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LYDIA HENDERSON





The Nightingale of Modern Nursing”
“Modern-Day Mother of Nursing.”
"The 20th century Florence Nightingale."
Born in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1897.
Diploma in Nursing from the Army School of Nursing at
Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C. in 1921.
• Worked at the Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service for 2
years after graduation.
• In 1923, started teaching nursing at the Norfolk
Protestant Hospital in Virginia
• In 1929, entered Teachers College at Columbia University
for  Bachelor’s Degree in 1932, Master’s Degree in 1934.

edition. Pace University. University of Western Ontario. Yale University •  In 1985. • Died: March 19. and later wrote the 5th. • Since 1953.• Joined Columbia as a member of the faculty.1991) . honored at the Annual Meeting of the Nursing and Allied Health Section of the Medical Library Association. • Recipient of numerous recognitions. University of Rochester. she revised: Harmer’s classic textbook of nursing for its 4th edition. • In 1939. • Honorary doctoral degrees from the Catholic University of America. remained until 1948. incorporating her personal definition of nursing (Henderson. 1996. a research associate at Yale University School of Nursing.

supplementary (helping the person). with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible.  • She described the nurse's role as substitutive (doing for the person).Theory Background • She called her definition of nursing her “concept” (Henderson1991) • She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s independence so that progress after hospitalization would not be delayed (Henderson. 1966). based on human needs. complementary (working with the person). • She categorized nursing activities into 14 components.1991) • "assisting individuals to gain independence in relation to the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery" (Henderson. • Her definition of nursing was: .

 And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible" . sick or well.• The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual. in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength. will or knowledge.

Eat and drink adequately. Eliminate body wastes. Move and maintain desirable postures. Sleep and rest.The 14 components • • • • • • Breathe normally. . Select suitable clothes-dress and undress. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment • Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument • Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.

fears. • Play or participate in various forms of recreation. discover. • Learn. • Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment. • Worship according to one’s faith. or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities. or opinions. needs. .• Communicate with others in expressing emotions.

• The first 9 components are physiological. The tenth and fourteenth are psychological aspects of communicating and learning The eleventh component is spiritual and moral The twelfth and thirteenth components are sociologically oriented to occupation and recreation .

.• Assumption • The major assumptions of the theory are: • "Nurses care for patients until patient can care for themselves once again. • Nurses are willing to serve and that “nurses will devote themselves to the patient day and night” A final assumption is that nurses should be educated at the university level in both arts and sciences. Patients desire to return to health. but this assumption is not explicitly stated.

• Requiring assistance to achieve health and independence or a peaceful death. Individual • Have basic needs that are component of health.• Henderson’s theory and the four major concepts • 1. • Considers the biological. psychological. and spiritual components. sociological. . • The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biopsychosocial needs. • Mind and body are inseparable and interrelated.

• All external conditions and influences that affect life and development. • Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under which the patient can perform the 14 activities unaided . • Individuals in relation to families • Minimally discusses the impact of the community on the individual and family.• Environment • Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living.

• Good health is a challenge -affected by age. and intellectual capacities. and emotional balance Is the individual’s ability to meet these needs independently. physical. .•  Health • Definition based on individual’s ability to function independently as outlined in the 14 components. cultural background. • Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention and cure of disease.

•  Nursing • Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the necessary strength." • The nurse is expected to carry out physician’s therapeutic plan Individualized care is the result of the nurse’s creativity in planning for care.” to get inside the patient’s skin and supplement his strength will or knowledge according to his needs. or "independent. • “Nurse should have knowledge to practice individualized and human care and should be a scientific problem solver. • Nurse serves to make patient “complete” “whole". • Assists and supports the individual in life activities and the attainment of independence.” • In the Nature of Nursing Nurse role is.” . will and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more of 14 basic needs.

• Successful outcomes of nursing care are based on the speed with which or degree to which the patient performs independently the activities of daily living . will or knowledge. sick or well. cultural background. emotional balance. age. and physical and intellectual capacities. recover from illness.• Henderson’s and Nursing Process • ”Summarization of the stages of the nursing process as applied to Henderson’s definition of nursing and to the 14 components of basic nursing care. • Nursing process • Implementation based on the physiological principles. • Carry out treatment prescribed by the physician. • Nursing Process : Henderson’s 14 components and definition of nursing • Nursing Assessment: • Henderson’s 14 components • Nursing Diagnosis: • Analysis: Compare data to knowledge base of health and disease.nursing and appropriate laws related to the practice of nursing. • The quality of care is drastically affected by the preparation and native ability of the nursing personnel rather that the amount of hours of care. • Identify individual’s ability to meet own needs with or without assistance. • Nursing implementation: • Document how the nurse can assist the individual. taking into consideration strength. • Nursing plan. • Nursing evaluation • Henderson’s 14 components and definition of nursing • Use the acceptable definition of . or to aid in peaceful death. • Nursing implementation • Assist the sick or well individual in to performance of activities in meeting human needs to maintain health.

or satisfy curiosity .• Maslow's HendersonPhysiological needsBreathe normally • Eat and drink adequately Eliminate by all avenues of elimination Move and maintain desirable posture Sleep and rest Select suitable clothing Maintain body temperature Keep body clean and well groomed and protect the integument • Safety NeedsAvoid environmental dangers and avoid injuring other • Belongingness and love needsCommunicate with others • worship according to one's faith • Esteem needsWork at something providing a sense of accomplishment • Play or participate in various forms of recreation • Learn. discover.

• Her definition and components are logical and the 14 components are a guide for the individual and nurse in reaching the chosen goal.. • Her ideas of nursing practice are well accepted. • can be the bases for hypotheses that can be tested. and interaction. biophysiology.Eg. Maslow’s theory.• Characteristic of Henderson’s theory • There is interrelation of concepts. • assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline. communication are borrowed from other discipline. • Applicable to the health of individuals of all ages. • Relatively simple yet generalizable. • Concepts of fundamental human needs. . • can be utilized by practitioners to guide and improve their practice. culture.

• No concept of the holistic nature of human being. • If the assumption is made that the 14 components prioritized. • Lacks inter-relate of factors and the influence of nursing care. • “Peaceful death” is curious and significant nursing role. • Assisting the individual in the dying process she contends that the nurse helps. . the relationship among the components is unclear. but there is little explanation of what the nurse does.• Limitations • Lack of conceptual linkage between physiological and other human characteristics.

• Her definition of nursing and the 14 components of basic nursing care are uncomplicated and self-explanatory. . • Her emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the person and how nursing can assist in meeting those needs.• Conclusion • Henderson provides the essence of what she believes is a definition of nursing.