x + 3)(x 3) + C(2x + 3)(x + 2)

Put x = 3,

Put x = - 2,

Or,

C=1

11(-2) + 12 = B[2(-2) + 3](-2 -3)

Or,

B = -2

Or,

A=2

11x 12

2

2

1

( 2 x 3)( x 2)( x 3) 2 x 3 x 2 x 3

Type II:

Denominator with a quadratic factor

a partial fraction in the form

Ax B

ax bx c

2

Note that fractions which can be split into partial fractions are necessarily

proper, and thus, the resulting partial fractions themselves are always proper

Example:

3x 1

A

Bx C

2

2

( x 1)( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)

3x 1

A

Bx C

2

2

( x 1)( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)

3x 1

A( x 2 1) ( Bx C )( x 1)

2

( x 1)( x 1)

( x 1)( x 2 1)

Put x = 1,

3 + 1 = A(1 + 1)

Or, A = 2

Put x = 0,

1 = A + C(-1)

Or, C = 1

Or, B = -2

0=A+B

3x 1

2

1 2x

2

2

( x 1)( x 1) x 1 x 1

Type III:

Denominator with a repeated factor

denominator, there corresponds partial fractions in the

form A

B

ax b

and

(ax b) 2

there corresponds partial fractions in the form

A

B

C

,

and

2

ax b (ax b)

(ax b) 3

Example:

1

A

B

C

( x 2)( x 1)

x2

x 1 ( x 1) 2

1

( x 2)( x 1) 2

1

( x 2)( x 2 2 x 1)

A

Bx K

2

x 2 x 2x 1

x2

A

x2

A

x2

B ( x 1) B K

( x 1) 2

B ( x 1) B K

2

( x 1)

( x 1) 2

B

C

x 1 ( x 1) 2

Type II

1

A

B

C

2

( x 2)( x 1)

x 2 x 1 ( x 1) 2

1

A( x 1) 2 B ( x 1)( x 2) C ( x 2)

2

( x 2)( x 1)

( x 2)( x 1) 2

Put x = - 2, 1 = A(- 2 1)2

Or, A = 1/9

Put x = 1,

1 = C(1 + 2)

Or, C = 1/3

Or, B = -1/9

1

1

1

1

Thus,

2

( x 2)( x 1)

9( x 2) 9( x 1) 3( x 1) 2

Express

as partial fractions:

2x 1

5

x ( x 1)

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